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Full text of "The spoken Arabic of Egypt, grammar, exercises, vocabularies"

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isi\i kmi v Or 
TORONTO PR] SS 




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THE SPOKEN ARABIC 
OF EGYPT 



A KEY 

TO THE EXERCISES IX 

THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

By J. SELDEN WILLMORE, M.A. 
Demy 8vo, sewed, 3s. lid. net 

Press Notices of the First Edition of 

"The Spoken Arabic of Egypt" 

The Ration says: — " Xot since Spitta's epoch-making work 
have we had so detailed an examination and so complete a 

statement of the actual facts of the dialects of Egypt. " 

Egyptian Gazette. — "An able, exhaustive, and scholarly 
treatment of the vernacular of Egypt . . . this most able work. " 

Tin' Athenaeum. — "Much the best book on the subject that 
has so far appeared . . . the system of transliteration adopted 
is excellent, simple, yet adequate." 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

HANDBOOK 

OF 

SPOKEN EGYPTIAN ARABIC 

COMPRISING A SHORT GBAMMAK AND AN ENGLISH-ARABIC 
VOCABULARY OF CURRENT WORDS AND EXPRESS! 

Square 16mo, cloth. 2s. 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC 
OF EGYPT 

GRAMMAR, EXERCISES, VOCABULARIES 



BY 



J. SELDEN WILLMOEE, M.A. 

ONE OF THE JUDGES uF THE NATIVE COOT 
APPEAL AT CATRO 



SECOND REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION 



o|«-l 



0% 



LONDON 

DAVID NUTT, 57-59 LONG ACRE 

1905 



■ 
Pnm 



INTRODUCTION 



Professor Sheldon Amos once remarked to me that Egyptian 
Arabic had been a hopeless puzzle to him, which he d 
of ever being able to master, until he fell across Spitta I 
grammar of the language. Then all became clear at once. 
Spitta's work was indeed a model of the way in which a sp 
living language should be scientifically studied. But it was 
necessarily the work of a pioneer. It opened the way which 
others should follow and complete. 

The work that was begun by .Spitta seems to me to have 
been finished by Mr. Willmore. The present volume contains 
an exhaustive account of the Oairene dialect of Egyptian 
Arabic as it is spoken to-day. On the practical side it will 
1).- welcomed by those who live in Egypt and wish to understand 
and be understood by the natives. But it will be quil 
much welcomed by the student of scientific philology. It tells 
him what he wants to know — how a living Semitic lane 
pronounce.- it- words and forms it.- grammar. For 
consists of sounds, not of written symbols, and its grammar is 
that of ordinal}- conversation. What has been termed anti- 
quarian philology is doubtless important to the historian or the 
literary scholar; for linguistic science it is of little use. T 
living organism alone can yield scientific results; the spellings 
of a past age or the grammatical forms which exist only in 
hooks are a hindrance rather than a help to scientific research. 
It Lb, of course, essential that the living organism should be 
represented as accurately and exactly as possible, [n 
word.-, we must have a notation which shall reproduce the 
pronunciation of a language with approximate accuracy. Tie- 
defective Arabic alphabet, with it- diacritical mark.- md poverty 



vi INTRODUCTION 

of vocalic symbols, is out of the question. It belongs to a pre- 
scientific age and people, and is wholly unfitted to represent 
the living sounds of a modern Arabic language. For this we 
must have recourse to some modification of the Latin alphabet. 
What this modification shall be will depend on the immediate 
object in view. If the object is purely scientific, we may make 
our choice between the alphabets of Lepsius, Alexander J. Ellis, 
or Sweet; if, on the other hand, it is mainly practical, there is 
nothing better than the alphabet adopted in the " Sacred Books 
of til.- East," or that adaptation of Spitta Bey's alphabet which 
is to be found in the present work. This latter reproduces 
the pronunciation of the Cairene dialect with all the accuracy 
needed by the practical student. It sets before us a Semitic 
language as it really exists, not an artificial jargon such ae 
been imagined by grammarians of the old school or the compilers 
of newspaper articles. 

A. 11. SAYCE. 



PREFACE 

TO THE SECOND EDITION 



The new edition has been called for by the publisher in view of 
the continued demand for the Grammar both in Europe and in 
Egypt since the first became exhausted six months ago. A 
complete alphabetical list of the words used in the Exercises on 
the Accidence has been inserted, and an Appendix containing a 
few additional grammatical notes ; and the work has been gene- 
rally revised. A Key to the Exercises, including the Stories, 
has been published separately. 

In Europe the book has been favourably received, but a long 
and careful critique which appeared in the Journal of the- Royal 
Asiatic Society for April 1902 contains certain remarks to which 
it is necessary to reply. The writer complains, firstly, that I do 
not " keep up," as Spitta does, "a regular comparison between 
al and colloquial Arabic." The reason of this, he Bays, 
•• La apparent when the Author's Preface is examined. From it 
may be gathered that he does not believe that (Jairene is derived 
from classical Arabic.'" The reason why I do not throughout 
haw parallels between the classical and colloquial is that the 
Grammar is not intended to be a comparative one. It is not, 
like Spitta's, addressed to scholars alone, but in particular to 
those who seek a practical knowledge of the everyday speech of 
the people. It is my firm conviction that, when the object i- 
merely a practical one, the colloquial dialect should be taught 
without reference to the literary, and before the Latter is 
ipted. It would be difficult to quote an instance of a 
person who has learnt to converse fluently in an Oriental Lan- 

. •• after having become accustomed to the literary style, and 
this even after a great many year- of residence in the country. 
It has been my object t<> show that Cairene Arabic has a 
of its own. and that it La quite unnecessary, if not wholly 
incorrect, t<> base it on that of the Quraish. The reviewer 
adds thai I generally reject the service of a guide, whose place 

vii 



viii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

is poorly supplied by a little casual assistance which I derive 
from Hebrew, Syriac, or Amharic [Aramaic?]. Bui the simi- 
larity between the Hebrew and spoken Arabic verb waa long 
ago remarked by Wright, and other scholars have acknowle 
other points of resemblance, to which I have drawn attention in 
the Preface to the First Edition and elsewhere. A writer in 
the .Journal Asiatique of the year 18">U -ays: "En general 
L'Hebreu a plus de rapports avec I'arabe vulgaire qu'avec I'arabe 
Litteral . . . et il en n-sulte que ce que nous appelons I'arabe 
vulgaire est egalemeut on dialects fori ancien;" and Renan 
(Histoire des Langues SSmitiques) : "L'arabe vulgaire ■ 
bien plus rapproche' que I'arabe litteral de 111' breu <-t du I 

itiel des Langues Semitiques." The similarity 1"' 
Oairene and Aramaic grammar and the forms which words 

me in these two languages is v>r\ - ; riU • : ._:. For example, 
tie- literarj Arabic thamanin f. thamaniyatun eight, thaurun 
".'■. dhira'un urm, appeal- in Aramaic as temaney f. temanj 
anddera', in Egyptian Arabic as tamanya, , diraV 

vernacular shirsh root exists in Hebrew, Syriac, and Aramaic, but 
not in classical Arabic; the noun qashsh, regarded, it seems, by 
purists as a vulgai word, is used in 'In- Book of Exodus I 
the stubble which tie' Israelites gathered for their bricks. M\ 
in drawing attention to these poiit ambiance 

I' •■ sen bhe Egyptian vernacular and ancient Semitic langu 

remove at leasl one prejudice against the former by show- 
ing that tic title of 'arabi maksur (or mekassar is bestowed 
upon i* in tie- erroneous assumption thai its words and forma 
are merely corruptions of Koranic Arabic which I pi in 

since the Hejira, and that because it- grammar diffi 
\ . wy grammar it has do grammar at .ill! Max Aluller 
in a most instructive passage thai " It is a mistake to inu. 
that dialects are every where corruptions of the literary langv 
. . . The} an 1 parallel streams which existed Long before the 
tin..- when die- of them was raised to that tempoi 
which i- the resull of Literary cultivation. Dialects axial 
vious to the formation of Literary Langua 
Language is bul one out of iuan\ dialects ; nor d ill follow 

that, after one of them ha- been raised to the dignity 
Literary Language, the others Bhould suddenly he silenced or 

. ,. "i i 'hancerj Arabic, follows the Hebrew in 
senting tie- Koranic i/i and •/// by sibilants, thus II 

', w hile Aramaic V i 

represent them Lnvariabl] bj t and d ■ 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ut 

strangled. . . . On the contrary, they live on in full vigour, 
though in comparative security; an<l unless the literary and 
courtly languages invigorate I hemselves by a constantly renew ed 
intercourse with their former companions, the popular dialects 
will sooner <>r later assert their ascendancy." 1 

The reviewer doubts whether the final letters of ab, akh, 
and a few other words noted in ? 24 are in reality doubled, and 
remarks that "a double consonant closing a syllable would be 
pronounced in exactly the same way as a -ingle one; its dupli- 
cation could only lie apparent when it is followed by a 'helping' 
vowel." It was because I had heard the helping vowel thai 1 
wrote these consonants double. Moreover, it is not exact to 
say that a final doubled consonant is pronounced in precisely 
the same way as a single one (see § 24, Remark b).- 1 observe 

. with the exception of ab, all these words are written with 
man! in Spiro's Arabic vocabulary. 3 Damm Wood, 
omitted in the first edition, is now added to the lit 

The reviewer next disputes the orthography of the words 
written with t, d, 8, and /., instead of t, d, S, and z. and suggests 
that •• somebody on the spot should inquire whether the c 
nants are really transmuted in the manner indicated. 1 
only have 1 submitted the spelling of these words to a oa1 
and often to more than one native, but in many cases 1 have 
found the words written as 1 have given them by persons w 
education is only such as to enable them to write phonetically, 
or by kdtibe reporting the exact pronunciation of the speaker. 
following, for instance, I have recently noticed: nidauwar, 
za'bf) lamda, darb (quarter, district), >■■{. asauwat, 

\\n (.</tr gam her). Sometimes I have been cor- 
rected when pronouncing a word as it is written in the literarj 

I, and told thai " whatever it may be in Nahwy, 
pronounce in Arabic with a t '' — or s or whatever it maybe. 

All these things I have earel'ulb noted, ami I do not think that 

anybody else "on the spot" would be able to proceed with 
i 1 caution than 1 have myself. 4 

this rule the Hebrew literary language gradually 

way to the popular Aramaic after GOO i:.c. 

■ al " Bpitta. 
He doubles the b of ab in the plural only. 
um has no* been omitted from the list, though u 
and en b) Bpiro in the senseof to be folded. Both 

din i/ and almas appear in bis vocabulary, but the oommon pro- 
num-i.it ion is all 



x PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

The next observation is as follows :— " Tin- helping or semi- 
vowels are not as a rule represented. . . . It is hard to explain 
the reason of the omission of the Bign f<>r hamzah qat* before a 
vowel, or to understand how the presence of this consonant can 
be divined. When mara is written how i- any one to fa 
that it must be pronounced mara?" The helping vowels are 
believed to be represented throughout the book wherever they 
are pronounced, and 1 have not been able to discover omissions. 
As to the omission of the sign qat'a (') the note on p. '2'2 of 
Grammar was intended to convey that this Bign would be econo- 
mise!! before a word beginning with a vowel, as ana / for 'ana, 
as its omission there could cause no confusion. When 
in the middle of a word, as in mas'ala, it'aggar, it i> al 
printed; bui it is not printed in mara, because mara and 
mar'a is the only pronunciation in use by all 

spina, the reviewer Bays, does nut corroborate m\ view that 
the indefiniti article wahid agrees with the noun. Some ej 
tdons to the rule have already been given in i the 

footnote), and it must he admitted that wahid 
&c . will often be said by natives of the Lower orders v. 
constant touch with Europeans, jusi ej will say " 

fursha and it iien kurb&g. Many of them will even commil 
barbarisms in conversation with one anothei 'Yeqallidn 1 
afrang l>i 1 kal&m hi sabab innuhum 'ashu t Taly&niya wi 1 
[grig wi 1 rngllz," a was remarked tome by a native who avoids 
such unnatural corruptions Some believe that it hing 

to imitate European Arabic. Bui these • ould 

suiel\ he avoided by Europeans who wish to speak correctly, 
just as they are avoided by the higher clast 
They are ool even known to those who have no intei with 

Europeans 

s ther points of difference between Spitta and i 

pointed <>nt for instance, that the forms it'isam, itfihim, 
jiu'ti by Spitta are nol recognised 1>\ me. It may be 
forms ate used in Upper Egypt, bu1 1 have been unable 

to meet with anyone who ha- beard them in ('aiio. But the 
most importanl point i- the concord of the 

I voi dine; • 

I iinm.i J 
sitt. lio1 lamn. tt. I am at .1 |oS8 (•• under-' 

ireful at 
elusion. No douht \ '■ Will l>e f iv< pitMll I \ heard if the 

kei t- in 1 on with a European, o! if i from 

Sudan, 01 ■ 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xi 

idiom ;tn<l tries to imitate it, but socfa a form cannot be regard*"! 
as belonging to the grammar of the vernacular. K> 
through bpitta's work after I had concluded my own, I dis- 
covered many points of difference, and was careful to dia 
each one of them with natives before publishing my views. 
I understand, Spit ichjagd was conducted during five 

only, and 1 have always thought that he must have 
modified some of his conclusions had his valuable life been 
spai ed. 

The reviewer contends that my assertion that almost all 
nouns ending in -tya make their plural in -<)t can hardl} be 
accepted in view of the numerous exceptions, and instai 

Idlya, zarbtya, and qadlya as not admitting of a plural in 
I do not think the exceptions are numerous. Of the 
word- mentioned qadlya makes both qadiyatand qadaya, 
'addiyat more frequently than ma'adi, and sarbtyat 
only plural of sarbtya given in Spurn's vocabulary. 
The word ama quoted by the reviewer on p. 434 of the 
Journal should be written amma, and the phrases annua aqul 
lak does not signify do not I I (out but lei n 
like lamma aqul lak. (wait) till I tell you. 

It is stated in ?' 330, Remark d., that rakhar alvi 
with the subject of the - I &c. The reviewer has misui 

i my meaning which i> that rakhar gendei and 

number with the Bubject of the sentence, although it may 
1 1>\ the adverb also. I did not meai 
bat it could not similarly agree with the object 
The wording has now been altered so as to pr- 
inception. 
I have no doubt that the use of bSyin, with and without the 
sutl'r. - by the reviewer, is th . and thai 

beyinnu (for so it should be written) stands for beyin innu, but 
I think there can be no objection to Baying that it is used 
adverbially in Buch phrases as ma 'andakshe beyin, gaytn bukra 
.• i- pracl ica 11\ eq liva lent to baq 
ewer in his concluding remarks asks to be informed 
of ' i . iinl th<- e bave 

been derived 1. examples as w< 

of tin- phrases which form th< rhich 

I every day, and it would clearlj be impossible to 
indicate the individuals who have at differenl tii 

the places where they hai • 
Spitl iples consist almosl entirely of phr 

published al the end of bis Grammar, M. 



xii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

examples are derived primarily from fifteen year.-' intercourse 
with the natives, and secondarily from documents written in tin- 
vernacular. Wherever there could be any doubt as to the 
usage of a particular word or phrase I have submitted the point 
to i native or to natives. The stories are selections from a 
number obtained from native sources, and the reviewer may 
feel assured that "sufficient precautions were taken 
their being delivered in a wholly natural style.'' The repe il 
of ya'nl of which he complains is one of the characteristi 
the speech of the less educated (cf. § 590) but the higher ol 
also make frequent use of it. 1 

I am most grateful to the reviewer for having pointed out 
several errors and misprints which had escaped my no- 
li suggests various alterations in the wording of the syntax. 
I 9 I have adopted bis suggestions; in others 1 have 

in le no change, either being unable to agree with him or 
feeling thai the change proposed would unnecessarily puzzle 
_• -indent. I regret that I have not 1 i 

tie index. 

Comparative philology IS a science unknown in 1 
i- no school oi- university here where tie S< 
languages and the Arabic dialect- are studied 
such learning are to he found in Europe and America, n 
the countries which are the birthplace* of these languages, and 
where the besl opportunities exist tor their study. The onli 
language which awake- anj interest i- the classical languag 
Arabia : the rest is left to foreigners who-.- lab un- 

known to, and unrecognised by, any bul European Bchol 
It i- not surprising, therefore, that no review of the pr» 
Grammar has appeared in Bgy] st from ,i native . 

!• i thousand and <<n<- columns I published I 

a the) do in Turkish into which lai g a word has 

been imported. 

i. .il" the corrections of spelling which he ['imposes I 
am unabl for qusad, the latter being the 

Onl) form in use. | think he is right in his obest vatioOl 
tie- pronunciation of the ■'< in nur and tin- in riw 
Appendix t.. tie- presenl edition), bu1 f li'b i- beyond :ill 

doni.t the - that of til, hi't. 4c Qiddan is only 

' ni a fyasab in r i 

8 How many Egyptians have beard of ti. . on 

which Doij devoted hi- life 1 I I 
not met one n ho bad 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xiii 

certain section of the native press anathematising my 
tinn that for secular purposes there should be one language for 
speech and literature, and that the vernacular. The d 
pro] tns t<> me so desirable and necessary unless 

benefits of educat ion are to be for ever confined to the privili 
twel i a., that I am at a loss to account for the opposition 

of i It would he interesting to know how far the 

opinion of the country U expressed in the articles which have 
appeared in the newspapers. Several native gentlemen of high 
ling have assured me that they desire the change One 
90 far as to Baj thai all thinking men are in favour of it; 
another considers that the project would find more partisanc if 
it had not be i I by foreigners; the idea has been several 

times advanced and advocated by dative writers in the Muqtafqf 
the year 1881. J It is, 1 think, for the lower ther 

in opinion, as they are the inter 
It i- not for a small number of persons who already 
i means of communicating their thoughts in writu 
decide that tie- rest of the population shall have no means of 
bo doing. As far as I b ive been able to learn from these cl 
they would gladly read all kind- of literature, even aewsp 
it' only they were not written in a dialect which is incompre- 
hensible to them, and which could only become comprehensible 
to them if they gave up their pursuits and spent many years of 
hool. It is worthy of note that the //,- 
which was written in th> vernacular, had, up t> 
tine- ofi .a much wider circulation than any other 

paper in tie- country It must be confessed, however, that 
its popuJ parti} die- to it- anti- European policy. 

'I'll.- following are the principal arguments adduced by the 

press against the use of the vernacular a- the language of 

Firstly, there is the religious question. The ver- 

oded, differs widely from the Is ol the 

Koran, and the religion of [slam would suffer if the pre* 

age, which i- practically identical with that in 
which the Koran i- written, were - ppreased by tin- vej 

not mj wish at to di cuss this question at length, 

and i' will he sufficient to .ill to mind, firstly, that the literary 
• of the day. although it- grammar i--, nominal] 
that, of the Koran, diffei tonsiderabl) fi 

al both hi i' ' in and its phraseoli - lly, 

tie which appeared in • ' 



xiv PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

that the religion of Islam is professed in Turkey, Persia, India, 
China, and a great many other countries where Arabic is neither 
spoken nor written ; and, thirdly, that it must be more in the 
interest of religious education, as of all other education, that 
the whole of the population should be able to read and write 
some form of Arabic than that a few persons only should have 
that privilege. But is this question in reality a religious one? 
Most Eastern nations cripple their energies by having two 
distinct languages, one for writing and the other for con- 
versation. 

Much stress is laid on the advantage of having one written 
language for the whole of the Arab world. One writer a<ks us 
to consider how inconvenient it would be if an Egyptian (mean- 
ing of course an educated Egyptian) had to search for an inter- 
preter to explain the meaning of a letter received from a friend in 
Syria. He forgets that as things are at present the very great 
majority of persons search for, and are at fche mercy of, not one 
but two interpreters, even when both the writer and his friend 
are living in Cairo. There cannot possibly be any intimate 
correspondence at all under these circumstances. Mon 
there is, under the present system, very much in a letter from 
Algiers, Tunis, and other parts not to speak of the diflcei ■ 
in the formation of the characters, often necessitating complete 
transliteration — which would be unintelligible even to an 
educated Egyptian. 

Some have argued that the educated should gradually ac- 
custom themselves to speak the written language and induce 
the masses to follow their example. One writer says lie has 
already made a beginning with a number of friends, but con- 
fesses that I hey have to fall back on the vernacular in their 
lighter moods; another suggests that a Btart should be made by 
dropping the b before the present tense of the verb, ignoring 
the tact thai this particle, whatever its origin et vmologically, 

Lb one of those which enable the speaker to express his ideas 
with the greater precision required in these modern days 
particle is certainly a very ancient one, for il has been found 1 in 
;i manuscript of the eleventh century, and he would indeed he a 
successful man who could aholish it l>\ stigmatising it in a • 
paper article. Languages change according to the requirementi 
of the age, and the attempts of purists to improve them ai 
\| Mailer says, perfectly bootless 

Another correspondent asks which of the dialect* 

1 l'.\ Profess N l joliouth. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xv 

is to be chosen for the literary language ; and adds that, '• which- 
. \. i is chosen, the Government will have to compose a dictionary 
of its words and form rules of grammar for it, but unfortunately 
in Ar.ili Government would do this ; :md, moreover, as no vulgar 
dialect ever Lists more than a hundred years, at the end of that 
time a new dictionary would have to be written and a new set 
of grammatical rules drawn up." Naturally, most of the litera- 
ture, and certainly official documents, would be composed in the 
dialect of the capital. But the difference between it and other 
Egyptian dialects consists mainly in pronunciation, and would 
practically disappear in writing. It has been said by an accu- 
rate observer l that, if we exclude the Bedouin tribes, the whole 
population of Egypt speaks a single dialect, the varieties of 
which arc- not greater than those which distinguish the Tuscan 
of Florence from the Tuscan of Siena, or the Venetian of Venice 
from the Venetian of Belluno ; and even if they differed as 
much, for instance, as Venetian does from Sicilian, why shouldn't 
newspapers and other literature be published in them, a- they 
are in the various dialects of Germany, Italy, and Switzerland ? 
h is true that dialects which are only spoken become much 
changed after a lapse of time, but the change is very gradual 
when they are at the Bame time written ; and, moreover, how 
can language do otherwise than change as the world progresses? 
From the nature of things we cannot continue to all eterni* 
express ourselves in the same way that our ancestors did; there 
would be no health in us if we could. Compare the condition 
of the current literary Arabic itself. Would it be intelligible 
with it- new words and new meanings of old words and i;> 
French idioms to the writers of a thousand or even of two 
hundred years ago? The 1 Too quarto pages of Dozy's SupplS- 

5, devoted almost entirely to the literary language of post 
LCal day-, incomplete as it is, is sufficient testimony tK 
would not be intelligible to them. As to the rules of grammar, 
are not made by governments but by the nations them- 

• -. and t h<-\ exist for spoken languages a- well as for 
written. 

It ha- been seriously asserted, but not. 1 think, by a native 
writer, thai the stories of 'Antar are understood in their original 
i'\ ill -oil, and conditions of men. Lane, in his chapter 
on public recitations, says that a- tin- poetry in the roinan 

tr is very imperfectly nndersl 1 by the vulgar, those who 



1 Professor <'arl<i Alfonso Nallino in bis excellent m 

tto in Egitto. 



xvi PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

listen to it are mostly persons of some education. A writer in 
the Mvqtataf 1 says: "The masses do not understand 'Antar 
as they would have to understand educational books. If 
you asked them the meaning of each word or each phrase 
separately you would find that what they understand does not 
represent more than the shadow of the real meaning." In 
reality 'Antar is very imperfectly understood even by persons 
of education ; but the gist of the stories has been made familiar 
to all from interpretations, sometimes given by the reciter him- 
self. There is no need to discuss these facts ; they are known to 
every Egyptian, and have been admitted to me by all whom 1 have 
questioned, educated and uneducated. But even if the general 
drift of a recitation in the literary language were intelligible to 
the lower classes without interpretation, those classes would 
still have to go through many years of toil before they could 
learn to write that language correctly. Otherwise, how 
that we meet every day in documents written by qualified clerks 
such expressions as, a fa hal lam ahadan darabak ? I learn 
from a highly educated native gentleman that he submits hi- 
literary works to a professional grammarian before venturing to 
publish them. 

Another writer argues that in English also we have two 
separate languages for conversation and literature, sine. 
write, for instance, doubt and th* ugh, and pronounce dout and 
tho. Certainly the study of English would from one point of 
view be facilitated if it were written phonetically : but ii 
necessary to point out that this has nothing to do with the 
question under consideration 

•' What is to become of our ancv- ther contri- 

butor. What becomes of them now I How many of the 
educated of the present day do or can read the old classi - I 
think it is no fcion to »y thai many of them are i i 

known in Europe than they are in Egypt, just Greek 

ics are more accurately Studied in foreign universities than 
re at Athens. 

1 content mj Belf with Bugj to the 

Lvanced against the universal adoption <>t 

people's language, and look for a gradual change in the lL'lit 

direction. Indeed, I feel confident thai such a change has 

dv begun, bu1 it needs t<> be encouraged by the influential 

Another write] in the Bame journal (in the 3 
considers that the written Arabic differs from the spoken lan- 
i .Jish differs from French, or French h m L tin. 



PEEFAl K 10 I1IK SECOND EDITION rvii 

and patriotic among 'he native population. Formerly I 
ments of prisoners and the depositions of witnesses were invari- 
ably taranslated, as thej were taken down, into tin- lit 

_ lage. It is obvious that under these circomst 
judges, who had only the papers before them, were left very 
much in the dark as to what had been actually said; but u 
last few re have heen found clerks bold enough to take- 

down the declarations at least partially in the speaker's own 
words. 

Some English student-, as 1 understand, would like the 
ic words throughout the Grammar to be writt 
Arabic as well as in the Roman character. But it must be 
remembered that the object of the book is to teach the spoken 
and not the written language, and that therefore it musl 
sufficient to exactly represent the pronunciation ords, 

which can easily be done in the Roman character, but only 
imperfectly in the Arabic. The Arabic type would I 
cost of the book without, as it appears to me, any advai 
being gained. Tie 
changed, bo that the student can himself translitex 

I -ii]e. 

- W. 



PREFACE 

TO THE FIRST EDITION 



A treatise on the Arabic language as spoken in Egypt, and 
particularly at the capital, was published by Wilhelm Spitta 
in the year 1880 under the title of Grammatik 

*he scholarship and careful 
rches of this writer orientalists are indebted for the first and, 
perhaps, only serious attempt to sketch the distinguish.il g 
of the literary ami vernacular dialects. In 
"vulgar" Arabic which already existed, as in others which 

since appeared, we find a confusion between two sp 
dialects, such s tian and Syrian, or a hopeless mi . 

of forms and .- used only in conversation with I 

which are peculiar to the written language. In some of i 

mar.- the Arabic wok!.- are written in R 
without any method ; in others the Arabic yed. 

are omitted altog 
single cL I a . , and another 

Mt is prii 
ible in ah 
withwhicl already orally acquainte 

in the literary lai 

and below thl >ed in i 

i . ..ally in other 

uiciation; but new ones would ha. 

lounds peculiar to the spokeu language if, in adopting 
.. e •• pointed 1 he words. I 

■aid have to en. 
n to that in 



. lualak } . : 

milk ind the lettei will be n 

• . mauwit ht kill* ■'. 



xx PREFACE 

but no Arabic type would admit of this. Natives would, no 
doubt, learn to read in the Arabic character without vowel- 
points the language which they speak, as they are already familiar 
with the words ; but the language of the books is naturally in 
the keeping of the learned, who still regard with much jeal 
the introduction of "vulgar" grammatical forms or even of 
words which do not figure in the Qamus. Hence the proportion 
of people who are able to read and write in Aral tic-speaking 
countries is exceedingly small; for the working-man, having no 
time to study a strange idiom, and nothing to gain by learning 
the letters, remains, and will ever remain under the pres 
system, illiterate. No doubt there is a certain benefit in having 
a common written language for the whole of the Arab world, so 
that a man of education brought up in Algeria can read a book 
published in Egypt or Syria; but it is a benefit enjoyed at the 
expense of the lower classes. 

The foreigner who seeks a practical knowledge of the language 
is at another disadvantage. Whether he engage a professor or 
study from the books, he generally acquires a vocabulary of 
words only understood by the educated, and in the latter case 
em i fronted with the difficulties resulting from the absence 
of the vowels. 

The dialect of Cairo presents many forms of very high 
antiquity. Tts precise place in the Semitic family could be 
more easily determined if the influence which the 
dialect has had upon it could be removed. There can be no 
doubt that it is more closely allied, in structure at least, to 
the Hebraic and Aramaic branches of the family than is the 
language of I be Koran and subsequent Arabic literature. Hebrew 
and Syriac, for Instance, have, like Cairene and other spoken 
dialects, no final vowel in the 3rd person singular of the 
making katab and ktafa respectively (lit. Arab, kataba 1 ) in 
the past iense, nor in any person of the aorist except in the 
3rd person plural. The vowel of the preformative --liable is 
in Hebrew /. in Syriac e, but a in the primitive form <>f the 
literary Arabic verb. The dual Lb wanting in the vert 
pronoun, 3 and the nouns have HO ease endings. 1- II 
may note tic following further points of resemblance: 
do consonantal power al the end of words, though it maj 



1 Literary Arabic drops the final shot I vowels In the j 

onh . 

It is wboll\ absent Lo Syriac, and appears onl\ in . n 
nouns in Hebrew. 



PREFACE xxi 

of an accent, thus malka this; 1 u\ 

e and an o in certain c lit. 

a full vowel disappears under circumstances similar t<> • 
i ibed in ? 33 of the grammar, as melek, matt 
.. ligvul : - y in the early stages of tlie langnag 

•ii words as 'arbhiytm (later, but rarely, 'arbhrim) 
falls out, as rem for re'm (cf. ; the 

vowel of the tirst syllable in certain cases is thrown Ottl 
ced to 1. as in 

amar, § 15); the e and t'-sounds frequently re] 
in the verbs (above), or as in n. 
malik, ahad), ve (but I; there ai ''Oth 

d and itfa"al ; the letter dh of the literary A 
unknowi placed by z;* ve awl is soften- -fore 

a labial and before a consonant moved only by : the 

mn of the 1st person is hemma (lit. Arab, huma, ('air. 
humma), the interrogative mi (lit. Arab. man. Cair. min); ani 
onetimes used for the 1st person, as in Cairene : the 3rd 
ii hu often accompanies the noun pleonast really 
_ rammar). as ha ish hu the man he. h 

In Byriac the verb system offers acme very striking points 

of resemblance to Egyptian in addition to those men- 

t the simple verb does not >ugh 

we i of the form p'el (fi'il). with coiTespoi 

. es of the form p'al (fa'al), the vowel of the 2nd radic 

the aorist being generally a in the li; I (see 

• >f the grammar); in place of it we have the derived 

term ethp'el 7 ( = itfa'al, unknown ■ 1 in literary 

• ic); in the first derived form we have both pa"al and 

pa"el (=fa"al, £a"il), with i. lit. tafa"al) for 

laughter. 
i also in El hiopic. 
3 Aramaic i. 

nerally d in Cairene, but . in Nahwy. In Aramaio we 
talmid, as sometimes in Cairene. The fact that even the 
eat difficulty in pronouncing \ that all 

classes can pronoi Btebrew equivaJ 

ticant. 

. unknown t<> Literary Arabic, are 
I uaic even than in Hebrew, 
bardly traceable either in Hebi 
Sebr. bitl pahel itfa"al, a form known to Literary Arabia 

onl\ in i; ige. 



xxii PREFACE 

its passive. Further, we have the forms par'al, par' el, pa'lal 
(given as quadriliterals in the grammar). The termination urn 
is possibly not a modern form, but the equivalent of the archaic 
Syriac un. Lastly, the Hebrew and Syriac syntax affords 
strong evidence of their close affinity to Cairene and other 
living dialects. On the other hand, there is a very important 
point which literary Arabic has in common with the spoken 
dialects, namely, the use of broken plurals, a form which seems 
to be preferred in Cairene Arabic to the " perfect " plural in at 
(Hebrew 6th) ; l and further, the use of the dual, even in nouns, 
is hardly known to the other branches of the Semitic family. 

It results, from the above considerations, that the so-called 
Arabic dialects of the present day present a combination of the 
peculiarities of several branches of the Semitic family. The 
development which some of them display in common with 
Hebrew is evidence of their great antiquity, while the fact, 
that in most cases the stronger forms have been retained by 
the Koreish dialect indicate that this latter separated at a com- 
paratively late period from the common parent. Allowance 
must, of course, be made for the circumstance of its growth 
having been arrested when it became the sacred language of 
islam, but the thinning of the vowels and other signs of ad\ 
had begun, as we have seen, in almost prehistoric times in 
other branches of the family. 

In the following pages the everyday speech <>f the people 
is pre-enled to the student, and care has been taken to avoid 
word- which are not familiar to all classes. It IS generally 
called the \ ulnar dialect of the country, but it is vulgar only in 
the sense that it is popular and universal.' B!< n of all condi- 
tions employ it, in conversation, though naturalL many words 
are used by the higher classes, especially as technical term-, 
which are uot understood by the uneducated. A discussi 
the reasons for the existence of one dialect for literal ire and 

1 Ethiopic is the only other member of the family which 
admits of broken plurals. 

I .nan the rowel of the preformative syllable of the 

■ was i in the 3rd person. Syriac has the weak vowel 

even in the I si person. The final a of the | ppears in 

Ethiopic (a language which has more in common with classical 

Arabic, exci pi for the absem f the dual, than eithei II 

or Aramaic), and is retained in Amharic, 

•■'II Mm ,/ SutAcKTos." The term " vulgar so ap- 

plied contemptuously to spoken Arabic. 



PREFACE xxiii 

another for conversation would be out of place here. 1 Tin-re 
can be no doubt that the progress of the nation is thereby 
impeded, and great advantages would be gained it' one only 
wen- used for both purposes. The written language is re- 
garded by the educated as pure ('arabl oadlf), the spoken as 
unclean or broken ('arabl maksur), 8 while the lower classes term 
the spoken 'arabl and the written nahwi. a To us it seems 
strange that it should be ueoessary to write of br<a<l and water 
as khubz and ma', while we Bpeak of them as 'esh and moiva, 4 or 
to read from a document yaktub or yaktubu/' while we regularly 
r yiktib in conversation. If we were I English 

and write Dutch our literature would be understood, by the 
educated at least, over a wide area; but it would not appeal 
to our senses. The force of words i in the associations 

which they recall — in the subtle reminiscences they awake of 
bygone days. No word or expression which we meet only in 
books will enter into < *ur lit'.- like those which have become 

^ e the preface to Dozy's Supplement aux Diction 
Arat».<. He points out that the early dictionaries composed by 
the followers of the Prophet excluded all words not considered 
tcred," and, as modern compilations have added 
but little to the >tore by independent research, no collection of 
words in genera] use in any way approaching to compl.T 
has a ■■ aiade. 

Apparently from the notion that the spoken dialect is 
nothing bur a corruption of the Koranic. 

i> literally grammatical t and is commonlv ap- 
plied to the mongrel language employed in official correspond- 
ence. It is the "classical" language artificially adapted to 
modern wan! ] inic forms are mostly retained, but 

foreign and in particular French idioms are largely introduced, 
and words are given meanings which they do not bear in the 

teal langi is used in sp shee and in pleadings al 

the courts (intermingled often in the same sentence with the 
vernacular), or in the discussion of technical subjects, and 

itically even in ordinary conversation. A brief sketch of 

•id. -nee i given in an appendix to the Accidence. 

I illoquia] in the dialed of 83 ria. 

a the vowels are not printed, yaktub and yaktubu will 
d with the same ! j tktdb. In thi 

pond. -nee and official documents the Anal short 

pronounced, the clerks not being sufficiently vei ed in 
tin- classical language to insert them. 



xxiv PREFACE 

familiar to us through our intercourse with our fellow- 
I icings. 1 

To resume, the spoken language of Cairo represents in its 
structure the distinguishing features of al least three branches 
of the Semitic family. It has borrowed some words from Coptic, 
which it has thoroughly assimilated, as thnsah crocodile, libsh 
(Copt, lebsh bush, reed), wlience we have the verb labbish, 
and others from the languages of Eiu*ope, including Turkish. 
Further, a great many expressions belonging in reality to the 
written language have, owing to the influence of the Koran, 
become familiar even to the lowest classes, some of them in 
a slightly altered form, others without any change. But the 
importations from abroad are by no means numerous, and on 
the whole Cairene has preserved, unlike some other Semitic 
idioms, as Maltese and the modern dialects of Abyssinia, an 
lially pure character. Such is the lai irhich the 

people have evolved for themselves, and history wains us that 
all attempts to "educate them up' r to express themselves in an 
idiom not of their choosing will meet with failure. The \ 
course would be to throw aside all prejudice 2 and accepl it, al 
leasl for secular purposes, as the only language oi the country. 
There is rea -m.i to Eear 1 hat . unless this be done and a simpler 
system of writing be adopted, both the colloquial and literary 
dialects will be gradually ousted, as the intercourse with Euro- 
nations increases, by a foreign tongue. 
And let it not be supposed that the Cairene or 
spoken dialed is unworthy of a literature. They are many 
of them richer in their phraseologj than any of the European 
langu I with the introduction from the Nahwy . 

bulary of the necessary technical term- would be capabl 
ssing every idea of modern times, and this in a In 
form. A movement in favour of the vernacular wool I 

1 I ' t he earl) "pu al la nature 

5, ue comprenant pas et ne voulanl pas compre 
que toul dan le est sujel a varier, que I 

modifii m mesure des modifications do i 
subissenj la dep 'ndu ace de I ■ qui les parli 

ecrivaina qui . ila voulaient immuab 

perp <in li\ iv de I >ieu el n'a\ ai at que du 

• lii a ir les in ou m. hi 

leurs contempoi ai 

u ( i qu'eu I i paa lid e 

que I'idiome v ulgn cept ible ■ w. 



PBEFAl E xxv 

!-t ; « it .-■ I l>\ the p rooo , 1 bat it would aeed t<i !>•• strongl) supported 

>i\ men of influence. Should it bucc 1. ■■> Bbort Time of 

pulsory education, say two years, would be sufficient to Bpread 1 
knowledge of reading and writing throughout tin- country. 

The system of transliteration employed in the grammar will, 
it is hoped, recommend itself to the English student. Thi 1 
some inconvenience in rep - a single Arabic letter by 

two in the Roman character, as also in the use of dote below 
the letters; and should the Oriental system ever be superseded 
by ;i European one for general use it will no 'l"ul>t be found 
suitable to invent a separate character for all those Arabic 
- which have n<> equivalent in the Latin alphabet. 
I venture to believe thai Arabic scholars, 5 as well as those 
who seek a practical knowledge of the language, will find matter 
of interest in the following pages. Thej have been written at 
odil moments, chiefly in vacation time, in railwaj trains :m<l 
Bobcat — a circumstance which 1 must ! plea for 

any imperfections which ma} be detected in the work. 
1 must not conclude without expressing my indel 
the beads of some of the Departments of the Egyptian Govern- 
ment and others for subscribing for n number of copies of th.- 
hook, and thereby enabling me to carrj it through the pi 
and also to Professoi Bayce for his patience in reading through 
the manuscripl in the midst ol his manifold preoccupations. The 
marked with the lei 9 re contributed by him. 

Oaibo, 1 J. El WILLMORE 

N'mik. sine- writing the above, a ay on the Egyptian 

nlph : American philologist, who takes a deep into 

in the welfare of the Egyptian people, has come to mj notice. 
I quote the following | From it to illustrate tin- ooinci- 

3 me half-hearted attempts have already been made. 

A 1 '..!. e le of the lower class know n to 
van ol when he \\.i- :i boy. II'' there learned the 

lettert and nut of the Koran bj heart. Of tin- latter he 

l.ut little, bul In' -till makes use of the r his 

dence, which he writes phonetically in the colloquial 
. with here and there ;i iiuhwy phrase. Asked win 
he 'lid not read the papers, he replied th.it be could not thro* 
>n :i literature which be did not understand, 
ugh not all. h .-t.. leai a f 

tnitic l.r . • one of the English univei i( he 

excluded the I.-. tie dialecta from In- studies 



xxvi PREFACE 

dence of both his and Spitta's views with my own convictions. 
Not having referred to Spitta's work for many years previously 
to the completion of my own, I was unaware that he himself 
desired to see the vernacular adopted for literary purp 

" 2S*o one who has read the deeply-interesting prefa 
the Grammatik can doubt the warmth of the hope which he 
[Spitta] entertained that the work — as hi> biographer expi 
it— ' might contribute to the elevation of the spoken dialect into 
a written language, thereby bridging over that deep chasm be- 
tween the idiom of the people and the idiom of literature, which 
is the greatest obstruction in the path of Egyptian prog] 

•• The striking and forcible paragraph which closes the pi 
has been frequently cited, but a translation of it here can hardly 
be out of place: 'Finally, 1 will venture to give utterance to a 
hope which, during the compilation of this work, I have con- 
stantly cherished ; it is a hope which con- - Egypt Itself , and 
touches a matter which, for it and its people, is almost a question 
of life or death. Every one who has lived for a considerable 
period in an Arabic-speaking land know- how Beriously all its 
activities are affected by the wide dive s ■' the written 

language from the spoken. Under such circumstances bhere can 
o thought of popular culture; for how is it possible, in the 
brief period of primary instruction, to acquire even a half-way 
knowledge of so difficult a tongue as the literary Arabic, when, 
in the secondary schools, youths undergo the tortui study 

during several years without arriving at other than the most 
unsatisfying results? Of course the unfortunate graphic medium 
— the complex alphabet — is in great pari to Maine for all this; 
vet how much easier would the matter become if the student 
had merely to write the tongue which he Bpeaks, instead of being 
forced to write a language which i- a- strange to the pn 
generation of Egyptians as the Latin is bo the people of Italy, 
or the Old-Greek to the inhabitants of Greece — a language 
which, without being the popular speech, ia no Longer even the 
classical Arabic! A real literature cannot be thus developed ; 
for only the limited cultivated class knows bow to use a book; 

to the mass of the people a hook is really a thing unki 

If he have oeed to write a Letter, locument 

ordinary man of 'he people must put himself blindly into 
bands of a professional scribe; be must trusti the most 

important papers with a sea] which he cannot read, and which 
may l» and is easil) imitated. VThj can this lamentable con- 
dition of thing- not \«- changed for the better 1 Simply because 



PREFACE xxvii 

. it the language of the Koran be wholly gj 
up, of incurring the charge of trespassing upon the domain of 
religion. But the Koranic language is now oowhere written ; 
for wherever you find a written Arabic it is the Middle-Arabic 
oft! Even the dubious unity of the [slamitic peoples 

would riot be disturbed by the adopt ion of the spoken vernacular, 
language of prayer ami of the ritual would -till remain 
ywhere the same. It i- also asserted that the New-Arabic 
is wholly unfit to become the language of the pen because it 
obeys no fixed laws, and Hows on without any syntactic restric- 
tions. I venture to believe that the present publication pi 
that the speech of the people is not so completely incapable of 
discipline; that, on the contrary, it possesses an abundance of 
cal niceties ; and that it is precisely tin- simplicity of its 
syntax, the plasticity of its verbal con stru ction, which will make 
it a i. iceable instrument. Did the Italian seem any i 

promising whi I wrote his Divine Comedy? Ami would 

of the most learned and most expert men of Egypt 
be able to do infinitely better thai which it has not appe 
to me, a 1 r, too difficult to undertake?'" . . . 

reful study of its details- especially if supples 
by a short period of use can hardly fail to convince the in- 

■ that it would be diil c ilt, b • Least, to • 

alphi • adapted to its purpose than that of Bpitta. 1 . . . 

pplication to the national dialect of Egypt would 
forthwith immensely facilitate the exl of knowledge, and 

tdmably lessen the task of her throughout al 

Nilotic land- ; and th- may well be brought about without, in 

any measure, affecting the position of I kbic alphabet 

• • medium of the venerated classical literature. Nor would 

Mich :i step detract from the sanctified character of that alpha- 

•vith which the sacred Koranic scripture- are i 
Bible of the Russians is printed bymee 



The system of transliteration adopted iii the present work 
differs verj considerably from spina's. In a book written foi 

lish Btudi had to be consulted, and I am 

that tle'V Would, for example, ha\e bc.Ul pll/./l-d bv the US6 

ant the y sound, though philologicallj il 
the i ighl letter to employ . 

It i- that Bpitta should not have n I the 

of the thick . (-) in the \ ernacular. 
old Slavonic Bible of Cyrillua U -till tlie authorised 
version wl Slavonic language La spoken. 



xxviii PREFACE 

notably differing from that made use of in the modern Russian. 
Our own English Bible, in its existing version, has many versea 
and phrases which can hardly be pronounced to be strictly 
modein English. The Catholic Church regards only the Latin 
vulgate scriptures as authoritative, but the Catholic nations all 
have secular literatures in their own vernacular. The Copts 
daily use the Old-Arabic alphabet and the 'chancery' Arabic 
in their correspondence, while speaking the Egyptian idiom, 
although their holy books are in the ancient Coptic, having its 
own alphabet. There are other instances, even in the East, of 
similar alphabetical and literary evolutions and revolutions ; 
and there seems no good reason why these examples should not 
be followed to advantage by nationalities of whatever race or 
creed. Religion in no wise suffers thereby, while the prog 
of the people is immeasurably accelerated. . . . 

"There is little need of waiting for the new Dante, whose 
advent Spitta, in the closing phrases of the preface to his 
Grammutik, seems to hint at. Other efficient forces are 
already at hand. Hundreds of young men are now constantly 
receiving an excellent training in the higher school> of the 
Egyptian cities — schools which are yearly growing better. These 
sons of Egypt are both intelligent and patriotic. Let all these 
youth of the newer generation put their shoulders to the wheel. 
Let them give their influence — great, if properly applied — to 
the development of the popular tongue, and there will boos 
follow the unapproachable blessing of universal e lucation, with 
its inevitable result of a broad literature 'for the people, of the 
people, and by the people.' The present Government of Egypt 
might \\ ell lend its aid— as it is at last in a position to do 
to such an effort. An American writer has characterised the 
marvellous financial, commercial, agricultural, and moral trans- 
formation of Egypt, effected in these later y< 'the most 
splendid Anglo-Saxon achievement of the century." Why can- 
not the men who have been the potent factor in bringing about 
this beneficent material revolution, nov< open the gate, as well, 
to the spiritual developmenl of the people the] rale so abrj and 
so honestly? There is but one path thai passes through that 
gate, and that path can be traversed onlj bj a nation educated 
in the language it understands. Thai language is already the 
daily speech of social intercourse, of the family, the -hop. ami 
the farm. Whj should it not become the medium of an educa- 
tion, destined not only to elevate the nation which ha- it- home 

Under the palm- of the Nile, hut per ha p.- to revive, under a 

noble form, the ancienl glory of the whole Baraoanic world?" 



THE SPOKEN 
ARABIC OF EGYPT 



ACCIDENCE 



THE ALPHABET 



§ 1. The alphabet of Cairene Arabic consists of the following 
thirty letters : — 



VOWELS. 




NAME. 


VOWELS. 


NAME. 


a 


1 


or nasba 





6 or rof'a 


e 


•'■ 


or khefda 


u 


ll or ruf'a 


i 


i 


or khifda 






CONSONANTS 


NAME. 


1 "N.SONANTS. 


NAME. 


b 




be 


s 


sad 


t 




te" 


sh 1 


shin 


t 






( 


'en 


g 
h 




glm 

ghen 
he 


f 

q 

k 


to 

qaf 
k&t 


h 




ha 


khi 


kha 


d 




.11 


i 


lain 


d 




il.'ul 


m 


mini 


r 




it- 


D 


nun 


z 




Zt'll 


w 


wan 


z 

8 




za 
sfn 


y 


ye 



In addition to the above there are three diphthongs : <ii, <iu, 
and "/, and the hiatus ('), colloquially called qaf*a. The circum- 
flex is used to lengthen th.- vowels, 

1 In the few cases wh . lc are followed by % without 

forming one letter with it, they will in the following pages be 

rated from it by a hyphen, as in the woa I ■ . N '~ n:l - 

lik ha. 



2 THE SPOKEX ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark a. — Nasba, khifda, and ruf'a are by the learned 
termed respectively fatha, kasra, and damma. e and o are re- 
garded as mere corruptions of the a and u sounds peculiar to the 
spoken dialects, so that it has been necessary to invent names for 
them, e no doubt results from the thinning (imdla) of a, but 
as its sound approaches more nearly that of khifda, the name 
adopted seems suitable. 

Remark 6. — The following is, in outline, the system of spelling 
in use in Egypt : — 

The syllable ba is pronounced banasab or banasab; 
„ bi „ ,, bikhifad or bikhifad ; 

,, bu ,, ,, burufa' or burufa' ; 

,, 1a ,, ,, tanasab ; J 

,, ti ,, ,, tikhifad ; x 

,, tu ,, ,, turufa* ; l 

similarly kanasab, 1 kikhifad, 1 kurufa'. 1 and so on throughout. 
Or, a and u being in the Arabic character written above the con- 
sonant which they follow, and i In-low. we may spell ba, 
foqha 2 nasba; bi, be tahtiha, 3 khifda; bu, be foqha ruf'a. 
When a word begins with a short vowel, thai !y speak- 

ing, qat'o, followed by a vowel, that vowel will be pronounced — 
if a, a, qat'a u 4 nasba; if i, i qat'a u khifda; if u, u qat'a n 
ruf'a. 13a is spelt banasab alii wasl ; bi, bikhifad yfi wasl : and 
bu, burufa' wan wasl. 

Consonants not followed by a vowel are called : abbigasai 
attigazam (t), akkipazam (/,), ttc, or be foqha gasma, &C. 

Thus the name Ibrahim may be spelt — i qat'a u khifda abbi- 
gazaui ranasab alif wasl bikhifad V' wasl ammig ■ alit 

tahtiha qa^'a u khifda we he foqha gasma we re fdqha :. 

we alit' wasl 'la iYxjhawala tahtiha i we h.' tahtiha khihl 

alit' wasl we nuin fdqha gasma. 

PRONUNCIATION OF THE VOWELS 

£ 2. a U strictly the English ■' of the words an</. 
alt' // ' . hut the following inoditi. 

iund must he noted : — 
(a) After • it is praoticall} lengthened to <i. and tin 
before two consonants, as in the words 'ala 
gum'a mmu hit 

I >i tanasab, onounoe I [ha). 

3 lithnc it. ' Or we l . /). 



PRONUNCIATION OF THE VOWELS 3 

(b) It becom. dened when in proximity to 

the c<>: '1 ~. 1 

(r) It usually has when surrounded by weak c 
the ■ - iund of a in the words against, the un- 

written vowel of didn't, as in nazzil &r»n^ down, laban mH 
aoond syllable of 'abdalla, pr. />., and 'arbagl d\ 

It is thinned to -/ or e,as balad p»2Za0 . _ 
•;a), masriye an Egyptian i "a// (for masi 

r y thi- modification is not uncommon, but in other i 
seldom heard from the lips of true Cab 
§ 3. Long a (d) retains its original pure sound (as in father) 
when preceded l>y ' or kh and not at the same time followed bj 
the weak semi-cons'i:i;int y, as in -ada custom, khilis entirely, k 
inn, bazaar; but it- usual value is that of a lengthen- 
such as is heard in Ihe Italian word •.</. bah door, haga 

thing. The Fellaheen and others weaken it to short a\ but a 
Oairene will i. .la men, though he pro: 

in that word much less broadly than in n&r. A sound approach- 
•o that of a is, however, sometimes heard before qa$* 
placing qat'a, 3 and q, as iii KVin (bavin) appearing, .-. 

;. zaba'in cueU \\ remaining, tel&qt you trill 

1 'In* influence phatic coi 

d becomes ><» much broadened that an inexperieii 
confound it with • 1 heard in the English woi 

I, ilif hi 

l»at arm, 

§ 4. as e in I ' • 

open syB i is then hardly distinguishable from sh< 

: 



1 Bee i' :: urki d these letl 1 9). 

. yanuyir, fibriyir with Bibtun 
aum( - or thinni 

foreigo (fellah, bedawi, or l» ri 
pronunciaJ Such forms a- kelam, lamde, '1" ir in 

the dialed of ' poken by na1 

iti the prea particip. of verbs whose middle radical i- 
and L'T. under the letter y. B&yin is pi 
cally pronoum • i written in the gramm 

i for • throughout the grammar in the preforn 
and pai ticipli me of t be I 

1 with _ 

t -. Practically it makes but little difference whet 
:i in this position, provided t bat n< • 

ilarly preferred, as ii i l «r, in tie- 



4 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OP EGYPT 

e has the value of English a in lane or ai in lain, as 'esh 
bread. It is thickened in syllables containing h, t, d, s, or z, as 
in heta a wall, bed eggs, sef summer. After '<% it sounds much 
as ai in aisle, as in far'en two branches, and before w as the 
French en, as in 'ilewi high. 

Remark. — e often stands for ai (ay), as der monastery, for 
dayr, sheyal, or shaiyal (= shayyal) porter. 1 

§ 5. i as in did ; e.g. bint girl, misik he seized. When followed 
by ' it has the value of the French eu, as in li'b game ; and when 
preceded by that consonant it approaches very closely to the 
sound of e, or even that of the diphthong ai, as in san'itu his 
profession, ma sim'itsh she did not hear, and this even in an 
unaccented syllable, as in sham'idan candlestick. The emphatic 
consonants give it a pure u sound, as in didd against, while w 
following it converts it to the French it, as in yistiwi it get* ripe. 
After, and, to a less degree, before the gutturals, it approaches 
the sound of e (though h exerts but very little influence upon it), 
as hinna henna (nearly henna), khidewi Khedive, hina here (with 
a slight tendency only to e), yikhtaf he snatches (i slightly 
darkened). Yeghdar he is able, is regularly heard for yighdar. 
Before r it is occasionally pronounced as i, though as a rule it is 
short, as irmi throw, for irmi. 

The conjunction wi and, is often pronounced weu when there 
is a pause between it and the next word. 

i sounds as long i in French and Italian, as in dlb iv>>If. 
hiya she. It is more liable than the other vowels to become 
shortened at the end of a word (§ 13). As in the case of i, its 
sound resembles that of e or ai after '<?//, as in tal'in going out 
(pi.), tisina'ish thou (f.) dost not hear, tis'in ninety (practically 
tul'.'n, Ac), 'iyal children (pron. 'aiyal). Before h ir becomes a 
rounded e, as in rih spirit. It has a sound between ii and i 
after t, d, s, z, as in yedifu they aid, ami Mum'tiines in the 
Turkish termination bdshi, as in yusbashi <-aptain, in imitation 
of the Turkish pronunciation. 



participles. Uniformity <>t' spelling will be to some extent 
sacrificed in the following pages to the desire to reprt 
as far as possible the exact pronunciation <>f each word in its 
varied Burroundings. There is perhaps in i 
distinction between I and i as there is in English, an ii 
mediate sound being heard in many words, as in imshl po, and 
in the article Q. 

1 So llel'i-. /"/// for baythf Xi-. 



CONNECTING OR HELPING VOWELS 5 

Remark. — The ' in arbe'in forty, and Isma'in, ///■. //., is too 
slightly pronounced to influence the final syllable. 

§6.0 and o are the rounded continental short and long <>, but 
they are not quite so closed as in French ; e.g. aho there he is .' 
hdn mortar, ydm day. 1 In foreign words long o is retained, 
while short o usually gives place to u, as bantalon trowserSj but 
ijiinsul consul. 

>■ as in full, ■Q, as in fool; e.<j. shuft thou satwest, darabu 
he struct; him, ful beans. In juxtaposition to the emphatic con- 
Minants and the gutturals their sound approaches that of broad 
o and 6, as in usbur have patience (almost osbur), qutta eat 
(nearly qotta), burqu' veil, 'umr life, 'usman, pr. n. (pron. almost 
burqo', 'umr, 'osman).- In the word 'uzt / wanted, u is some- 
times given the sound of u in cu}>. 

THE DIPHTHONGS 

§ 8. ai (originally ay) is pronounced as at in aisle; e.g. shuwaiya 
a little (for shuwayya), ithaiyar he teas perjJw'/. 3 

Au as in German or as uu in house; e.g. auwil jirst, bauwaz 
he 8qn 

very rarely heard. It is less open than oy in boy, and 
its true sound seems to lie between that and the diphthong at . 
'.;/. moiya water, istughummoiya a game of the nature of hide- 
l (for 'tyaq), plur. of 'Ayiq/op, larkspur. 

ECsmabb . MLaiya and nmmaiya are occasionally heard for 
moiya, but they belong to the provinces. 

CONNECTING OR HELPING VOWELS 

As the A rali.- of < "airo are unable to pronounce thtt 

BonantB in quick succession, it becomes necessary, when they 
occur together, to insert a Bhort vowel between the second and 

i, moth, ddr in Hebrew literary Arab, yawm, 

mawt '/"//A, ilawi- turn. Note that dor nn -an> (//- in llel'r. afi 

in ooUoquial Arabic. 

■-man, the u being doubly broadened by the 
combined influence of ' and a 

When the v is not doubled it retains its value as a con- 
:.t,ainl no diphthong is formed, as in nay raw, Even when 
doubled, the transformation into a diphthong often 
incompli 



6 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

the third. 1 This vowel, it will be understood, plays no part in 
the structure of the words themselves, and is merely requisi- 
tioned by the speaker to break up a combination of consonants. 
Nouns, verbs, prepositions, and conjunctions are, under these 
circumstances, linked to the pronominal suffixes by the vowels 
i or it, their choice being regulated by the laws of euphony. 
Thus u is the connecting vowel when the suffix is kii, kum you, 
your, or hum they, their, while i is employed in most other 
cases. Thus we say darabtuhum / struck them (for darabthum) ; 
while from shuft / sau; and ha her, is formed shuftiha J bow 
her; so umm mother, ummiha tier mother, ummukil your mother.* 
When the second vowel is not so closely attached to the first as 
to form one with it, the connecting vowel will be e, or (if the 
least stress is laid on it) i; z e.g. shuft I saw, ragil a man, shufte 
ragil / saw a man, darabte walad you struck a boy, shiribte ketir, 
but shiribti ktir or shiribti ketir you drank much (a slight pause 
being made in the latter case between the two words to assist 
the emphasis falling on ketir), il haqqe lik or il haqqi lak you are 
rigid, il binte di or il bintf di this girl. 

PiEmark a. — e is sometimes heard after the negative suffix .</>, 
although neither preceded nor followed by another consonant, as 
ma fishe there is not, ma yiswashe it is not worth; but possibly 
it here represents the long e of she thing, from which the 
negative form is abbreviated. 

Ri;mark b. — When there is a pause between the second and 
third consonant, the helping vowel is usually dispensed with, as 
it has no purpose to serve. This occurs not infrequently when 
stress is laid on the first word*, as in the expression ikhs 'aleh ! 
shame upon him I 

Remark e. — The connecting vowels, though as a rule pro- 
nounced with the greatest rapidity, have often the same value as 
those which are used in the structure of the words themselves, 
and ni:i\ be subject to the same changes. They may be length- 
en.^! under the influence of the accent (^ 12), and, by the prin- 
ciples "f contraction, may even oust an original vowel; thus 
from okht sister, and nisibl my brotlier-in-lav), is forme. 1 ukhti 
nstbi my brother-in-law's sister; from salm dish, and nah&a 
coppi r, gahni nhfts. 

Ri ifABK d. A--, strictly Bpeaking, do syllable begins with a 

1 Cf. the use of sh^vs and of segol in Hebrew. 

2 e is occasionally used for i, as ommeha for ummiha: ami 
umm; i ha, dfec., will be heard, especially in the midtna or "city." 

s Note that it becomes < when lengthened, as in 



GENERAL REMARKS ON TDK VOWEM 7 

•lie insertion of e in such combix ibne as] 

a man o/a 7' unite ana / ^of w;/, is in accordance with 

the rule. 

A helping % "wel isalso inserted in foreign words h. - 
two consonants which an Egyptian is unable or loath to pro- 
noun itivelv, or the vowel is placed before the first • 
to form a separate syllable with it, as sibinsa or isbinsajNifi/ry 
(ItaL dispensa), iksibiriss '.'-press. 1 



N'ERAL REMARKS ON Til?: VOWELS 

§ 11. A long vowel followed by two consonants, whether in 
the same word or in two pronounced together without a pa 
becomes short nd 6 being generally changed to i and u 

respectively, 3 a - 

• jam 
qam qal 
qtma 
qimtu 
qura 
qurto 

tin min dih ? 
(for tin 
dih) 
When one of the two consonants is a liquid or //, the vowel 
donally, and in Borne cases optionally, remains long, though 
not quite full and pure. Examples : — 

hat hum bring them ishabna id* 

\i (ye- he bring* to me mafihsh (or tliere u ><"t 
li) ma fthsl 

■ 







ret : 


would ti 


he rose and 


ya ritna ! 


/could that we ! 


value 




bet 


hoi 


Us ralue 




bitna (or 


our house 


forehead 




betna) 




• head 




goz 


husband 


land 




guzha 


husband 


th 









1 Or siksibriK - ir the combinations of consonants 

which an Egyptian is able to pronom 

table conl I he originally 

I be vnwi'l being shortened ; 
qnm yeqftl ; so yektin rigi', 
keep Tlii rtantly in mind, i 

U will henceforth be marked long only when they an 
eed. 

maintained, as in kSfkti i 
/ 

in illusl 

• V. iWel. 



8 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 12. Short vowels may become lengthened : — 

(a) By the accent being thrown upon them, as by an enclytic, 
as is sana the year, is sana-di this year ; bi 1 kefiya-di in this 
way, qabli dih (also qabli dih) before this, from qabl and dih, 
the i being a helping vowel. 

(b) By a stress being laid on the syllable in which they occur, 
as yigi (for yigi) he'll come, fi aril giha (for giha) 1 in what direc- 
tion ? waqtiha at that moment, mahliku gently (you), w Allah! 
by God (for w Allahi). 

Remark. — The vowels are often lengthened without apparent 
reason in the words ba'dina, ba'diku, ba'dihum some of us, of 
you, of them, tauwina as soon as we, bik in or with you. They 
are, however, more frequently pronounced short. 

§ 13. A long vowel may become shortened : — 

(a) By two following consonants (§ 11). 

(b) In continuous discourse, the vowel being hastily pronounced 
in order that the speaker may pass on at once to a final syllable 
or the following word, as : — 

iyam (for iyam) days 

ideh (for ideh) his hands 

yeshuf uhum (for ye- they see them 

shufuhum) 

mudiriya 1 province 

tani marra (for tani) another time 

manish 'arif (for manish / don't know 

'arif) 

ma rahitsh (for rahitsh) she did not go 

qam ir ragil qal lu (for thereupon the man said to 

qam) him 

yeqidu n nar (for yeqldu) they light the fire 

The preposition fi in is almost invariably pronounced fi in con- 
junction with its substantive, as fi masr in Cairo. The o< gatdve 
particle ml becomes ma; ya, the sign of the vocative, ya ; illi. 
the relative pronoun, illi ; tani, tani : and Bometimefi it Le only the 
last Long vowel in a sentence which is able to retail its value, 
asahlu illi matfl In (for illi matu lu) his people who have died, 
wala hish masalan rahit (for walfi blah, &c) nor indeed hat 
she <,:■ 

1 And t hence mudrlya. 

" EDxperience will Bhow how thoroughly ihi> principle per- 
vades ih" spoken language. Mfl not is frequently written in the 
Arabic character by the lower classes as mtm only, affixed to the 
verb, and ya similar!] as pi sometimes even in the books. The 



GENERAL REMAKES ON THE VOWELS c 

(c) When in a final open and therefore unaccented syllable, as 



hati briny (f.) 

intu you 

tigi you 

irnii! thr 



sufragi table-icaiter 

mi.-hi he went 
giri ran 

ghani rich 

qara he read 



berberi native of Berber 
katabu they trrote 
(for hati, intu, &c.). 

£ 1 4. In certain positions, or under certain influences described 
below, the vowels e, i, u, and occasionally a, sink to the rank of 
semi-vowels, and are pronounced with great rapiditv. 

(a) When unaccented and playing the part of helping vowels, 
as gibte kursi / brought a chair, 'andiha tcith her, innlha thai 
she (for the more usual 'andiha, innfha). 

{b) When the proposition li, le, lu to forms, together with 
the pronominal suffixes, the indirect object of a verb and remains 
unaccented, as qal luhum (for the more usual qal liihum) he sai'l 
to ih 

I D the first syllable of the participles and verbal nouns of 
the second and third forms of the verb, as meshaiya' sendiwj, 
medamm: . ICehammad, pr. n. f meAiqtJhidiii 

(d) In the first syllable of the aorist of verbs whose second 
and third radical letters are identical, or whose middle radi 
w or y (§ 182), as yi'idd (or ye'idd) he counts, tequl thou *a\ 
yeshilu they carry aicay. 

> not disappear altogether according to the 
rul' •", aa mi'&khiza (for mi'akhza) blaming. 

(/) \\ here H is followed by it.- homogeneous consonant w, as 
shuwaiya a little, kuwaiyis pretty (practically shwaiya, kwai- 
In a few other words and syllabi.- wh< 

illy calls for a hurried pronunciation, as we I 
m ya wad! look out, boy/ (pron. a«ay wad), ketlr much 
(the final syllable being much emphasised). 

suffixes n( and I were sometime.- writb 1 i in the classical 

_ lage. A native uneducated, hut acquainted with tl 
and phonetically, will omit the aUf in such words 

:.i h' taw me. In such noun- as babiir si- 
kanon tt a in the literary language with 

hardly be said to be pronounced long nnless the whole word is 
Wnpl .rally written in this work wit) 

circumflex. 

Hhi ;■ • times pronounced m I i 

dialect. 



10 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 1 5. The vowel ?', when unaccented and long neither by nature 
nor by position, is seldom very distinctly heard when the word 
in which it occurs ends in a long closed and consequently ac- 
cented syllable, as in biram earthen hotel, dirts dry clover (dris), 
siyuf stcords. 

It occurs more frequently than any other vowel except, 
perhaps, a in the colloquial language, and is in many situations 
hardly distinguishable from the helping vowel e. In the pre- 
formative syllables of the aorist and in some forms of plurals it 
replaces the Koranic a, as yiktib he writes, yiqul (or yequl) he 
says, ignas hinds (Kor. yaktubu, yaqulu, agnasun). 

Even before two consonants at the beginning of a word it 
has sometimes only a minimum value, or it may fall away alto- 
gether and reappear between them as a helping vowel ; 
(i)ddini give me, (i)tfaddal ! pray/ diri'ti my arms (for idri'ti), 
zirira huttons (for izrira, the accent still remaining on the second 
syllable), sinan teeth (for isnan), imrat or mirat wife, ibriq or 
biriq jug, 1 Ibrahim or Birahim, 2 Isma'in or Sima'in. V 
versa, Isleman is used for Sileman when it is desired to 
lengthen or emphasize the word, as when calling one of that 
name for the second or third time ; similarly Inibarka for 
Mebarka (Mebarlka). 

Remark. — Short initial u more rarely changes places with 
the consonant, but instances are not wanting, as Luqsiir (i.e. 
il uqsur = il qusur) the castles, Luxor, usba' (for Buba') finger.* 

§ 16. The vowels are one and all thicker and more rounded in 
Arabic than they are in our language, 4 a fact which should never 
be forgotten by those who wish to speak without an English 
accent. But they will never receive their true colourint: unless 
the consonants surrounding them are correctly pronounced 
"Take care of the consonants and the vowels will take care of 
themselves," 6 is an excellent piece of advice if properly understood; 
and it will be found that the thickness or comparative thinness 
of a vowel depends t<> some extent not only on the consonant 

1 Cf. Eebr. /. i ■•'■• and Lei Elebr. gram.) cites 

etabh ! iblish, )(0es :n,| l l '\ 

Birahim the i is not always pronounot pitlly, 

and some! imes Barahim is heard. 
8 He.br. ezba*. 

* Vowels are in Knglish pronounced more in the front of 
mouth, in Cairene Arabic more in the upper part oi 

11, i~ i- the substance of Spitta'a remark. 



GENERAL REMARKS OX THE VOWELS 11 

immediately preceding or following it, but upon the whole 
weight or measure of the word, resulting from the conflicting 
influences of the consonants which it contains. Thus the v< 
word, or even of a phrase, in which one or more of I 
. d, s, z occur, will be pronounced heavily throughout 
unless the weaker consonants exert a contrary influence; and 
this they will only be able to do if not in immediate proximity 
to the stronger ones. In the word samula nut (screic), the tir-r 
a is thick, the A lightly so, while the fit rcely feel- 

influence of the s at all; in balta axe, both a'a are thick, the 
first in spite of the b and I, because by pronouncing it thick ^e 
can get the tongue more quickly into the position required for 
the pronunciation of the {• The consonants which tend to 
• the thick shading of the vowels are ?•, i, h, d, z, », /, 
/, m, n, y. 

The following words spelt in Arabic dictionaries with 

the dentals t, d, or the sibilants s, z, 1 are pronounced in 

dialect of Cairo with t, d, g, or z, and are cited here in view of 

the effect which these con.-onants have upon the vowels, as 

ined above. In some instances (marked with an asterisk) 

the value of the t and d is nearer that of the English dentals 

than the Arabic palatals. It will be observed that an emphatic 

consonant, by acting on a whole word or phrase, is able to 

dental or sibilant to its own class; also that the 

dally when preceded by a long vowel, and the 

vowel a attract the emphatic consonant-; and lastly, r hat t is 

r immediately preceded by «, nor fon the other hand) d I 

t for t: — 



i l.i t 


wilder 


ed 


tar ■ 


' i ine$ 


iklr 


rhno8e 




taza 




i -t.in.it * 


//.-"• 




ib.'za (or 


table 


ir 5 










-•fin 






tur.ii 










Tin 






tort of dru 


a 


t ;i; 


fruit 



1 t in c lu de s the Koranic th, and g the Koranic i ,pron< I 

arid t in Ndhwy, 

1C. iiiihti! . 

nd ikhtivar c/ 

ic ' muntazar, Imt mini i/.ii . 

fc> I Uh du*t, and ; 



12 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



tamr (or 


dates 


tor (but pi. 


ox 


tamr) 




tiran) 2 




turnbak (or 


Persiantobacco 


tatura 


thorn apple 


tumbjik) 




tisht (and pi. 


basin 


tandif 


cleaning 


tushut) 




*tanf id i 


dusting 


za'tar 


thyme 


*turumbeta 


tambourine 


santi 


centimetre 


it taurat 


the pentateuch 


sot 3 


voice 


tunis (and 


sakieh rope 


sit 4 


repute 


pi. tawanis 


) 


natar (or 


tli rote 



taiyar 



current 



''natar) '■ 



The t used in the formation of the dual of feminities is par- 
tially assimilated to a palatal when the i falls out, as *udten (for 
oditen) two rooms, *futten two towels (for f utitcn) ; also in the 
first and second person singular and second person plural, and 
even in the third person fern, singular of the past tense of 
verbs whose final radical is t or d, as *ghulutt / made a mistake, 
*'aiyatit site wept. Indeed it would hardly be possible to pronounce 
it otherwise without a pause between the two syllables. In 
"heavy" words forming their plurals in at the final / is n< 
sarily pronounced thick, and in tasat cups, its conversian to the 
palatal is complete. 



verbs are more conveniently translated by the infinitive, though 
they are quoted in the third person singular of the past b 
Where the aorist is not mentioned it also, as a rule, has the 
thick cons< inant. 

i The d being at the end of the word does not exerl bo Btrong 
an influence on the initial / as it does in tandif. Note that f 

and | do not affect the dental in the Bame d f and it. 

thus we Bay tanair (not Uvnstr) baptism ; nor does / u.-ualh 
influence s and unless in close proximity to them. 

- The effect of tin- r being counteracted by the long final 
syllable and the short i lit' the first. 

- i |auwa{ shout, &c. 

* So saiyit, missaiyat reputed. 

- i inaiiUir an : /ri/. We say nataru "da till dir.'i'u be thrust 
it an arm's teitgtfi off t but * nataru (i 1 ard At t H the 
grot 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE YOWBLS 



l.°» 



d for d / — 








barnd 1 


gunpOWCk r 


didd (or 


against 


bardu - 


also 


didd) 5 




tadara 3 


young hens 


dufda' ■ 


frogs 


•.'haddar 4 


treacherous 


dahrag 


to roll 


bar (or 


eleven 


dar,dauwar 7 


to turn 


hidashar) 




tad) 


had 


dart) (and 




radawa 


I'ddnesB 


pl.durub) 




>iiyad, 


fisherman 


dabbur(al>o 


h<>rnet 


seyad 




dabbfir) 




aadar 


>ed 


darfa (or 


leaf of shutter 


'asida (or 


soup of flow 


darfa) 


or door 


•asida) 




darra 


udder 


qusad 


opposite 


dura 


maize 


mabrad 


file 


durra (or 


parrot 


namrud (but 


tyrant 


durra) 




pi. na- 




dastur 


by your leave 


marda) 





In suduf to chance, the dal is very thick, and in the aorist 
yisdaf practically d, the s being changed to s in conformity with 
the rule stated above. 

London becomes Lundura or Lundura (or Lundi-.i). 

s for 8 : — 



a-tabl 


ttalde 


busat (and 


carpet 


atlas 


8a tin 


pi. ibsita) 




assar 


im/'C.^ 


luirnus (pi. 


cloak 


i r inarr 8 


i/i t brown 


1 la ranis) 






master 


t pasta 


step 


ba?at 9 


tut 


Bulus 


Paul 



1 So baruda gun (but also baruda). 
Bat more generally bardu. 
gular bid] 

So nag] i, but generally ghadar he deceit 

- i diddly&t animosities, though diddlya in the singular oi 
account <>f the thin <t after y, 
'■ In tli.- diet ionaries dufda'. 

7 So dor turn. I 1 re often pronounced with d; we 

•'>o fin spread, id darbe d&i fell thick, 

:\\ dir when it standi alone. 

■ , &c., but misnirr getting brown, 

' And derivative- i i il • leased, iid>i«..r I 

I grordi are all aln pronounced w 



14 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



bastawiya 


roll of stuff 


sahran " 


sitting up at 


bast 


rex d pen 




a i lint 


bastarma 


dried meat 


issarmah '■' 


to lice fast 


bust a 


pod 


sara ( but 


he in i 


buqsumat 


biscuits 


aor. yisri) 




(usually) 




sagar,sagara 


trees, a tree 


bulis 


police 


issattah lu 


flat 


tasa 


bowl 


sattar 11 


t<> i ■ 


tasa 


to cheat 


satarang 


chess 


tass 


to strike 


satal 


intoxicate 


ghutus (and 


to dive 


Silt 1 


hurl,, t 


deriva- 




sata(and de- 


t<> attack 


tives) 




rivatives) 




haras * 


to guard 


sallat, <fcc. 


incite 


hasra - 


pity 


saltah 


t" smooth 


husum (fre- 


hot days in 


issaltan, <tc 12 


be overnei'iiiwj, 


quently 


mouth of 




civ. 


also hu- 


Badua 


salata (or 


sat ait 


sum) :; 




salata 




ras (pi. rus)' 1 


head 


saniat, <fcc. 


to .--ratd 


rafas (and 


kick 


sandai a 


tuft 


deriva- 




sanilarus 


rarnish 


tives) 




santil 


smi of harp 


satur 


chopper 


saininar (us- 


in nail down 


saklial 5 


revile 


ual;;. 




sarr' 1 


to cheer 


saiiitar. &C. 


smooth trith 


salali ' 






SOndpoq 


saraya 


palace 


saut 


acacia mOotiea 


garba' 


to hurry 







1 So hi.ris guardian^ il Main . &c 

-' So it hassar n gn i . &c. 

3 Though double pi. form husumat. 

4 Bui rismal capital^ itrasmil acquin capii .a.. 
3c maekhut turned into stone, Ac 

Bo sunn'. /.<//.-. masrur joyotut, bu1 masin I 

7 A lid -.nal'.il l BCatH u 

l sometimes sihir, &c, to $U up. 

■ uinalia <i,hiui clu ,■ i .. but >inuah •l>l»iuchee. 

-ii i ii:i lying flat) path >uiuli 

"> ( .-i ..'•/■. A C 

u Bui perhaps more usually issaltan, Bulfai 
So musmar or mismar tail. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VOWEL- 



15 



simsl 


brok 


faetar 


n'n 


BUD 




lit Uian<l <!••- 


be killed 


§irm 


fitMu 


rivatives) 






la.<!< 


fin t as 


cisft 


jAgar ' 


! 


qarnae 


be chilled 




chapter of 


<|a>sat, ifcc. 


di\ 




Koran 


i|i>t 


pitci 


Mir 


reins 


kharaa&D 


stones i 


.sutr.i (or 


table 




small 


gufra),&c. 




khalbaa 


to lie 


yukkar i 


sugar 


kliuru- '' 


be dumb 


sukkar),ifcr 




khusur " 


, >ilt 


sultni. 


basin 


lair.'. 


titer 


>ultaiiiva 




ina-uia '•* 


pipe 


>ii'i«it - 


to fall 


maskhara 10 


buffo 


'asalla 


may he 


_-|i.';> (pi. 


large beU 


;i 3 


bria\ 


oawaghls) 




'iti>, Ac, 


to m 


nuninlsi (or 


deal' r in china, 


'U.sU, 


0.<uta/i 


iiumru-i u 


la mpe, .. 


EaiHf 4 




W.l-.t, WLHt '- 


in id 


I fox z: — 








almaz (aln ond 


bazabart 


passport 




tail. 


bazra 


mongrel 


izau 




ta/a 




if hi.' 


be arrog 


taiabe/.a (or 


'table 


izziit! it 


to slip 


tarabeza) 




izzarbin 


stor 


tozztna 





Bui lukurtab insurana . 
- i paqt miscarriage, suqq&ta door-latch, &c. 
I '.nt 'aiis bridi groom. 
• But f &ri ■ nan. 
'iar. 

&&, but occasionally wre beai 

■ I derivatives khasrao spoilt, Icbtu 
Literary lauwal ba. 
3 dual in i-uit. ii, l>ut |.l. mav 
With verb itmafkhar, Ac. 

11 PL iiaiii.n 

11 So uwawHHV intervene, wuft&ni mt 



16 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



tuzze fishsh 


nonsense 


zallat, &c. 


strip 


tiz" 


buttocks 


zalat 


stone pave- 


garaz (garaz) 


bell 




ment 


gazar x 


to butcher 


zambalita 


brawl 


gazar 


carrots 


zamniar, &c. 


play on a 


gambaz 


deal in horses 




reed 


gumbaz 


gymnastics 


zamruat 


tighten 


ganzar 


be rusty 


zahr, zuhur 9 


flowers 


ginzara 2 


kind of eye- 


zaura 10 


a choking 




lotion 


zor 


throat 


hazzura 3 


story, riddle 


zur 


force 


zauwar 4 


forge, tell lies 


'ariza 


petition 


zaf ar 5 


fat, grease 


fazar, &c. 


burst 


zar 6 


to visit 


fantaz n 


make display 


zat? 


make merry 


faruzi, farozi 


of turquoise 


zabat 


mud 


kharazan (or 


cane 


za'but 


icoollen cloak 


khazaran) 




za'tar 


thyme 


lazhar 


college oj El 


za'faran 


saffron 




Azhar 


zagar 


glare at 


lazlaz 


plump 


zaghrat 8 


shriek from joy 


nia'zur 12 


excused, excus 


zagat 


swallow 




able 


zaqtat 


be in high 


mazmur 


tight 




spirits 


mazyara 13 


stand for zir 



and a few others. 

Remark. — It will be observed that a final long syllable, 
bearing as it were most of the weight of the word, tends to check 
the thickening of the consonants of the other syllables. 



1 So gazzar butcher and other derivatives, but we frequently 
hear gazar, &c, and always yingizir, ifcc. 
But ginzari nile-blue. 

But hazzar or hazzar to guess. Children say hazzilra. 
So zur false, but tazwir forging. 
So zaffar, kc, but zifir greasy. 
And most derivatives, but ziyara or ziyara a visit. 
So zi* ta n 

8 And substantive sagbxuta, &c. 

9 But double pi. zuhurat, and zuhriya a f 
10 So yirwar he choh e, i>ut ziwir he choked, and sauran choking. 

' ' So I'antaziya parodt . 

But *uzi 
1 Although zir (<m earthen fitter) is itself pronounced with .. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VOWELS 



17 



-. On the other hand, a few words written in the literary 
language with a palatal or hard sibilant are pronounced with 
the corresponding softer consonant : — 



gaiter 



ton 

In mabsut content, the t is sometimes pronounced as a 
dental, and in taiyib good, it resembles the English t. 



t for t:— 






tangara 

tarram 

tarraz 


saucepan 
break the teeth 1 
embroider 


tuzluk (pi 
tizalik) 
turnata - 



d for d.— 








daq 3 


be narrow 


dufda' 


frogs 


dh-s (pi. 


/m Jar tooth 


madagh,na- 


masticate, chew 


dirus) 




dagh 




dihik, <fcc. 


laugh 






8 for s : — 








sabagh 4 


dye 


sandilq 


box 


saqal, <tc. 


j'olish 


sagh 7 


work in gold 


samgh, &,c. 


gum 


_rh s 


sound 


aakk 


strike 


sidr 9 


brt cat 




speak true 


siqala(ItaL) 


scaffolding 


iially) 


me 


simakh 


orifice (of ear) 


aidgh 


chet/c 


sinebar (or 


fir 


sifr 


cipher, blow 


-iii'' ; 




:-iqi 6 


be cold 


Bdl (Turkish) 


icarrant-ofjv-' r 


sahra 


desert 


misfirr 10 


turned yellow 


saqqaf 


•■hip the hands 







for *.■ — 



qazara Calso qazara) filth 



1 Of a Berpenl . 
- lint more usually turnata. 
■'■ And derivatives daiyaq narrow, 
' So sabbagh dyer, dkc. 
idlq true, &c. 
■ i frost, Baq'an frosty, 
. i> W( U< ry. 

'. ijirsln ifigh 

' istcoat. 
r yellow. 



18 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

PRONUNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS 

8 19. b is pronounced a little thicker than in English; e.ff. 
ben between, gab lie brought ; nb at the end of a word approaches 
the sound of np, as in zanb fault. 

t and d are more dental than they are in our language, being 
akin to, if not identical with, the Italian, Spanish, and Celtic 
dentals. The tongue should be brought well against the front 
teeth and quickly withdrawn; e.g. tarak to leave, birid grow 
cold, t occasionally sounds as d at the end of a syllabi 
kadbu writing it (for katbu, contracted from katibu), kanid it 
teas (for kanit), yidba' he follows (for yitba'), il bid da this 
house (for il bet da, il bit da), hadrid iz zabit his honour the 
officer. On the other hand, </ sounds as t in the aorist of many 
verbs whose past tense begins with d, especially when tin- 
middle consonant is /, as dihik laugh, dafa' pay, dafan bury, 
aor., yidhak, yidfa', yidtin (pronounce yithak, ifcc.) ; shuhhad 
witnesses, generally sounds shuhhat. 

t is a strong palatal. The tongue 18 made convex and 
brought sharply against the palate, towards the middle; e.g. 
tab become well, B&t voice; as a final it sometimes sounds as </'. 
as yidbukk he cooks (for yitbukh). 

g sounds very much as the hard g in the English wo 
The tongue should strike high about the upper row of teeth; 
e.g. gum they come, gir lime, mfig waves. 

git is perhaps identical with the Northumbrian /•. and is 
nearly equivalent to the Provencal /• grassSyi. The uvula lies 
along the bark part of the tongue, the tip of which touches the 
bottom of the lower row of the front teeth, while the centre i- 
arched ; e.g. ghab to be absent, balagh to reach. 

h is the English //, but is more distinctly pronounced, the 
litis being well opened. It is always .Miunded whatever its posi- 
tion in the word, as in huwa he, af ham / understand, nadah to 
call; though between two vowels il Ls sometimes rather slovenly 
pronounced, as shehadtu his evidence (almost ghadtu). 

I; is a b oth bul \ ery strong guttural aspiral narks 

under 'j. a portion of the breath La forced with Borne vi( . 
through the nostrils 1 ; <.g. hags thing, bal 

1 Sputa Bays thai a shorl a (of the nature of a furtive 
pathakhf) is inserted between I ad l< (thus rt*h, i 

but this appears to be the case only when the syllable La cm 
phasized and drawn out Elth and ruh can both I 
pure!) . 



PRONUNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS 19 

if is, like f, ;i strong palatal. The tongue is placed high 
above the upper row of front teeth, the tip curled upv< 

in- palate. Its peculiarly strong explosi 
difficult to acquire, is less marked in Cairo than among the 
Arabs of the des rt; e.g. daf he added, hadir ready, 'add to 

pronounced una.- strongly and more forward in the 
mouth than in English, and only very slightly trilled, if at all. 
1' i- always sounded distinctly and with its full value, wherever 
its position ; - .g, rigl foot, darar </<i/ini : /- . 

- in the word zeal; e.g. zina ornament, ghaz petroleum. 
In yizkur he mentions, speales well of, and a few other words, it 
>ound> a.- & j is a trery Btrong .:, partaking of the nature of a 
palatal It i- pronounced at the back of the mouth, and the 
Wreath is expelled with considerable force; e.<j. zalim oppressor. 
8 as in seal, but rather more forward in the mouth ; ■ . 
'7. At the end of a syllable it is often sounded as z, as in 
the words isma'l hear I masdud blocked, maskun inhabited, hisba 
account (pronouneed optionally izma', ftc.). 

th as in TCpgliah ; eg. shal>l> yoiitli, sh.i.-h muslin. It gi 

ally represents the Turkish teh in words borrowed from that 
language In the foreign words shakk cheque, shaketta ., 

pronounced saketta and gaketta), and occasionally in the 
word mush not, it is not, it has the sound of ~h or Kn gliqh ah in 

m . 

i \.m v strong sibilant pronounced well back in the mouth. 
The ' bould be held tight, so to speak, and the tip pressed 

againsl the lower front teeth. It often sound.- as i, as in 
qasd intention, usbur I wait. 1 sugaiyar email (pronounce optii 
qasd, d 

guttural of the same nature as //.and peculiar to 
the Bemitic languages, bul is not quite so strongly articulated 
in Oairene as in some other Arabic dialect 



I- noid in conjunction with the differenl vowehs 

can only be acquired by practice. The following description of 
• and | ii given by Mas Miiller from Czermak. " It' the _■ 

mowed and the vocal chords brought near together, aot, 
however, in a straigbl parallel position, but distinctly notched 
in the middle, while at the same time the epiglottis is pr< 
down, then the stream of breath in passing assumes the < 

Arabic hha (/'). as distinguished from h, the pii-itua 
It bhi manl it become - '..in. Stai ting 

from the configuration as d( I foi hha, all that takes \ 



20 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

ba' to sell. Sometimes it is barely audible, as in the numeral 
'ishrin twenty, or in the expression, 'abal ma yigi until he comes ; 
and it has fallen out altogether from the numerals between 10 
and 20, and from a few other words, as lissa 1 still (for li s sa'a), 
bid 'annak far be it from you (for bi'id). 

/ as in English, except before d, z, z, s, sh, and s, when it 
approaches very near to the sound of v, as in yifdah he disgraces, 
yifdal he remains, khifda the vowel i, yifza' lie frightens, mehafza 
government, lafz word, yifshakh he cuts in two, yifsah he explains 
(pronounce yivdah, &c). 

q. The deep guttural A'-sound of this letter is often heard 
even in conversation, especially where the words in which it 
occurs are technical terms, or denote religious objects, or are as 
a rule confined to the literary language. There are still, perhaps, 
a few of the higher and learned class who admit no other pro- 
nunciation, and the foreigner who adopts it will pass with the 
mass for a man of great erudition. In the words Quran Koran, 
qamiis dictionary, qat'a 2 (where equivalent to hemza), all classes 
give it the guttural sound ; but its usual value, whatever its 
position in the word, is a strong hiatus, such as is generally 
heard before words beginning with a vowel in German, or in 
the French word haut. The " educated " q is the English </ 
without its u ; and if, while the muscles of the throat are still 
compressed preparatory to its vocalisation, a simple vowel sound 
only is allowed to escape, the value of the spiritus q, as heard at 
the beginning of a syllable, will be obtained. When it occurs at 
the end of a syllable the muscles are placed in position for the 
full q sound, but almost immediately released ; e.g. qal to say, 
faq to awake. It may of course be doubled like any other 
consonant. Between two vowels it is liable to be slovenly 
pronounced and reduced to the value of a weak qat'a, as in 
faqat only, daqa'iq minutes, laqel / found) baqet / remained, 
yequm he yets up. Bi qadde eh? by lioic much? becomes 

in order to change it into 'ain is that the rims of the apertures 
left open for hha arc brought close together, so that the stream 
of air Btriking against them causes a vibration <>n the fissura 
larangea, and uot, as for other sonant letters, in the real 
glott 1 

1 Cf. fisa ( ti is -.',•. 1 1 at once, in Algerian. 
Qamus, however, is also pronounced with the aspirate; 
qur'an verj rarely. The word qat'a is only known to those who 
have been to Bchool, where of course only the guttural sound is 
.tdmitii'd at lessons. 



PRONUNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS 21 

practically badde eh, and haqqiqatan truly, hayatan. 1 iq before 
a consonant sometimes sounds almost as e, as in itkhaniqt / 
quarrelled. 

Remark. — The hard ^-sound of this letter, sometimes heard 
in Cairo, is peculiar to natives of Upper Egypt and some other 
parts of the country, and must not be imitated. 2 

/■ is perhaps slightly aspirated. The tongue should touch 
the roof of the mouth and not be too hastily withdrawn ; e.<j. 
kan lie was, lik to thee. Before b and d, and sometimes at the 
end of a syllable, its sound approaches that of '/, as in shuwaiya 
kbir somewhat large, yikdib he li<s. 

kh as rh in Scotch loch. The vocal chords are compressed 
and the back part of the tongue arched ; e.g. khad he took, 
akhkh brothi r. 

I sounds much as in German, more liquid, trilled, and emphatic 
than in English ; e.g. lei night, kalb dog. The double I in 
Allah God, is very strongly pronounced. 

m as in English, but usually more emphatic at the beginning 
of a syllable ; e.g. moiya water, Maryam Mar;/. 

n as in English; e.g. ndm deep, khan inn, bazaar. Before 
b, and generally before /, it sounds as m, as in ganbu hi* 
min ba'd after, manftikh blown (pronounce gambu, &c.). a 
When ng occur together, they are pronounced as in English 
ring, as in yingah he out of a difficulty, sifinga 

spoh 

w as in English, except that its character as a semi-vowel is 
more apparent. It is pronounced almost as u at the end of a 
word, as dilw bucket (pronounce almost dilu). 4 With a it forms 
the diphthong aw, as in battauten (for battawten contracted from 
battawiten) two loaves of coarse bread, daudih (for da we din) 
this and that, yauliya (yawliya for ya wiliya ) lady/ It is 
from its nature frequently interchanged with u. 

y slightly weaker than in English. It- true value seems to 

1 The word is contracted to haqqatan, then to ha'atan, and 
the qat'a converted I 

- 1: u b very old pronunciation; the Babylonian dialect was 
distinguished from the Assyrian as far hack as it.c 2500 by 
ouncing q as g. 1 8 

3 Some words Beem to be more easily pronounced when n 
as it- value before/than when it has thai of m, as manfus 

< no! mamfus) jea out, angry. 

4 It Hears the sain.- relation to it U - to I or to qat'a 
in such a wop . ,, (ti'atro) thi 



22 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

lie halfway between y and qat'a ; 1 e.g. yi'mil lie makes, izzeyak 
how are you ? bahayim cattle, gay coming. 

§ 20. Care must be taken to " finish " the consonants, that is, 
to give each of them its full value. Occasionally the first of two 
consecutive consonants is dropped before it is quite completed ; 
but the habit of hurrying from one letter to another, to which 
we are accustomed, is quite strange to an Oriental language. 
Until he realises this, the foreigner will have difficulty in making 
himself understood, however good his pronunciation may be in 
other respects. 

THE HIATUS (qat'a) 

§ 21. The Arabs consider, and no doubt rightly, that no syllable 
can begin with a vowel; but the hiatus (or spiritus lenis), which 
they say precedes it, only becomes perceptible before a vowel 
immediately following a closed syllable, or after an open syllable. 
It is called qat'a a piece cut off, or (less commonly), hamza com- 
pression, and in the above-mentioned positions is not easily dis- 
tinguished from the Cairene pronunciation of q. That it ba- 
the value of a consonant is shown by the fact that, when following 
a closed syllable in the same word, it throws the accent on the 
vowel which it introduces (§ 39, b.), as in the word mas'ala 
question, and that the helping vowel e may stand between the 
last two consonants of one word and the (apparently) initial 
vowel of the next, as in qumte ana / gut up ; that it is weaker 
than q follows from the circumstance that it is constantly elided, 
as qumt ana (pronounce qum-tana), w ana and I (for we ana), 
besides having wholly disappeared from many words. It 
sometimes closes a syllable or even follows a consonant, in both 
of which cases it has the value of a weak Vv, as in isti'naf 
appeal, guz 1 //art. It is often pronounced with the leasl possible 
exertion, and there is a tendency bo drop it altogether at the 
of a Billable. 2 

DOUBLE CONSONANTS 

§ 22. The Arabs are said to be unable to pronounce fcwo eon' 
sonants a1 the beginning of a syllable without the help of t 
vowel, and thereforej where they occur bogel her in foreign words, 
they detach them by placing a short » or < either before or after 

1 With which it is often interchani 
Qa^a is not, as a rule, printed in this work before thei 
at the beginning of a word, bul it- presence mu bten. 



DOUBLE CONSONANTS 23 

the first, as Ifransa, or Flransa 1 (or For. we, ifrank (or 

ferank) /rank, bertmo first (Ital. primo), situ s 
but the natives of < iairo often pronounce br, gr,Jr, kr, and : 
in krumb cabbage, ingllz English, as nearly q do our- 

selves without the intervention of a helping vowel. - 

When a word not followed immediately by anothe 
in two coi which cannot be pronounced consecutively, a 

cely audible vowel Bound appears between the two, or after 
the second, n- in til>'n 3 (or less frequently tibn*) strata, dtuh'r 
' in this position causes the preceding consonant to be 
sounded very sharply, while it has but little value itself, 4 
rub' a fourth. 

. The doubling of a particular consonant is called by 
the .' shdid (strengthening), and may be either 

eing required by the structure of the word 
fahhim to cause to understand (from fihim to , t'akk 

to unfit- ; or euphonic, as being due to assimilation of on 
another, as ish shams the sun (for il Bhams). 

Remark a. — Observe that the final consonant of the words 
abb 6 father, akhkh brother, damm Wood, fumm mouth, and yadd* 

. i- .-iiiL'le in the literary language and doubled in the 

colloquial. In the construct form the two form* r ever, 

abu, akhu, not abbu, akhkhu (§ li'l). Tl obe min I 

thert il akhkhe dih th . but abuh his father, 

akhfihum th' : 

Kkmakk h. — The doubled consonants must be pro 

nounced twice over, though when g, h, r, sh, ', /, y, /.-A, ■ 

■ be first is not quite so fully sounded as the second. 7 

1 The i here i oatnre of that described above (i 15). 

- We generally hear itneo ifrank, talata (or talata) frank. 

" I always hear kfirumb, as in ' umb-o-rella.' " — (S.) 

-t distinction between this sound and the tibin 
of Upper Egypt or of the inattentive foreign resident. The half 
vowel inserted u equivalent to the Hebrew >lr\a, and the fifth 
order of the Bthiopic towels. 

-, itta. 

< "t. Syr. and Ohald. abba, whence 1. I I 

< III i> used for Id in the spoken language, but only in 
.in expressions borrowed from the literary dialect. Bo in 
a- we have both v// and Ida, Chaldee ayda, 
7 The double / of walla or, is not always distinctly pro- 
nounced in hurried talk, as wala tnen or two (foi walla tndi . 
walla Ital 



24 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

But when there is a pause after them, either the first only will 
be heard, while the stress laid upon it causes a slight aspirate to 
be heard ; or, as is the case with two different consonants not 
pronounceable together, a helping vowel is placed after the 
second, as rag h (or ragg e ) he shook. Occasionally the second is 
dropped even where there is no pause, as khash 'aleh (for khashshe 
'aleh) lie went into his presen 

§ 25. Euphonic tashdid may take place : — 

(a) When the / of the article il is assimilated to the first letter 
of the noun to which it is attached, that letter being one of the 
following : t, t, g, d, d, r, z, z, s, sh, 8, k, n ; e.<J. it tibn the straw, 
id darba the blow, is sef, the .-"ran/, is B§f tJtt summer, in nar th* 
fire (for il tibn, il darba, &c. ). 

Remark. — The / not uncommonly remains unchanged before 
the letters g and k, as il gazzar (or ig gazzar) the butcher, il gum'a 
(or ig gum'a) the week; il kursi the chair, is preferred to ik 
kursi, while ig giran the neighbour, is more used than il gtran. 
It is purely a matter of euphony, such harsh combinatdoi 
ik kull the whole, being mostly avoided, g appears to assimilate 
more easily than /,-. The article occasionally remains intact 
before the other letters when the word is emphasized. 

(b) When the / of the fourth, fifth, and sixth derived forms 
of the verb is assimilated to the radical, being one of the ah 
mentioned letters, with the exception of r and n, or when th< 
sign of the second pers. sing, or third fern. sing, of the aorist is 
assimilated to t, d, or d ; e.g. ittallaqit sh* . ggannin 
he went mad, ishsharmat if was torn, ikkabh it was poured (for 
ittallaqit, itgannin, &&), biddauwar or biddauwar (for bitdau- 
she turns. 

Remark. — Here again g and /,- often exert no influei 
•.in (or iggad'an) 1 /" behavt bravt \y. The imperative itkallim 
ttpeah is more emphatic than ikkallim. 

('•) When, in the first or second pers. Bing. or the » 
pers. pi. of tlu> past tense of the veil., <l is assimilated to/ or/ 

to /, :is kli.it tn (for khadtu) I took if, rakittu (for rabattu) you 
bound. As a rule, however, only m partial assimilation takes 
place here, khadtu more often than no! Bounding as it i- wi 

and the Second / Of rahattu being leSS palatal than the iiist. 

i</> Wnere the third consonanl of the third pen. sing, of the 
tense of the triliteral verb is a sibilant, and assimilates the 
negative sign sh, or is itself assimilated to it, as ma 3 
_\ in'ishsh) /" does not d , ma yikhlass (or yikhlashsh) i 






INTERCHANGE OF CONSONANTS 35 

finish, ma yihbisbsh (from yihbis) he dne.< not . ma 

yikhhishsh h>> d"'S n/A lake (from yikhbiz). The negati. 

_ rawiz he mil marry, is ma yiggauwizz, ma yiggauwi- 
ma yiggauwishsh. 

Where one liquid is assimilated to another, as kal lu 
(for kan lu) there was t<> him, Le. he had : so yekul I 
il la (for in la) if not, lazrnil lu (for lazmin lu) we.<sary (pi.) 
to hint, b;il li (for ban li) it appeared t" me, mil litnen (for mill 
Litnen) from tht t>r<>, Bakhkhal lu (fur sakhkhan lu) lie Ju 
for Asm, mir riglen (for min riglSh) from hi.-- feet, khulkhar 
rigleha (for khulkhal) the anklets on lierfeet, khanna (for khalna) 
our uncle, qunna (for qulna) ic said, ishtiri nna (for ishtiri 
lna, i.e. ishtiri Una) buy for a.--, ana minni r ruhi (for minni 1 
ruhi, i.e. minni li ruhi) / of myself, ir ra'adit (for in ra'adit ) 
if it thunders, il laqet (for in laqgt) if I find, kam masik (foi 
kan masik) tie tea.* luiding. 

Kkmabk. — The / of the preposition fi is sometimes as 
lated to a b following it (the i dropping out), as qa'adu b Bariz 
they I and sh of niush not, to another sibilant, 

as muz sanbl it it not my fault, mug >aliih it is not true. 
Kunt / was, thou wast, is very frequently pronounced kutt, as 
kutte fun ? where icere you ? and bint daughter, girl, bitt. 1 

INTERCHANGE OF CONSONANTS 

The Koranic th is regularly pronounced s in oahwy, 
while it is represented in the colloquial language by /, and 

rionally by s; ti •. thaqtl heavy, thalatha r 

nahw. saqll, salasa ; colloq. talata, tiqil, ittaqil, or (less usually) 
. il 'ala to bt harsh. 

The Koranic dh (dhal) i.s z in oahwy, (2, and occasionally z in 
ne ; thus Kor. akhadha hei ok, nahw. akhaz; Cair. akhud, 
but (from the sam ^biz blame; Kor. dhimma 

naliw. ziiiiina ; Cair. dimma. 

• h m, as manta].'>n (or !>antal'n) fr 

minadim (for bin sdan A tarn, rubatizii [( 

. ul_\ represents the p, and occasionally the v of foi 
. 
il Turkish coin), babur train, 

_ ,i- for babur; with foreign /-sound, as 

'il. 

1 H I 8yi iac 



26 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

gh with q, as yighdar he is able (for yiqdar) ; with kh, 1 as 
khishi (for ghishi) 'aleh (aor. yikhsha) to faint, yikhshil (more 
usual than yighsil, though the past tense ghasal is more usual 
than khasal) he washes, khafar (or ghafar) to watch, ightalas 
(for ikhtalas) to embezzle. 

h with ' very commonly, in fact whenever the surrounding 
letters are such as to render it easier to pronounce ; 2 e.g. betahtu 
his, for beta'tu (less usual), biht (for bi't) / sold, rauwah go 
vway, but rauwa' 'ala betak go atcay home, ihtaraf to confess, 
'afaq (or hafaq) to seize 

d with b (or p) in lamda (pi. lumad) or lamba lamp. 

r with », as dundurma 3 (or durdurma) ice-cream, Bonte Sa'id 
(or Burte Sa'id) Port Said ; with I, as rakhar the other also (for 
lakhar, i.e. il akhar), rastabl the stable (for lastabl). Revolver 
becomes lifurfur. 

z and z with « and s, as izbitalya hospital, bazabort pass- 
port. (See also under pronunciation.) 

sh with s and s in a few words, as sams (or shams) sun, 
sakhsh (or shakhs) person, satrang (or shatrang) chess, sagara 
(nahrcy shagara) tree ; 4 with z in ingliz English. 

f represents v in lifurfur and a few other words ; but the 
Arabs are able to pronounce v, and revulver is often heard. 
(See § 19.) 

q with k in a few Turkish words, as kalfa or (less usually) 
qalfa chief female servant in a harem. b Eau gazeuse is called 
gazzusa or kazzuza. The nahwy tilqa/i nafsu of his oicn accord, is 
pronounced tilka nafsu in the spoken language ; with kh in 
1 taqshish largess, present, from Pers. bakhshish (through Turkish) ; 
with g (see above). 



1 l rn, when = g/it"», is represented by kh in Assyrian. — (S.) 

2 The Hebr. 'ayn is said to have been pronounced very much 
ls h at one time. 

3 The Turkish form. 

4 sh is preferred in all these words by the higher class, who 
regard the. other forms as corruptions, though they are perhaps 
in reality of a higher antiquity. 

5 A few are pronounced with // only in Arabic, though 
written with q in Turkish, as karakdn (Turkish qaraqdl), 
there being very little difference between the two letters 
in that language; both qarnahrj and karnabtt caulifl 

are said 



INTERCHANGE OF CONSONAWTS 

k with lch in a few foreign words, as khartush cartouck, 

kharriib carrob. 

I with n, as 'ilwan or (less usually) 'inwan addr 
*cription, inbarih (pronounce imbarih) for il barih 

in Ishmael, in fingan (sometimes) for il fingan l the cuj*, 

kabsuna capsule, malifatora manufacture, armali (Turk. > rrnen'i) 

Armtmian, barakat warsal (Turk, berekat versin) thank you, 

tantana (or tantilla) lace (Ttal.), 'ala tubbil ghafil (for tubbin) 

'>/. (See also under pronunciation.) 

ui with b (see above) : with n, as natai it and matarit it 

I, madagn and nadagh cltew tol >, Fatma and Fatna, 

pr. 7i., malin miUidme, shindi (Turk, shimdl) at once. (See under 

this letter, ;j 19.) 

th the v of foreign language-, as wabur (though more 
often babur) vapore, warsin or warsal (above) ; with y in some 
parts of weak verbs and verbal nouns, and in the expression ya 
buwa (sometimes) for ya buys ! my father ! 

y with t0 (see above): with qat'a, as qayil (for qa'il) saying, 
tivatro theatre (Ital. teatro);* conversely in'al! (for 

yin'al) (§ HO). 

TRANSPOSITION OF LETTERS 

§ 28. It is not an uncommon thing in Arabic for a word to 
have two alternative forms with the letters in different positions, 
as in the following examples : hafar (or fahar) to dig, lakhbat (or 
khall ranib or (rarely) anarib hares, na'al 

and yin'al lie curses (or la'an and yil'an), iggauwiz I .. and 

(na/ury) izzauwig, gflz husband, gd2 and (na 

and zoga, bartaman and martaban earthen pot ; so gamaduna. 
demijohn, ginninar general (n = 1). 



CONTRACTION 

1. Eusioh 

§ 29. When two vowels meet in different words, one of • 
.• gether with the qat'a, and falls out, m 

• of course plays a part here; / ami n are, 

owing to their natural affinity, interchanged whenever euj 
to demand it. 
1 Of. literary bi*» with Oairene Mr ( = biyr), a icell. 



28 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

of course, there is a pause between the words ; 1 and the weaker 
usually yields to the stronger. E.g. : — 

da na (for da 'ana) it is I 

w ana (for we ana) and I 

bidd albis (for biddi albis) i" want to dress 

ya hmad (for ya Ahmad) Ahmed/ 

ya Hi (for ya illi) thou who ! 

w ummu (for we ummu) and his mother 

lagl (for li agl) for, in order that 

ill atwal minni (for illi atwal) he who is taller titan I 

da na mmak or da n ummak it is I, your mother 

(for da ana ummak) 

fi 1 bet (for fi il bet) in the house 

ya akh ana bahazzar waiyak I am only joking with yon, 
(for ya akhi ana, &c.) my friend 

but ya akhi ana 'auzak my friend, I want your 

Remark a. — The i throws out the a sometimes, as in bi smi 
llah (for bi ismi Allah) in the name of God, bi zni llah by I i 
permission. We may say either inta smak eh 1 or int ismak ah \ 
wit, d is your name ? 

Remark l>. — Elision is by no moans obligatory upon the 
speaker, and experience alone will enable the foreigner to make 
a proper use of it. Euphony and emphasis both play an im- 
portant part, and it must be remembered that in Arabic, as in 
other languages, it is important to lay a little stress upon, or to 

1 A pause is often useful for the purpose of emphasizii 
word that Follows, as ana we abuya kem&n I ami my father too. 

Vowels elided a i-i • not printed in t lie grammar, in order thai 
the exact pronunciation of the words in a sentence may be clearlj 
represented. It musl be remembered thai where the initial 
vowel of a woid disappears, the firsl syllable of that word will in 
pronunciation form one with the last syllable of the preceding 

word, and when the final \ ow el of a w Mid is thrown out. the la-; 

consonanl of that word will belong to the firsl pliable of the 

following word ; thus da line inin / (for da ibne nun f) UfhoSi 

is that? will he pronounced dab oe nun; int Lsmak en, in-tismak 
(h. Tin- Bystem ha-- the disadvantage of presenting the words 
wherever elision takes place in a truncated i or in ; but as they an 
all given in full in the vocabularies, no confusion will arise, 
only alternatives won hi he to enclose the missing vowels in ever} 
ii brackets, or indicate their omission by an apostrophe, the 
gigS universally adopted to repre-.nt the hiatus •/ i/'u. 



CONTRACTION 29 

pause slightly ;ifter, one of the words comprising '-nee, 

though none of them be particularly emphatic, in order to 
the listener time, as it were, to look around him. Thus it may 
be preferable at one time to say, lamma ruhte ana when I 
'ande ukhtu at his sister's house t eA another, lamma ruht ana (pro- 
nounce rah tana), or 'and ukhtu (pronounce 'an dukhtu). 

Remahk c. The vowel of the definite article is almost invari- 
ably elided ; that of the prepositions bi, li, is occasionally retained 
and pronounced very rapidly, as li (or le) ummu (or 1 ummu) to 
hit mother. It never coalesces with the i of the conjunction 
inn. 

2. Omission*, oh Falling Out of a Letter 

§ 30. Qat'a may be dropped, not only when its vowel coa 
with a preceding one, but after a consonant or vowel, whal 
its position in the syllable ; e.<j. mi-nen (for min en) whence, ki 
seh ( (for kis §h I) what purse f ras head (nahicy ra's), in sha llah 
(or in sha Allah) if God will (both qafas disappearing). 

Remark. — When a verb in the third person plural is followed 
immediately by the definite article, the qat'a, which falls away 
from the "rowel of the latter to allow of the elision, is not infre- 
quently thrown back behind the u of the verb by way of & 

ation, so that we may heal- wagad ur ragil (for wagadu r r 
they found the man. 

The letter// will often disappear at the end of a word, as 
Alia (for Allah) God, luh (otIu) t<> hi m, huh (or bu) in, by, him . fSqJ 
(literary fiqih) reciter of the Koran (but plural fuqaha), fi (orfih) 
. 

- has fallen out from a few wordi 19). In omnia' 

li Al'fs mother (name also of a plant), it has changed places 
with tin- '/. 

The .short vowels may disappear: — 
(a) From an open penultimate Byllable, where the vowel of 
the antepenull (if the ward Lb of more than two syllables) is not 
one l"ii.L r by position ; or from a final syllable it the penultimate 
is long and open, and a word > • • ■ lt i 1 1 1 1 i • i :_ r with a ""owe! follow 
<.;/. la/.m.i (for Llama) necessary (fern.), khatru (for kh.itiiu) hi* 
•, qimtu (for qimitu) its rain-. Irifaytu (for kif&yitu) its 

1 ( Somp. i-t 
l rthe shortening of the long vowels se< , andcouip. 

Hebr. melek king, malka queen, ex., and Bthiopic t"i the 
appearance of the \ owel. The principle is m>t unknown 
Thus in Bulgai ian we have malbk small, f. in 



30 THE SPOKEX ARABIC OF EGYPT 

sufficiency, wirmit (for wirimit) it swelled (fern.), khadtu (for 
khaditu) she took it, itkhanqu (for itkkaniqu) they quarrelled, 
walditu his mother, sahb il bet (for sahib il bet) the owner of the 
house, 'ayisha and 'esha are both in use as distinct names. 

Remark a. — A very short i or e is sometimes heard in such 
words as mu'akhiza blaming, lazima necessary, ya Beshir ! 
Beshir I instead of the contracted form, the vowel of the ante- 
penult being pronounced half long. We hear 'alimin us the 
plural of 'alim learned, because it hardly belongs to the col- 
loquial language, but 'alma (for 'alima) a female singer. 1 

Remark b. — a, being the strongest of the vowels, generally 
retains its place, especially when surrounded by strong con- 
sonants, as baladu his village, darabit she struck, batahu they 
wounded ; but katabu (or katbu) they wrote, katabitu (or katbitu) 
she wrote it, wi hyatak ! (for wi hayatak !) by your life ! ma lqetush 
(for ma laqetush) / did not find it, taratan (or tartan) sometime*, 
sahni nhas a copper dish, and even talata nsara (for talata nasara) 
three Christian*. 

Remark c. — The short vowel rarely falls out from the penult 
of adverbs in -an (the accusative ending in the literary dialect), as 
ghaliban probably, saniyan secondly, such words being retained, as 
strangers, in their borrowed form; but tartan (above) for taratan. 

Remark d. — When the vowel of the antepenult is A standing 
for iw, or % followed by y, the vowel of the penult does not, as a 
rule, fall out, as yulidu (for yiwlidu) they give birth, subhiyitu 
( = subhiyyitu) its ■morning ; it does, however, sometimes in the 
latter case, as baqiyt (or baqtt) il fulus (for baqiyit - il fulus) tie 
rest of the money. 

(/v) From the prepositions bi, li (bu, lu), and from most of 
the syllables described in § 14, and other unaccented short 
syllables at the beginning or in the middle of a word, a.> darabu 
bha (for darabu biha) they struck with it (fern.), qulti lhuni (for 
quite luhum) / said to them, naharak sa'id wi mbarak (for mu- 
barak, mebarak) good morning.' li kmanu (for kumanu) in hi- 
sleeves, bitqul (for bitequl) she says, valla bna, imshi bna v toi 
yalla bina, &c.) 8 let us be going ; ma lqu Ihumshe hags (for ma 
laqu luhumshe) they found nothing fir them, moiya adifa (for 

1 This word is the Eebr. 'alma a maid. Rules might pos- 
sibly be laid down as to the rases where the vowel disappears 
altogel her, and where it has an almost imperceptible value, as the 
Hebrew sbPva. 

Che y here sounds as a weak qaf'a. 

a The fuller forms are very frequently used. 



OMISSION OF MOKE THAN ONE LETTEl; .".1 

nidifa) dean water, mtt gineh wi ksur (for we kusur) £100 odd, ma 
msiktush (for ina niisiktusk) / did not seize it, hmwa mn en I (for 
min §n I) wAenee u fee f hiya ukhti mn abuya (for ukhti min 
abuya) she is my sister by my father. 

From a few final syllables, including those of some dis- 
syllabic participles in constant use, though in this case the vowel 
does not completely disappear when a word beginning with a 
consonant follows, and two or three monosyllables ; e.g. 'auz (for 
'awiz)and 'ayz (for 'ayi/.» waii&tt^, says (for s&yis) grooming, groom, 
ravh (for T&ph) going, ittaub 1 (foritt&wib) yaum, illati (f or illS 

■, only thai, 'al i tor 'ala) on, adin, adin (for Sdlni) (though the 
final i is originally long) when immediately followed by another 
word, as adin g£t eee I have come, u f waqtina (for fi waqtin;- ) 
in our time, ana f fikri haga I have something in my mind. 

Remark. — The negative sign sh doubtlessly stands for sh< 
thing. 

§ 34. The vowel of the article is sometimes dropped, as lab 
the bed, litnen the two, lazhar the university of El Azhar, listam- 
buli the man from Stambotd, lakhar or (more usually) rakhar 2 the 
■, lihmal the burdens, liswid tlie hlwlr, lahmar the red,* 
Luqsur (for il uqsur = il qusur), 4 as litnen gum both came, il 
waraq labyad the white paper, imrat lefendi the gentlt man's 

Remark.— The article here forms one word with the noun, as 
in Maltese, in which dialect it universally drops the vowel when 
followed by a word beginning with another vowel. 

ABBREVIATION OR OMISSION OF MORE 
THAN ONE LETTER 

§ 35. The senii-con-onant //, when both preceded and followe.I 
l.y i or e, may coalesce with them before a single consonant, and 
form the long vowel i, as biqul 6 ( = biyqul) for biylqul (or 
biyequl) he is saying. 

Remark a. — Similarly uwi and iwu may form u, but in this 

1 Here also the contraction will not take place when a word 
[finning with a consonant follows. 
3eeg -'7. 
3 The vowel ia very commonly omitted when the noun is on. 
of those described in ,^ Gl. 
' See g 15, ]!>:„i<ir/:. 

The i of biqul is not pronounced very long in hurra 

The iy often remains unchanged, a- in miylou tuu 



32 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

case the union is not so complete, as uliftu (for u wiliftu) and 
his companion (f.), bi wugudhum (almost bugudhum) in tlteir 
presence. 

Eemark b. — The iyi of the continued present of the perfect 
verb occasionally contracts to i, as biktibu (for biyiktibu) they 
write. 

§ 36. The final syllable of 'ala on, and the in of min from, 
often fall out before the definite article, as 'al husan (for 'ala 1 
husan) on the horse, 'ag gimal (for 'ala g gimal) on the camels, 'ash 
shibbak (for 'ala sh shibbak) on the window, mir riglen (for min ir 
riglen) /ro??i the feet, mir riggala (for min ir riggala)/Vo?/i the men. 1 
The la of 'ala has also disappeared in the words 'ashan (for 'ala 
shan) fur, in order that, and 'abal (for 'ala bal in the conjunction 
'abal ma) until. 

§ 37. The article itself sometimes falls out after the relative 
pronoun illi, as il akl, illi nsan yaklu (for illi il insan) Hie food 
which man eats. 

§ 38. The following are examples of other forms of abbrevia- 
tion : hayatan 2 (or haiyatan) truly, sa'atak or sa'tak (for sa'adi- 
tak) 3 your Excellency, sid 4 or si (for saiyid) lord, master, lissa 
(for li is s&'&jyet, still, mahush, mush, mush, mish (for ma huwash) 
he, it, is not, not, ma hish (for ma hiyash) she is not, wala hish 
nor is she, wad (for walad) boy, ta'a (for ta'ala ! ) come ! u m ba'd 
(for u min ba'd) and after, kur rismalu (for kulle rismalu) all his 
capital, kulle shin kan (for kulle she in kan) ichatever it be, min- 
admin (for beni adamiyin) sons of Adam, mortals, sal kher or misa 
1 khcr ( = yimassik bi 1 kher) good evening, hamdilla for (il) 
hamdu li M&h. jyraise be to God. 

Remark. — Corruptions from foreign languages, as warsba 
icorkshop, sibinsa (Ital. dispensa) pantry, kishk (or kushk) almfif 
(Turk, qtish qonmdz) asparagus, occur* in Arabic as in other 
languages. 5 

1 We cannot say 'atibn on straw, 'aahibbak "/; a window, 

nor can at tilm, 'ash shibbak stand for 'ala tibn, "ala shibbak, U 
Spitta 

- Sec i; 19, note. 
- t'adtak i> also in use, as indeed are all the full [onus of 
tbf examples excepl li b sa'a 

4 Whence Spanisb ( '/-/. 

6 Xhe lasl example is an instance of ••popular etymology," 
the Turkish words having been changed into others "t' irimilar 
Bound but different meaning, Gomp .. fi from HouU tin 

Rot. 



ACCENT 33 



ACCENT 



§ 39. The accentuation of the syllable is more than usually 
marked in Egyptian Arabic, and is a distinguishing feature of 
the dialect. It is important, therefore, to master the rules by 
a Inch it is governed. They are as follows : — 

(a) The accent is on the last syllable : — 

1. When it contains a long closed vowel or a short vowel 

closed by two consonants; e.g. bardan cold, bin'dt / 
became cold. 

2. In the following words when standing alone : anhu, anhl, 

anhe, unburn, minhii, minhe, minhum which, who, 
ah6, ah'.-, ahiim there he, she is, they are ; ikhkhi ! />«<//< .' 
ad? see here I iyi ! (pronounce iyi-i-h \) how now .' ikhshl ! 
for shame .' iff! ! Tie .' l 

3. Exceptionally, by way of emphasis, the other syllables 

being also, but not to an equal degree, accented, as 
abadan never I husib look out ! tannu qa'id henak 
lamma . . . dar abiih u gib. "he remained sitting t here till 
at last his father came (or right on till, Src). 

4. In a few foreign words, as rabd s (Fr. rabot) plane, 

sukurta we. 

Remark. — Da, dih, di this, lu to him, lak to you, &c, bu in 

. bak in you, &c } and even liba to her, biha in h<;r, luhum to 

them, buhum in them, may be used as enclitics, and throw their 

it back to the last syllable of the word preceding them, 3 

as ir ragil da this man, il binti di this girl, 'ala da on this, da wi 

dih this and that, makhtuba' 4 lu betrothed to him. 

1 A alight aspirate is heard at the end of all these words, bo 
■ might perhaps be classed under 1. 
- 'inetimes a consonant is added in foreign words BO thai 
the accent shall not fall <>n ;i final open syllable, as h. 
(Turk, hinto, Hungar. hinto) carriage, victoria. Rabd, sukurta, 
. may also !»• written with a final h. 

3 As ze in Ethiopic and :.a in literary Arabic, in the 
ssions li/.a, iniii/.i. 

r the lengthening of the rowel Bee \ 12. l.i and bi with 
the pronominal Buffixes, when attached in sense to a preceding 
phasized, throw back their accenl to the 
final syllable of that word; thus we pronounce iddihum lu 
them, but iddihum luh give them to him, with empl 
on him. 



34 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

(b) It falls on the penult : — 

1. In words of two syllables, when the last syllable does 

not contain a long closed vowel or a short vowel closed 
by two consonants. 

2. In polysyllabic words, when the penult contains a long 

vowel or one closed by two consonants, or when it 
contains a short vowel and the antepenult contains a 
vowel closed by two consonants ; or, in a word of more 
than three syllables, when the antepenult is short and 
open ; provided that, in each of these cases, the last 
syllable do not contain a long closed vowel or a short 
one closed by two consonants. E.g. barid cold, biridtu 
you (plur.) took cold, shafitu l she saw him, 'askari 
soldier, wagadftu she found him, sagariti 2 my tree. 

3. For emphasis, as da'iman alicays (for da'iman). 
Remark a. — In the words khaditu she took it, kalitu she eat 

it, the accent is sometimes on the antepenult, but more often on 
the penult, as in the longer forms, akhaditu, akalitu. 

Remark b. — When the accent would be on the penult, but 
for a long final syllable, it is generally divided between the 
two, the former sometimes receiving the greater stress, while 
the vowel of the latter is slightly shortened ; e.g. arbe'in forty. 
mewalla'in lighting (plur.), Isma'in, pr. u., Ibrahim, pr. n. 

Remark c. — When the antepenultimate is long, but followed 
by a short helping vowel connecting it with the suffix, the 
accent, though usually on the penult, may fall either entirely 
on the antepenult or partially on the antepenult and partially 
on the penult, as in kulluhum all of them, biddukum you want, 
tanniha she went on, agranniha inasmuch as she, zeyukum as 
you, keinniha as if she, which may be pronounced kulluhum, 
kulluhum, or kulluhum, &c, according to where the speakei 
desires to lay the stress. Kulluhum is, of course, more emphatic 
than either kulluhum or kulluhum. 

Remark d. — In a few adverbs ending in an, derived from the 
literary language, the accent, though generally on the ante- 
penultimate, occasionally falls on the penultimate syllable, as 
taratan (or baratan) sometimes. 

Remark e. — The first syllable of the construct form of the 
numerals talatt, khamast, and tamant is accented, because inpro- 
nunciation the / passes on to the next word, askhamas tuwadjfM 

1 Sometimes pronounced shatitu or contracted to Bbaftu. 
'-' Substantives of this form are usually contracted, as (agartt, 
baqartu his cow, while verbs as a rule remain unchanged. 



EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION 35 

rooms, taman tunfus eight persons (for khamast uwad, tainant 
unfu>). 

(c) It falls on the antepenult in words of three syllables when 
the penult and antepenult are both open and the vowel of tin- 
former is short ; and in words of more than three syllables, when 
the antepenult is long and open and the penult short and open, 
provided in both cases that the final syllable do not contain a 
long closed vowel, or a vowel closed by two consonants ; e.g. 
darabu they struck, baladu his village, me'a'khiza x reproach, 
so'garu he insured it. 

Remakk. — Where the vowel of the antepenult is H stand- 
ing for iw or uw, the accent will be on the penult, as yulidu they 
give birth, as also when the antepenult contains the diphthong 
ai (or e) standing for ay, as kuwaiyisa, pretty (/.). 
sometimes in hurried speech does not fall on any particular 
syllable, as in the word tani in tani marra ma ti'milshe kede ! 
don't do so again ! 

Monosyllabic words ending in a short vowel, as wi, we and, 
bi, li, tire, are generally unaccented, but sometimes a following 
word is emphasized by a stress being laid on them, as ana qulti 
lak marra wi t tanya wi t talta / have told you once and twice 
and thrice, inta tli'te kaddab bi kalamak nafsu you have proved 
to be a liar by your men statement. The prepositions bi, li, with 
the pronominal suffixes and the demonstrative da, di, become 
enclitics when not emphatic, and are regarded as part of the 
preceding 2 word. Even dau (for da we) throws back its accent, 
as in kulle ma dau. 

EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION AND 

ACCENTUATION 3 

Hikayit il harami 1 mazltfrn. 

Kan fi har&mi rah yom min dol yisraq bet wiihid tagir. Qam 
t ill' 'ala 1 hi'ia we misik fi sh shibbak. Tfli 4 ish shibbak '(i Idu, 
wiqi* 'ala 1 an], inkasarit right. Khad ba'du we rah yi*rug 'and 
il q&di ; qal lu : " Ana ktinte rayh asraq bit it tagir il fulani ; 
tili'te 'ala 1 heta we misfkte fi sh shibbak; qam ish shibbak tili* 
fi iili ; wiqit, inkasaril rigli." Qam il qadi amar wahid •■ 
yniili 4 yegib sahb il bet. Rah g&bu we gih quddam il qffdf. 

1 Bui words of this Form are generally contra 

OUgh they are not so printed in this work, to prevent 
confusion. 

3 Th«- words contained in the following storj will be found in 
the rocabularii a. 4 See \ I I . 



36 THE SPOKEN AKABIC OF EGYPT 

S&'alu 1 qaVli : " Izzey, ya ragil, shibbakak mush mesammar taiyib I 
ahu 1 harami da 1 maskin kan rayih yisraq betak ; tfli' 'ala 1 
h£ta ; misik fi sh shibbak ; qam isb shibbak tili' fi idu ; wiqi', 
inkasarit riglu; baqa 1 haqqg 'alek dilwaqt." Qal lu sahb il bet; 
" W ana nia' li, ya sidi? htiwa ana alii rakki'bt ish shibbak? da 
shughl in naggar illi 'amalu." Qal il qadi : " Hatu n naggar ! " 
Rahu gabtth ; qal lu 1 qadi : " Izzey inta ma rakkibtish ish 
shibbak da zeyi n nas ? a'ho bi sababak il harami da Hi kan rayih 
yisraq bet ir ragil da wiqi', inkasarit riglu." Qal lu : " W ana 
ma 7 li, ya sidi ? da mush shughli : da shughl il banna illi rakkib 
ish shibbak da fi 1 heta." Qal il qadi : " Taiyib, hatu 1 banna." 
Rahu gabuh. Sa'alu 1 qadi : " Leh ma rakkibtish ish shibbak 
da taiyib ? " Qal lu : " Walla'hi, ya sidi, da w ana babni 1 bet da 
kanit binte hilwa fayta 'aleya labsa gallabiya masbugha sabgha 
kuwaiyisa. Basset liha, qumt itlahet 'an shugli we ma 'iriftish 
arakkib ish shibbak zeyi n nas." Qal luhum il qadi : " Ruhu 
hatu 1 bint illi kanit labsa g gallabiya k kuwaiyisa di." Qamu 
rahu, gabuha lu. Qal liha 1 qadi : " Leh kunti labsa g galla- 
biya 1 masbugha?" Qalit lu : " W ana ma li? da 1 haqqe 'ala 
s sabMgh illi sabagh il gallabiya Hi kunte labsftha." Amar il 
qadi yegibu s sabbagh. Rahu gabuh ; lakin ma 'ii -if she yequl 
haga. Qam il qadi qal luhum : " Khuduh, ishnuquh 'ala bab 
dukkanu." Khaduh yishnuqtfh, laquh tawll we bab id dukkan 
wati. Rahu qalu li 1 qadi : " Da r ragil tawil qawi we bab id 
dukkan sughaiyar; rayhin nishnuqu zzey ? " Qal luhum il qadi : 
"Ruhu shufii lkum wahid qusaiyar, ishnuquh." Rahum dauwaru 
'ala wahid qusaiyar, khadflh, shanaqilh. 

THE ARTICLE 

§ 40. There are two articles in Egyptian Arabic — the definite 
article il x the, which is indeclinable, and the indefinite wahid, 
which agrees in gender and Dumber with its noun, whether ex- 
pressed or understood, as il bab the door, il mara tin woman, it 
riggala - the /inn, wahid ragil a man, wahda tnarra a woman, 
wahda gal " (woman) came. 

Remabe (/. Tin' adjective follows its substantive, and when 

1 Not el, a- it i> generally written, though the very liquid 
and scnii-vouf] nature <>t' the Arabic / tends to give tin- i a 
Blight e-colouring. The full value "I' the vowel returna in 
euphonic taehdid. It is written //in Maltese. It often I 
obscure, neuter Bound. 

- For t he assimilation of t be I, 



THE ARTICLE 



37 



the latter is definito the article is repeated with the adjecth 
il bab il kibir the big door. 

Remark 6. — The indefinite article is very commonly omitted, 
or its place is supplied by a noun of unity (§ 42). 

VOCABULARY 



umm 


mother 


darab 


he struck, fired 


abuh 


his father 


darabu 


they struck 




house 


wiqi' 


lie fell 


wal.nl (pi. 


boy 


k:"m 


he teas 


wilad) 




rah 


he vent 


bint (pi. 


girl, daughter 


'a Id 


he bit 


banat) 




yigi 


he will come 


kitab 


book 


shidid 


strong, violent 


qalam 


pen 


kuwaiyis 


pretty 


hawa 


wind 


'aguz 


old 


hu>an 


horse 


taza 


fresh 


kalb 


dog 


taiyib 


good 


babor 


steamboat, 


iswid 


black 




train 


kibir (f. 


big, old 


kursi 


chair 


kibira) 




ras (f.) 


hewl 


sughaiyar 


small, little 


id' 


haw/ 


battal 


bad 


qutta 


rat 


gi'an, ga'arj 


hungry 


Bufra, sufra 


'lining-table 


huwa, hawa 


he, if 


gih 


he came, has 


hina 






come 


bukra 


to-morrow 


i'Mini 


give me 


-u 1 


his, him, it 


shuft 


I saw 


-ha 1 


her, its, if 


katabna 


ire wrote 







Tli'- present tense of the substantive verb is nut, 
generally expressed in Arabic in positive sentences. 

EXERCISE 1 

Ciniiii gat. Iddini qalam. Bhufte husan iswid. Lrriggala 
Katabna 1 lotah, Jl banal darabu ommi. 11 walad 

wiiji'. 11 husan kuwaivis. Jr r&gi] 'agi'iz. II hawa kali Bhidid. 
Huwa rah. 11 kalb.- 'add il bint. 11 I'll. . i- yigi lmkra. 11 
t iswid. J 1 ■•' -h i i/a. Wahda mara gat. A.buh ragil (aiyib 
Kalbu ga'&n. Qalamha battiil. 

ttached a- inseparable Buffizea to verbs, nouns, prep 
sitions, and oonjunctiona 



38 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



EXERCISE 2 

The steamboat is small. The horse is hungry. The house 
has fallen. A big dining-table. A little boy has come. Give 
me (a) good pen. The men struck the boy. A large steamboat 
came. The horse bit the dog. A big boy came (and) struck the 
girls. Her head is large. 

THE NOUN 
THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 

§ 41. The noun in Arabic may be either primitive, as bab door, 
or derivative, as merkib ship (from rakab he rode). Of the 
latter the majority are derived from verbs, 1 but a large number 
are denominative, i.e. derived from other nouns, as merakbi 
boatman (from merkib), bauwab doorkeeper (from bab), and a few 
from other parts of speech, as ma'iya court, .suite, from the 
preposition ma' with. 

§ 42. Denominatives include : — 

(a) Nouns of unity, denoting the individual of a class. 
These are formed by the addition of a to the primitive noun, 
or ya where the noun ends in a vowel ; e.g. : — 



baqar 

ghanam 

gamils 

samak 

sagar, shagar 

fill 


kine 

sheep 

buffaloes 

fish 

trees 

beans 


baqara 

ghanama 

gamusa 

samaka 

sagara, shagara 

fula 


a cow 
a sheep 
a buffalo 
a fish 
, a tree 
a bean 


batatis 


potatoes 


batatsa (for 

batatis.- 1 ) 


a potato 


sillim 
tfib 


steps, ladder 
bricks 


sillima 
tuba 


a step 

" brick 


baskawit 


biscuits 


baskawita 


a biscuit 


shughl 
qatta 


tvork 

a kind of cu- 
cumber 


shughla s 
qattaya* 


a job, some- 
thing to do 
a cueumbi r 


kummitra 

yusfefendi - 


pears 
mandarin 


kummitra ya 
yusfefendiya 


a pear 

a mandarin 


oranges 

liiinti (orlmlti) a hind offiah 


bultiva 





1 For the formation of these noons see under the \.rl> 
(§§ 228-39). - For Yftsif Efendi. 

8 Shughlana IS used in the same way. 

4 The r/ is Lengthened by tie 1 accenl Calling on it. 



THE NOUN 



39 



Remark a. — The primitive forms baqar, sagar, <fcc, are 
collective nouns, denoting the whole class, not, strictly speaking, 
plurals. 1 They generally themselves admit of a plural form as 
well as the nouns of unity. They are used more frequently of 
natural than artificial objects, and in the case of animals the 
same form denotes both the male and female individual. 

Remark b. — From bunduq guns, is formed bunduqiya a gun ; 
khara dung, makes kharya. 

Remark c. — The foreign word fuluka means both skiffs and 
a skiff, gan and ginn genii and genius (but the adjective ginni 
and its fern, ginniya are also used of the individual). On the 
other hand, qamar and qamara moon, sikkin and sikkina a 
knife, shum and shuma a thick stick, and some others are used 
indifferently of the single object only. 8 

Remark d. — The noun of unity sometimes denotes a portion 
of the whole, as qamh wheat, qamha a field or a small quantity 
of wheat, bedingan the egg-plant, bedingana a field of egg-plants 
(or a single egg-plant), maqat cucumbers, maqata a bed of cucum- 
bers. From qamha is formed qamhaya a handful of wheat (or 
a grain of wheat); so qashsh straw, qashsha a little strata, 
ijashshaya a very lift'" straw (or a blade of straw). 

^ Not a few words denoting nationalities form their nouns of 
unity by adding the adjectival termination i, as : — 



lingliz 


the English 


inglizi 


an Englishman 


il 'ag 


the Persians 


'agami 


a Persian 


il 'arab 


the Arabs 


'arabi 


an Arab 


ir rum 


the Greeks 


riimi 


a Greek 


ish sharkas 


the Circasi 


sharkas) 


a Circassian 


il arna'ut 


the Albanians 


arna'uti 


an Albanian 


il if rang 


the Europeans 


ifrangi 


a European 


il nuilakan 


the Americans 


malakani 


an American 


ish shilikht 


the Bohi mians 


shilikhti 


a Bohemian 



1 We may compare pea, peas, pease : penny, pennies, pence ; 
fish, fishes, fish, in English. But the English collective n 
hive no plural. It is strange that the plural of the Arabic 
collectives should denote tin- individual There i- very little 
difference in meaning between the plural of the noun of unity 
and that of the collective. 

1 We say bi I M by night, fi 1 l.'l in the night, lei u 
uahar wight "nd ,/„>/. but 1,'i.-, ,, night, il h-la to-night. The 
higher classes use qamara. only in the sense of oonlight, if 

at all. 



40 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Relative adjectives used as substantives and denoting a pro- 
fession, trade, or quality are formed by the vowel i or the Turkish 
termination at being added to the plural, and occasionally to the 
singular of the primitive noun ; e.g. sa'ati watchmaker (from 
sa'at, pi. of sa'a watch), barad'i maker of donkey-saddles (from 
baradi', pi. of barda'a a donkey-saddle), masha'li (for masha'ili) 
torch-bearer (from masha'il torches)., kutbi bookseller (from kutuh 
books), tashrifatgl 7>iaster of ceremonies (from tashrifat, pi. of 
tashrifa), baramilgi cooper (from baramil, pi. of barmil bairel), 
gazmagi shoemaker (from gazma a pair of shoes). 

Remark. — The termination gi becomes shi in a few words, 
as tumbakshi a seller of tumbak (Persian tobacco), gumrukshi 
a cudom-house officer, ashshi a cook. 1 

The primitive noun, whether in the plural or singular, often 
undergoes some change when receiving the termination ; e.g. 
dakakni a shopkeeper (from dakakin, pi. of dukkan shop) — the i 
falling out,' 2 fcir&rgl poulterer (from fararig, pi. of farrug), turskagi 
seller of pickles (from turshi pickles), burugi bugler (from buri bugle), 
tazkargi ticket-collector (from tazkara ticket) — the a falling out ; so 
'arbagi coachman (from 'araba 3 carriage), husari mat-maker (from 
husr mats). In turabi grave-digger (from turab earth), and khudari 
greengrocer (from khudar greens), the a is shortened. In sanadgi 
trunk-maker (from sanadiq, pi. of sanduq box), the consonant as 
well as the vowel has fallen out. 

Some nouns of this class are formed from fictitious or unused 
plurals ; e.g. barasmi vendor of clover, dakhakhni tobacconist, fatatri 
pastry-cook (from supposed plurals barasim, dakhakhin, fatatir). 
gizamatl shoemaker, from an unused plural of gizam (itself the 
plural of gazma). 

A few take the termination dni, and others are quite irregular 
in their formation; e.g. fasakhani seller of fasikh (salted fish), 
halawani (or halwagi) confectioner (from halawa streets), fakaham 
fruiterer, from fak-ha(for fakiha )//7i//,nashashqi selL r of snuff '(from 
nishuq), buzatt, buzawati, or buzwagi keeper of a beershop (buza), 
a drunkard, suramati cobbler (from sarma a kind of shoe), qnrad&t) 
a keeper of monkeys (qurud), khamurgi innkeeper (from khamamtr, 
pi. of khammara), ma'addawi ferryman (from ma'addiya /erry); 
'utuqi cobbler, seems to be formed from the adjective 'atiq ancient : 



1 These wonls arc borrowed direct from Turkish, in which 
language g is pronounced soft. 

- It is retained, however, in aakakinj ctrffer, and Borne others. 
8 A Turkish word for which 'arabiya is used iu Arabic. 



THE NOUN 41 

'azabangi bachelor, is a lengthened form of 'azib ; so falasangi 
bankrupt (from falis). 

(b) The abstract idea of the primitive noun. 
Substantives of this class end in iya, and are often identical 

with the feminine singular of the relative adjective or of a sup- 
posed relative ending in t ; e.g. insaniya humanity (from insani 
human), ittifaqiya agreement (from ittifaqi), bashawiya pashaship, 
behawiya bey ship, sbitwtya winter season, maghribiya tin 

et, subhtya morning, 1 'asrlya 2 afternoon, safariya(or Edfai 
time spent in travelling, trip, 3 himariya don&eyishness, 'umadiya 
the office of htmda {headman of a village), mashghuliya a being 
busy (from partic. mashghul), mafhumiya comprehension, maq- 
sudiya purposing, nutu'iya (adj. nat') uneouthness, 'uzubiya 
celibacy (adj. 'azib), gumudiya hardness, khushuniya rough- 
ness. 

The same form sometimes denotes concrete object- 
namuMya mosquito curtain, raqabiya collar, sukkariya sugar basin, 
'ishrinlya a piece of 20 piastres, mashrabiya window in a w 
screen or the screen itself. 

Remark a. — In some cases a feminine adjective is used 
absolutely, its substantive being understood (£§ 331, 332), as il 
harbtya the war-office, for (nazart) il umur il harbiya. 

Rkmark b. — Sometimes there is no noun in use to which the 
substantive can be referred for its ovigin, as fasqiya fountain, 
hanafiya tap, battaniya blanket. 

(c) The diminutive of the original noun. This class is more 
limited in Cairene Arabic than the literary dialect. The forms 
it takes will appear from the following examples : binaiya a little 
daughter, girl (from bint), shuwaiya a little (from she thing), 
wilaiyid small boy (from walad), Ruhaiyim, 4 pr. n. (from rahlm 
merciful), bihera lake (from bahr sea), qutet kitten (from qutt 
cat), kuleb puppry (from kalb dog), shuwe'sha a little tuft of hair 
(from shusha), 'uK-d little slave (in pr. n. 'ubed Alia), suw 

a little market-place (from suq), hinC-m small loaf (from hanum), 
sattuta (or sattut) young lady (from sitt). fasfusa small abt 
qarqusha small bucuits, dallu'a spoilt child (no primitive noun). 
Faftumaand Fattum littl-i Fat ma, 'aiyusha little Aisha, Zannuba 



1 Matinee, as distinguished from subh matin. 

2 As distinguished from asr. 

"Uritey. 
* A ime. 

it much used In < airo. 



42 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



little Zenab, bahraya pond (from bahr), gabalaya 1 hillock, grotto 
(from gabal mountain), sagaraya shrub, moiya (for muyya, for 
mawaya) water, from ma' (not used). 

{d) A collection or multitude of things, as maqat a bed of 
cucumbers (from qatta). 2 

VOCABULARY 



hat 


bring 


li 


to me 


idda 


he gave 


fen? 


where ? 


gab 


he brought 


foq 


on, up, over 


yegib 


he will bring 


qawi 


very 


fatah 


he opened 


min 


from 


Efendi 


gentleman, sir 


'ala 


on 


kabrit 


matches 


min 'ala 


from off 




EXER( 


3ISE 3 





Is sukkariya 'as sufra. II 'arabiya battala qawi. Is sa'ati 
yegib is sa'a bukra. Shuft il kalb n 1 maqat. Lefendi wiqi' min 
'ala husanu. II kuleb 'add il qutta. II gazmagi gab il gazma. 
Ir ragil idda 1 husan bersim. Gih hina ragil 'aguz qawi. 3 II 
'azabangi rah il bet (home). 

EXERCISE 4 

The boy will bring the book. The doorkeeper opened the 
door. The gentleman is very hungry. The pastry-cook gave 
the boy a biscuit. The dog saw the kitten up the tree. The 
cows are very small. Give me (some) water. The pickles are 
on the table. The fountain is very large (f.). He gave me a 
little. Bring me a watch. 

THE NOUN" ADJECTIVE 

$ 43. The derivative adjectives, like the substantives, may be 
either verbal or denominative. 

§ 44. Relative adjectives are formed by the addition of the 



1 Compare those of the same form mentioned above (a. 
Rem. d.). They may also be regarded as diminutives. 



2 The only instance, perhaps, in the spoken language, 
literary form is maqtha'at, from qiththat ( — qatta). 

8 The adverb follows the adjective it qualities. 



The 



THE NOUN 



43 



terminations i, wi, aioi, divi, dni, dti, or It to the primitive noun ; 
e.g. :— 

turki Turkish from turk 

'arabi Arabic „ 'arab 

sukkart sugary 

shahri monthly 

rigali belonging to 

men 

sanawi yearly 

ghalabawf chattering, 

talkative 

auwilanl first 

tarfanf at the end, last „ tarf ovd, point 

yomati daily „ y6m day 

lelati nightly „ lei night 

bughdadll of Bagdad 

Remark a. — Many adjectives in dwi are used only as sub- 
stantives, as : — 



sukkar 
shahr 
rigal (pi. 
of ragil) 
sana 
ghalaba 

auwil 
tarf 
yom 
lei 



sugar 



year 
chatter 



gabalawi 
simmawi 

maarawi 
turkawi (or 
tirkawi) 

Remark b.- 



a mountaineer 
magi 'dan (from 
simmpoison) 
an Egyptian 
a Turk 



tantawi a 

dungulawi a 



native of 
Tanta 

native of 
Dongola 



-Foqanl upper, is formed from the preposition f&q, 
tahtani lower, from taht beneath, qablant from qabl. 

Remark c. — As in the case of substantives, a letter is some- 
times added to the primitive noun, as khulaqt quick-tempered 
(from khulq temper). Most substantives in a form their relative 
adjectives by changing that vowel into i, as khilqa nature, 
khilqi natural, shitwa winter, shitwi. Damm blood, makes 
damawi, akhkh brother, akhawi ; sharaq drought lengthens the 
a of the final syllable and makes sharaqi; sharqawi, though 
formed from sharq east, is the relative adjective of sharqiya, the 
province of that name ; so gharbawi native of OharUya, bahjrawi 
(from bahr) native of Behera. A few in % are formed like sub- 

bives denoting trades, &c, from plurals (some unused or 
fictitious), as qabaqibi belonging to the shoe called qabqab (pi. 
qabaqlb), 1 faraj In (for faraj ihi) relating to a wedding (from farah ). 
fasafisl whimsical (from fasfisa). 

Remake d. — The termination It is borrowed from the Turkish. 
Both it and dti are but sparingly used. 



Musmar qabaqibi is used of small nails, tin /arks. 



44 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 45. Diminutive forms of adjectives are restricted to a few 
words, which are, however, themselves in constant use ; e.g. : — 



qulaiyil 

qusaiyar 1 
sughaiyar x (or 

zughaiyar) 
khufaiyif 2 
kuwaiyis 3 
hilewa 



very little 

short 

small 



from qalil 



from khafif thin 



thinnish 

pretty, neat 

dainty, sweet from hilw. 

Zughannan, sughattat, zughattat, zughannun tiny, are doubly 
diminutive. 



COMPOUND NOUNS 

§ 46. It is contrary to the genius of Arabic to form a new 
noun by the union of two primitive ones ; but a few words of this 
construction have crept into the language, chiefly through the 
influence of Turkish ; e.g. : — 



'ardahal 

maward 
'anbarshay 
rismal (for ras 

mal) 
qayimmaqam 

bashkatib 

(Turk, bash 

and Arab. 

katib) B 
agzakhana 

(Arab, agza 

Remark. — A 
words placed one 
them, as bahri g 
shutters. 



petition 
rose-water 
amber-tea 4 
capital 

lieutenant- 
colonel 
head clerk 



pharmacy 



drugs, and 
Turk, khana) 

kitabkhana 

'arbakhana 

antikhaDa (for 
autikakhana) 

tahsildar 

(Arab. w 7 ith 
Persian ter- 
mination) 

ynzbashi 

sirdar 6 (Pers.) 



library 
coach-house 



tax-collec- 
tor 



captain 

commander 
in-chief 



compound is sometimes formed in sense by two 
after the other without a conjunction to connect 
harbl ?iorth-west, shamasi sud zarq bluish black 



From the rarely used forms qasir, saghir. 
Rarely used. 

From a supposed form, kawis. 
I.e. tea like amber (a street cry). 

So bashmuhandiz, bashshawish (often pronounced bit- 
shawish), bashmufattish, &c. 

Pronounced sidredar by the uneducated. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



45 



VOCABULARY 



wishsh 
ga wab 
Masr 

qalam rusas 


face 
letter 
Cairo 
lead-pencil 


laqet 

illi 
inbarih 


I found, hav 

found 
who, which 
yesterday 


waraq 
shibbak 

kitf 


paper 
window 

shoulder 


fi 

wi, we, u 

keman, ka- 


in 

and 

too, also, still 


sikka 
tawil 
'fill 

shatir 


street 
long, tall 
high, loud 
clever 


rri an 
lakin 
li, le, lu 
bi, be, bu 


hut 

to 

in, with 


sallah 
rahu 


he repaired 
they went 


ewa, aywa 


yes 




EXER 


3ISE 5 





Ir rfigil gab il bunduqiya min il bet we darabha fi wishshu. 
Hat il kitab illi foq is sufra. It tashrifatgi katab gawab tawil 
li ummu. Shuft abilh, lakin fen ukhtu ? II husari gih inbarih 
we gab il husr wi s sanadqi yigi bukra bi s sanadiq. II hala- 
wani wi 1 fakahani rahu 'ala betha we gabu 1 baskawit wi 1 
kummitra. Is sa'ati sallah is sa'a ; huwa ragil shatir qawi. 



EXERCISE 6 

The lady and her daughters went to Cairo yesterday. I have 
found a short pencil on the dining-table. Bring it here and 
bring a pen and paper too. He is very tall, his shoulder 
comes above the window. Will he come here to-morrow \ Yes, 
and he will bring his father and his mother too. The window is 
very small, but the house is big. The custom-house officer cam. 
and opened the door. I saw a tiny dog in the street. An old 
coachman brought me to the war-office. He gave the girl a pear. 
The man is very quick-tempered ; he has struck the little boy 
and the girl too. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

§47. The comparative is expressed : — 

(a) By the positive followed in construction by the pre- 
position 'an, or (less visually) min than. 

(6) By a new form derived from the positive, and followed 
in construction by the preposition min, or (less usually) 'an. 



46 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 48. The superlative is identical in form with the derived 
comparative, of which the following are instances : — 

from kibir 
,, sughaiyar (saghir) 
„ kitir (much) 
,, rikhis 
„ nidif 
,, kuwaiyis 
„ hasan (unused except 

as a pr. n.) 
„ qalil 
„ khafif 
„ ghali 
„ wihish 
„ mal'im 
,, muhimm 
with no corresponding 
positive in use 

Remark. — Observe that these words are of uniform construc- 
tion, with the exception of those which end in a double consonant ; 
aqall is fur aqlal, ahamm for ahmam. Shidid strong^ has the two 
forms ashdad and ashadd. 



akbar 


greater 


asghar 


smaller 


aktar 


more 


ark has 


cheaper 


andaf 


cleaner 


akwas 


prettier 


ahsan 


better 


aqall 


less 


akhaff 


tighter 


aghla 


dearer 


auhash 


uglier 


al'an 


more accursed 


ahamm 


more important 


adna 


least 



VOCABULARY 



tiffah 

barquq 
blra 

nibit 
tarabeza 
gim'na 
ginSh 

aliiiya 



apples 

JilllillS 

beer 
wine 
table 
garden 
£ sterling 
my father 



qamis 

111 MX. 

tainan 
tiqil, teqtl 
shal 
ishtara 
-hum l 
-na l 



shirt 
bananas 
price 
heavy 

i rried 
light 

tin in, their 
us, nur 



EXERCISE 7 

Huwa shtara gufra we kursl rikhis we gabhum 'ala 1 l><"t. 
II kursi ghali 'an is sufra. Iddini qalam rus&s tawil. II b&b 
akwas mish shibbak. Is sanduq I iqll, lakin akhaffe min il barmll 

11 binte atw.il min uiiniii, wi 1 walail (|Usaiyar 'an aWiya. 11 bin 
aikhas min in nibit wi 1 m«>iya aikhas w ah-an mil lit inn. 
il walad Ishtara qamig atual min battanlya. Huwa l aa g h a r 

wi 1 akw 



parable suffixes. 



NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE 47 

EXERCISE 8 

The barrels (are) cheaper than the boxes. The shoemaker, 
who was in the garden yesterday, is taller than the fruiterer 
who brought the apples and the pears to the house. The native- 
of-the-province-of-Sharqiya is stronger than the cobbler ; he 
carried a sheep in a heavy box on his shoulder. The chair ia 
very large, but the table is still larger. The price is lees than a 
pound ; it is very cheap. The pear is bigger and dearer than the 
apple. Give me (some) good bananas and bring an apple and a 
plum from the garden. His dog is the largest and the best. 

THE GENDER OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND 
ADJECTIVE 

There are two genders only in Arabic, the masculine 
and the feminine. 

A noun may be feminine by signification, form, or 
usage. 

1 . By signification are feminine : — 
(a) Nouns and proper names which denote females, 1 us 
umm mother, bint girl, faras mare, Z.'-nab, pr. n. 

(6) The names of countries, towns, villages, &c., as: — 



"uam 


5 ria 


Bughdad 


Bagdad 


Masr 


Cairn 


Istambul 


Constant iuojjit 


Banz 


Paris 







(c) The letters of the alphabet, words, and syllables, as il 
mim, il mu, mantuqa qawi the mini, the (syllal'lt, mu is str 
jiriji 

- . By form are feminine : — 

(a) Nouns ending in a (or e),'- whether Arabic or of foreign 
origin, unless masculine by signification, as: — 



gin 


garden 


da'wa 


•■I aim 


dunya (or 


world 


gazma 


[j air of shots 


dinya) 3 




oda 


room 


sana 


year 


bulitika 


polities, craft 


kit&ba 


writing 


warsha 


>C"ri: 



1 A woman is often addressed in poetry (in the colloquial as 
in the literary dialect) i;. dine, and impertinently in 

il by -uch terms as ya sidna, va akhina. 
2 (rf). 
few words, which arc pronounced in two different 



48 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



(b) The following ending in d : — 



imda 


signature 


sala 


prayer 


giza 


punishment 


shita, 


winter 


ghina 


riches 


ma'na 


meaning 


himma, 


fever 


mihma, 


bath-heater 


humma, 




mirsa 


anchor 


dura 


maize 


wafa, 


decease 


sama 


sky, heaven 







Remark a.— When the final a is long, as in the above words, 
it represents one of the radical letters of the word. It is, how- 
ever, generally pronounced short in conversation. 

Remark b. — Shita is sometimes masculine ; lugha language, 
dialect, is sometimes feminine. We hear lughahum tikhin, but 
lughathum tikhina (§ 67). 

§ 53. By usage the following words are feminine : — 



ard 


earth 


id (and yadd) 


hand 


batn 


belly 


balad 


town, village 


bir 


■well 


tub 


dress, robe 


tiz 


buttocks 


ghet 


field 


dar 


fellah's hut 


daqn 


beard 


dimagh 


brain, head 


dukkan 


shop 


ras 


head 



rigl 

ruh 


foot 

spirit ; barrel 


sikkin 


of gun 

knife 


shams, sains 


sun 


'en 
fas 


eye 
mattock 


furn 


oven 


maghrib 


sunset 


merkib 


ship 


nar 


fire 


nafs, nifs 


soul, self; spite 



Remark a. — T6b, ghet, furn, 1 and maghrib are generally 
regarded as masculine by the upper classes ; bir is occasionally 
masculine; sikkin knife, is sometimes masculine, as it has a 
duplicate form in a (sikklna) ; het wall, is occasionally feminine ; 
sibanikh spinach, masc. or fern. Lahw divt rsion, and hamm iron-//, 
are feminine only in the expressions gatak lahw, gatak il hamm 
the plague take you! dahr 2 is fern, in one of its meanings. 



are, in order that the student may become accustomed to both, 
spelt differently in different places of the grammar. One man 
will say Rabbina our Lord, another Rabbuna, or both may be 
ised at different times by the same person. 

1 A fern, form, furna, also exists. 

2 Muse, when meaning back. 



NOUSB SUBSTAXTIVE AXD ADJECTIVE 49 

Remark b.— Manakhk Koae, fulus money, nas ™w e sutuh 
,0,/, terrace .are in reality "broken plurals," 1 flthoth e 
singular of the last only exists, and are construed eith^with a 
feminine singular or a plural adjective or verb. iman (or emL 
orik from the little used sing, yemln) is generallv onsS 
wxth a feminine singular, never with a plural 

§ 54. All other nouns are of the masculine gender as walad 
^Abet house, Khalifa ft^, Wj i Ota* § ' ^ 

lA V^fennnineis f ° rmed from masculine nouns by the 
addition of the vowel a, as :— y 

^ ib , ir 'feat fern, kibira 

farhan happy „ farMna 

hilw meet j? hilwa 

wa ^ d «*> „ wahda 

mahk fa^ ma i ika * 

goz husband goza 

ghassal washerman ghassala 

humar «&>• humara 

tio^aTt'^lVr ]it , erar y language the feminine termina- 
tion i b at , and the t is retained in a few Turkish proper name- 
borrowed from Arabic words expressive of virtuous quali ieT a, 

bT b n '^f ' ' 1 r *?» The ^ ' 1S ^und ZirbnTfro" 
ibn, bin son) and in ukht awfer (from akh, akhkh brother). 



queen 
wife 

washerwoman 
she-ass 



tabbakh 

kiira, kdra 

bed 

futa 

siggada 

kubbaya 

miskin 

wisikh 

har 

gidld 

qadim 

l.i'id 

metallim, 

mitallim 
ana 



VOCABULARY 



cook 

ball 


kanit 
shil 


eggs 

towel 


hutt 


carpet 
glass 


rama 


j ">"r, wretched 

dirty 

hot 


talla'it 
shufna 
bass 


new 


la" 


old 
far 
blunt 


guwa 
barra 

lissa 


1 
she, it 


min 



site was 
carry, take 
away 

put 

he threw, threw 

away 
she took out 
we saw 
only 
no 

in, inside 
out, outside 
like 
still 
from 



See ,* 7(3 



50 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

EXERCISE 9 

Ana laqet is sanadqi fi 1 warsha. II merakbi gab fuluka 
kibira. II furn illi f betu sughaiyara qawi, lakin hiya akbar min 
furnina. Shufna kalbe gi'an we qutta miskina 'ala s sutuh. 
II gazmagi ishtara bunduqiya min il 'utuqi, we shalha 'ala kitfu. 
II malik gih ] La', il malika gat. Fen il kura ? Kanit qadima, 
vvi r ragil ramaha fi 1 fasqiya. Ish shitwa gat, lakin ish shamse 
lissa hara. Binte hilwa zey il qamara. II walad rania 1 qutta fi 
1 bir, lakin wahda mara taiyiba talla'itha minha. Tabbakb 
ahsan min tabbakba. Is sikkin metallima. 

EXERCISE 10 

Tbe boy bas thrown a dh'ty old pah' of shoes into the room ; 
take them out. Bring a large bottle and a clean glass. The 
carpet was very old ; he has brought a new (one). His beard is 
long and dh'ty. Her shop is very far from here. The boy struck 
the poor little girl in the eye. 1 Put a clean towel in the room 
and take away the dirty (one). He has thrown the ball from the 
window ; bring it in. The woman who brought the eggs to our 
house is very tall, but her husband is taller. The sun was vcr\ 
hot yesterday. Her dress is very pretty. 

§ 56. The feminine of living beings is sometimes, as in other 
languages, indicated by a distinct word. E.g. : — 

ragil man mara ivoman 

walad 2 boy bint girl 

abb father umm mother 

husan home faras mare 

tor bull baq.ua cow 

dakar male nitaya female 

§ 57. On the contrary, many form their feminine regularly, 
where ;i different word i-s used in English, as : — 

goz husband g6za wife 

wilid 3 father walda 8 mother 

'aram patent d uncle 'am ma paternal aunt 

khal maternal unci kh&la maternal aunt 

kalb dog kalba bitch 



i 



Translate her eye. 



2 The plur. wilad is used of children — boy* or girl*. 

8 Lit. parent. 



NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AXD ADJECTIVE 51 

§ 58. Some inanimate objects form a feminine without anv 
change in the meaning, as :— wwnouii anv 

qamar or qamara moon 
sikkin or sikkina knife 

womim* 11 " """* * "^ With ° Ut chan * e of a ™n or a 

thelo^r-^ 1 " 3 add ^ Sylkble With ^ shortening 

bahn° ^^ ^giya 

barrani oz ^ e/ . batiriya 

Ta^nt SSL $52fc 

§ 61. A few adjectives denoting colours and Rnn,« ^ Q 
denoting mostly a personal defect, form theh I ' '• mininP hv t 
posing the first two and again the'last two letu" -^ ¥- 

ahmar rpd u 

m, ' Ka hamra 

akhdar green kh adra 

a f ar , S^w safra 

akhra, rf wm j j^jj^^ 

^tam * oo/ /^,,, hatma 

Kkmabk &.— A'wag o-oo/v,/ makes '6ga (for <awga) 

1" th, bterary language akhar other makes ukhra, and this 



52 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



form is used in the spoken language preceded by the definite 
article ; thus masc. lakhar (or rakhar), 1 fern, rukhva. 

Auwil first makes ilia ; but this form is only used in a few 
connections, as daraga ula, first class, auwilaniya and occasionally 
auwila taking its place. 

§ 62. Some adjectives have no separate form for the feminine. 
They include : — 

(a) The comparatives, 2 as il binte atwal, kummitra 
arkhas. 

(b) Those which already end in a, as : — 



bamba 


pink 




hilewa 


sweet 


sitiha 


lying on 
back 


the 


sada 


plain, pure 



(c) Foreign words (with the exception of most of those 
ending in i), as : — 



finu 


fine 


dughri 


straight 


falsu 


false, bad 


werdinari 


ordinary 


berimu 


first 


sagh 


sound 


sukundu 


second 






(d) The foil 


owing : — 






tamam 


complete 


shamurt 


young 


hah 3 


little 


Ml 


excellent 


haf 


plain, by itself 


khabis & 


imprisoned 


dun 


low, vulgar 


khalas 


finished, ready 


daiyan 4 


sound 


khain 


raw 


sughar 


small 


khumm 6 


lethargic 


shemal 


left 


yemin 


right 



1 See § 27, p. 26 ; lukhra is not used. 

- The literary feminine form of comparatives is hardly, if 
ever, heard in conversation. It occurs, however, in the name of 
the village II Rubra (from akbar greater). 

3 Used also substantively. 

4 Used generally with sagh, as qirshe sagh daiyan a tariff 
piastre. 

5 In the expression 6da khabis, i.e. << room without window. 
Adjectives of this form do n<>< generally take tlie Feminine 
termination iii the literary language. 

,: I ii khmniii in in'iin. 



DECLENSION 53 



DECLENSION 

.5 63. In the literary language most nouns have three case 
endings — u or tin for the nominative ; i or in for the genitive, 
dative, and ablative ; and a or an for the accusative, according 
as they are defined l or undefined. 

These terminations, with the following exceptions, do not 
exist in the spoken language : — 

(a) The nominative ending u is sometimes heard in the word 
Allah God, and a few others, mostly in expressions of a religious 
character, as : — 

Allahu akbar God is very great 

shakkar Allahu fadlak God reward your kindness 

il hamdu li llah praise be to God 

is salamu 'alekum 2 peace be on you 

(b) The genitive and dative ending i and the accusative end- 
ing a are used in oaths and religious formulas — 

as w Allahi (or w Allahi !) by God 

bi smi Hah (i.e. bi ismi in the name of God 

Allah) 

fi amani llah God preserve you .' 

bi zni llah (bi izni Allah) D. V. 

la haula waJa quwwata ilia there is no power nor strength 

bi llah but in G 

('■) The case ending in is heard : — 

(1) After the indefinite pronoun ey, 3 and occasionally after 
kull all, as : — 

insanin kan whatever man it may be 

min eye gihitin kanit from whaii on it be 

kulle shin (contracted from whatever it may be, everything 

shG'in) kan 

kulle nafsin every soul 



1 I.e. preceded by the definite article, or followed by a noun 
in the genitive, or having a pronominal suffix The stem of 
fern, nouns in a to which these terminations are added is 
-at. 

Bui more usually is aalam (or salam) 'alSkum — a form of 
d only by one -Mussulman to another. 
• ; Bat the in is here Bomel imes pronounced separately, as being 
equivalent (See ^ 264, 434.) 



54 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

(2) In a few nouns used adverbially 1 or with a preposition, 



ghasbin 'annu (more usually 

gasbe 'annu) 
balin 

enta wakllin 'anni 
ga' 'ala tubbin ghafil 
mehabbitu abbin 'an giddin 



'amin auwil (contracted to 
'amnauwil) 



in spite of himself 

immediately 

you are as my agent 

he came unexpectedly 

the love for him is from grand- 
father to father (i.e. he is 
beloved of all the members 
of his family) 

last year 



(d) The ending an is heard in a few words used as adverbs, and 
occasionally as an accusative of limitation, as : — 



halan 
dawaman 
da'iman 
mararan 
ma 'raffish 
isman 



la zatan wala 



at once 
for ever 
always 

time after time 
I know him neither personally 
nor by name 



Remark. — The above expressions do not in reality belong 
to the dialect of Cairo, but are borrowed from the written 
language. 

THE GENITIVE 

§ 64. A noun limiting the meaning of another is placed 
immediately after it, and thus by its position performs the 
various functions of the genitive, although undergoing no change 
of form ; but when the first of the two nouns ends in a, whether 
as a singular or plural termination, it weakens the a to t and 
adds the letter t. 2 E.g. : — 



1 But in most of these the in is a thinning of the literary 
an, the sign of the objective case. 

- Strictly speaking, it recovers the t From as older form at, 
a form presei'\ .il fco this day in some words in Amharia This 
in its weakened form is still the stem to which the pronominal 
suffixes as well as the dual and the case endings, when they 
exist, are appended 



THE GENITIVE 



bet ragil 

bab ii 

babbetukht 

ir ragil 

qalam rusas 

kubbayit 
uibit 



a man's house 
the gate of the 

house 
the (jate of the 

house of the 

man's sister 
a pencil of lead, 

a lead-pencil 
a glass of wine 



is 



'arabiyit 

sitt 
Khalifit (or 

Khaliftjil 

Islam 
riggalit (or 

riggalt) il 

balad 



55 

the lady's car- 
riage 

the Caliph of 
Islam 

the men of the 
village 



Remark. — An adjective as well as a substantive may assume 
this form, as 'aiyan ill, fern, 'aiyana ; 'aiyanit eh ? how can she he 
i#/(§426). 

§ 65. A few words ending in a add t without shortening the 
vowel, 1 as : — 



sala 
haya 

thus : — 
salat il 



maghrib 



prayer 
life 



the prayer at 
sunset 



zaka 2 
wafa 



purity, charity 
death 



wi hyat (for by the life of 
wi hayat) the Prophet 
in nab! 



Ma'na meaning may make ma'nat or ma'nit, or remain unchanged ; 
mirs'i anchor, ghuwjj jugglers? shuraka partners, zumala comr 
make mirsat or mirsit, shurakat or shurakit, etc. Ru'a shepherds 
and su-.'i messengers occasionally make ru'at, su'at. but generally 
remain as they are. Mugaza punishment generally makes 
mugazat, but is sometimes left unchanged. Imda signature, 
himn .'nilmia bath-heater, and a'da members, make imdit, 

himmitj mihmit, a'dit only. 

§ 66. Plurals of the form of shuraka" and zumala, with the 
exception of these two words, regularly change a into it, as 
fuqara poor people, fuqahfi schoolmasters; fuqarit, fuqahit, M in 
the poor, the schoolmasters, of Cairo. 

§67. All other words ending in d undergo no change 
E.g. :— 



1 As in the written language. 

* Zika is in more common use than zak.'i. 

: - Ghuwfl may also remain nucha: 



56 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



'aiyaha 


her illness 


istibda 1 


the beginning of 


daw ana 


our medicine 


mas'ala 


the matter 


ghata 1 s 


the cover of the 


shifa 1 mara 


the woman's re- 


sanduq 


box 




cover ij 


ikhfa 1 haga 


the hiding of 


ishtiha 1 


the father's long- 




the thing 


w.ilid 


ing 


lugha 2 1 


the language of 


ghada, 'asfaa 


the boy's lunch. 


ingliz 


the English 


1 walad 


dinner 


rida r ragil 


the man's con- 
sent 







Remark a. — As the final a is usually pronounced short in 
all these words, a knowledge of the structure of the word is tin- 
only guide in determining the form of a noun ending in a or 
(original) a standing before another in the genitive. 

Remake />. — The a is sometimes, but rarely, retained before 
the t instead of being changed to I, as sanat alf the year 1000, 
sifatu his qualifica tin // (for sanit, sifit); 3 so niaraten two women, 
marraten twice. 

§ 68. Abb father, and occasionally akhkh brother, add u when 
preceded by a genitive retaining only a single consonant, as: — 

abu Fatma Fatma's father 

akhkhe (or akhu) Sileman Solyman's broth r 4 

§ 69. Other ways of expressing the genitive will be noticed 
in the s}-ntax ; but it is necessary to introduce the learner a1 
this stage to the use of the word beta - , originally a substantive 
meaning property. It is inserted pleonastically between a noun 
and its genitive, and in opposition to the former, as il 
ir ragil the house the property of the man, i.e. tin man's //</>/.-•.•. It 
has, however, the feminine termination <i when the preceding 
substantive is feminine, and so is best regarded as an adject iv. 
meaning of or belonging /<<. When the feminine form is in con- 
struction with another noun it becomes beta'il by the rule 
.stated above, or, it' followed bj a vowel, beta'! or betaht (*; 19), 
as il 'arablya betaht is sitt the lady's carri 



1 The a is shortened according to rule before twocoi - inanta 
I >ntrary to the literary form. Lugha also exists; hut 
neither of them arc in common use. laghwa having taken their 
place and meaning both as language and dialect. 
:i sitit is perhaps nei er heard. 

1 For the changes which nouns undergo in connection with 
the possessive suffixes, see § 121. 

■ 1 to he philologically connected with the literary mata*. 
It has dw indled to /,/ in Maltese. 



THE GENITIVE 



VOCABULARY 



madr 


ooi 


kuKra 


cholera 


t (or 


■am, tele- 


?ahib 


matt 


taligraf) 


graph ornce 




//■■■ 


Lundiira 


London 


taqribi 


approximative 


(Lundra) 




nimsawi 


Austrian 


Ion 


colour 


niin ? 


ici 


makhzan 


cellar, si 


,1 ■ 1 


1 




room 


yeruh 


he goes, will go 


inakhzan 


luggage-van 


Safir 


he true elled, 


fran 






left 


'afsh 


luggage 


iqta' 


cut, take (a 


diwan 


compartment, 




ti':!:-t, & 




ministry, 


saraq 


he stole 




office 


kasar 


he b 


busta 


post 


Ruqut 


it fell, has 


burneta 


hat 




fal 


farkha 


fowl 


warrini 


shot 


la ba.li 


milk 


sbirib 


he drank 


dira' 


arm 


shaiya' 


sent, send 


khawaga 


merchant, 




(impera- 




gentleman 




tive) 


_ 


army 


ya - 


air 


bahr 


sea, river 


tan! 


bock, ■<■_ 


in Nil, bahr 


the Nile rtw r 


quddam 


. 


in Nil 






of, 


- 


groom 


fih 


in it in 



tlint the demonstrative pronoun as a rule follows the 
noun, which is preceded by the definite article; also that the 

■f two noons, of which the second is in the genitive, 
take the article even when it is definite in sen.^e. Tim- wi 
l>.'t ir ragil, not il gil. 



EXERCISE 11 

! ragil illi km fi 1 ftda 1 barranfya betaht il makhzan 1 
Ibn il kutbi yeruh il madrasa 1 nimsawlva. Am laqel Ba*a ti 
1 :n 1 goddam il bab il barrani !»•' ' . hiya betalt mini 

it bahr in Nil hilwa. Tainan it talagraf itn& 

wardinari, u wahda finu kaman. tqta 1 1: 
ula a wahda ?ugundu keman. Ldn il i - 
uimad iswid. Ilu:t il 'afsl ml; li 1 babur il 

kibtr hi makhzao il fransawt, wi $ yughaiyar ti d diwan. h 



58 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

busta n nimsawiya tigi bukra. Hawa 1 yomen dul kan shidid. 
U babiir linglizi safir imbarih w abfiya safir fih. II walad illi 
shirib il moiya 1 wiskha beta'it bahr in Nil 'aiyan bi 1 kulera. 
Ibn il merakbi gih bi 1 merkib betaht abuh, lakin kull il 'afshe 
beta,' il efendi illi kan fiha wiqi' fi 1 bahr. Hat li kummitra 
tanya hah kede sughaiyara, asghar min il auwilaniya. 

EXERCISE 12 

Bring the gentleman's hat from the downstairs room. He 
came in his father's carriage. The city of London is much finer 
and bigger than Cairo. The book which was on the chair in the 
dining-room has fallen on the ground. The cook's little dog has 
stolen a fowl from the poulterer's shop. The greengrocer's son 
struck the poor Italian (woman), and broke her arm. The dining- 
table of his house is higher than the other. 1 The watchmaker 
repaired the old watch and brought it back to its owner's house. 
The grocer's daughter is very pretty, and she is taller than his 
son. Throw away the raw fruit; it is very bad. She is a low, 
bad woman. The boy's dog has drunk the cat's milk. The 
commander-in-chief 2 of the Egyptian army is an Englishman. 
Is the carpet finished ? Yes, sir ! Good ! 3 Send it to the 
house at once! I found the little boy's book on a chair in the 
upstairs room. A European woman cook, not 4 an Arab man 
cook. The barrel of the man's gun was crooked. 

THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS 

£ 70. There are three numbers- singular, dual, and plural 
The dual, which is used to denote two objects, is formed by 
the syllable en being added to the singular, as kdt&b a book, 
bi '■)! two boohs; ragi] a man, ragleu {\<>v ragilfin) hoo men; il 
Mehammidcm the two Moha 

Remark. The use of the dual is confined to Bubstai 
■•lives qualifying them being placed in the plural. 
S 71. The t added to feminines ending in a, when in con- 
struction with another uoun, appears also in the dual, the a 
tgain being weakened to /,' which is liable to fall oul in accord 
nice with the rulo laid down in . : — 



» j 1 1 1 1 i t r- 1 1 two 

tin 



fiittrn ( from two ' 



i int. '-' g 46. ' iyibl * mush. 

III.- a is occasionally retained, as in tnarat i 

two '/mi/ 



THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS 

72. The long vowels d and i are changed re-pectively to 
ay or aw and iy, as : — 

ghata a rover ghat 

sama heaven samawgn 

kursl kursiyen 

while o becomes u>c or iy, as : — 

mango 1 mango manguwen 

overcoat baltuwen (or 

baltiycn) 

Remark a. — "Where final o is accented, the at is in- 

serted, 2 as in baro 3 chest of draicers, rabo 3 jack plane (dual 
barohen, rabohen) ; 3 abb father makes abben, but the nahwy 
abuwen is sometimes used. 

\rk b. — Some nouns ending in d, having no dual them- 
selves, borrow that of a kindred form, as : — 

shitwiten two winters (from shitwa) 
ghadwiten two lunches (from ghadwa) 
'ashwiten two dim 

SalVi 

1 a L'liwiten 4 

ark c. — Ukht sister makes regularly ukhten, but occa- 
sionally ikhwat>'n is heard. 5 

kk d. — The plural form with the numeral itm'n two is 
generally used instead of the dual where more euphonious, espe- 
cially if the word is of foreign origin, as itnen yau 
de-camp (for yauriyen . Such forms as kunti Ltuwen tie 
(from kuntratu), karruw.'-n two catrUf bashawi 
hardly be Said I 

nouns are used in the dual only, signifying 
the union of two i bich individually i 

a^ kalbitdn / -. Their own dual would !>•• 

kalbi . xv. Widn rarely has a dual I 



shift 


winter 


ghada 


lunch 




dinner 


sala. 


prayer 


lugha 





1 Oftt-n called manga. 

■ Wb write bai -'h, fron 

- nanism. 

6 \\ I '.'<"': •:•.;! 



60 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

the plural being used instead, as widani (or widani litnenj 
my ears. 1 

§ 74. The duals of dira' arm, rigl foot, 'en eye, id hand, and 
(optionally) that of walid, when meaning parents, drop their 
final n before a possessive suffix, as : — 

dira'eya 2 my arms 'eneh 3 hi* eyes 

riglek your feet idehum their hands 

For tulten tico thirds, tultay is sometimes used, but only by the 
more educated classes. 

§ 75. The dual form occurs in the prepositions benen (in the 
expression ben il benen) and hawalen around, and is added to 
the interjection uff ! and occasionally to other words as an in- 
tensive particle, as mush ahsan ? ahsanen, mush ahsan wahid 
isn't it, wouldn't it be better? not only better, but doubly, evt 
much better. 4 Hawalen generally loses its n like 'enen, Occ, under 
the influence of the pronominal suffixes, as hawaleya around 
but hawaleni, &c, are also heard. 



THE PLURAL 

§ 76. Plurals are of two kinds : — 

(a) The Perfect Plural, so called because the singular form 
remains unaltered but for the addition of certain terminations, 
and 

il)) The Broken Plural, in the formation of which the singular 
undergoes a radical change. In both cases there is only one 
form for the masculine and the feminine. 

77. The perfect plural is formed by the addition of 
ya (or lya), or a to the singular. 

§ 78. The following nouns form their plural in in : — 

(a) Most verbal adjectives (including participles) which form 
their feminine by adding a to the masculine ; B.g. : — 

1 There is no such form as mdnSya, as asserted by Spitta 
He is mistaken also in giving abbahen, ummahen, as the duals 
nf ;. I ill ami iimm, instead of the regular forms abben and Gunmen. 

- Pronounce dir&'aiya (see § 1); diri'tt libnen is also said. 

3 Somel imea pronounced *an6h. 

1 The name Mehammaden is given in CTpper Egypl to chil- 
dren, in the hope, apparently, that they wall be doubly blessed 
ning the name of the prophet twofold. A few other dual 
names are in use. 



pahiz ready 

taiyib 

battal 



THE PLURAL 61 



katib writing 

maktiib icritten 



_ thzin, maktubin, ic). 

\rk. — The termination t is changed to iy, and u to uic, 
the formation of the feminine ; e.g. : — 



';\li 


high 


pi. 'alyin (for 'aliyin) 


mistanni 


i raiting 


., mistanniyin 


'adu 


enemy 


„ 'aduwin 



(6) Many nouns of the form barrak. 1 mostly substantives 
denoting a profession or trade. They were originally of t\w 
nature of intensive adjectives, and were thus applied to persons 
who performed a particular act repeatedly ; e.g. : — 



fallah. 


a cultivator 


battal 




naggar 


a cirj/>:nter 


gabbar 


tyrannical, 


labban 


milkman 




tyrant 


kaddub - 


liar 







(pi. fallahln, naggarin, (fee). Substantives of this form ending 
in d change that vowel into ay, as saqqa water-carrier, banna 
tmihler (pi. saqqayin, fc 



1 The word fa'al (literary t'a'ala) is used by the grammarians 
of the written language as the paradigm or model of all 
which consist of a similar combination of radical consonants and 
rab, balad. By doubling the consonants, changing 
tin- vowels, or shifting the position of either or both, new para- 
digms (but always with the same con- /, ', /) are formed. 
Th.ua toaddab liar, mi.-ik he seized, imsik seize, are said to be of 
tli<- Forms yr-.'r , //'//. and if'il respectively. The conveni 
and : n of such a system in treating of a ll. 
language like the Arabic will be readily perceived. The !• 
k (which, with tin- vowel i placed after each of the lit- - 
consonants, form the word bhik ghoul 

work in preference to/', •. /. as offering no difficult^ 
pronunciation. Fur words containing four radical I- ' 
word lakhbat confuet is substituted for * 

plied in "classical" Arabic only to an habitual ("pro- 
") liar. 



62 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



(c) Most relative adjectives in I. These insert a y between 
the vowel and the plural termination, as : — 



guwani 
fransawi 



inner 
French 



wustani 



central 



(plur. guwaniyin, &c). 

Gahil ignorant makes gahliyin (gahiliyin). 

rakhar the other rukhrin 

mistihaqq deserving mistihaqqiyin. 

§ 79. The following take the termination at : — 
(a) A large number of substantives ending in a (including 
nearly all those in iya), 1 masculine and feminine, of Arabic and 



foreign origin ; 


e.g. :— 


sagara, 




gamiiNi. 
hukuma 
darba 


government 
a blow 


milaya 
'awaga 
'arabiya 
'ishriniya 


sheet 
cripple 

a twenty piastre 
piece 



Khalifa 


Caliph 


merasla 


messenger 


yaqa 


collar 


lamba (or 


lamp 


lamda) 




barrima 


rorlcscrew 



(plur. sagarat, gamusat, 'arabiyat, lambat, 2 &c). 

(b) Proper names, both masculine and feminine : — 
Mehammad, Hasan, Zenab, Taha (inan's name), Fatma (plur. 

Mehammadat, Hasanat, Fatmat, &c). 

(c) Nouns ending in d, and most of those which end in u, o* 
or 6. The former change the a into aw, while' the latter (con 
sisting entirely of foreign words) either lose the vowvl or convert 
it into uw, and occasionally into iy ; e.g. : — 

desert 



sam, i 
babfi 
basha, 4 




shy 
papa, jKjpe 

■ -h r 


qafa 

khala 


(plur. samawat, 


kikiv, ',! , A C. |. 





captions are gallabiya a robe, which has the broken 
plural galalib, though gallabiyat is also in use, sultan 
i plur. xilfiun i. 

- But ni"i e usually Lumad. 

Blosl of these may be pronounced optionally wit! 
4 Also, but less commonly, b&ahat, 



THE PLHIAL 



63 



tiyatru thtatrt 

kuntiatu contract 

(plur. tiyatrat, 1 &c). 

saku overcoat 

(plur. sakuwat, kc). 



titro (-u) filter 



mango v '-u) mango 



bintu - 
sugundu 
ballo (-u) 



a napoleon 

an under-servant 

ball, dance 



bintiyat 

sugundiyat 

balliyat (or balluwat) 



Remark. — When the 6 of the singular is accented, h is in- 
serted, as bar6, rabo, barohat, &c, but these words are perhaps 
better written baroh, &c, in the singular (see § 39) ; so also in 
the case of accented e, as kanabe sofa (plur. kanabehatj. 

(rl) A few nouns in i. These again insert y ; e.g. : — 



sid Sri 

baladi 

sis! 



waistcoat 

countryman 
small pony 



bantutii ; 
guwanti ' 
efendi 



slippers 

pair of gloves 



and Turkish words with the termination bashi, as : — 



biini 



colonel 



yuzbashi , lain 



(plur. sideriyat, baladiyat, guwantiyat, bimbashiyat, cV'c). 

(e) The names of the letters and syllables. They Lnserl 
when ending in a vowel ; v.g., K-hat, nunat, mabat, the I 
li, n, the syllables ma. 

(/) The names of the months, as ramadanat Bamadans. 

(g) Nouns which admit of a double plural, or the plural of a 
dual form, as ulufat and alat'at (plur. of uluf and alaf, them- 
selves plurs. of alf) thousands ; similarly : — 



kushufat 


lists 


qad&yat 


casts, matters 


ihat 


Wound* 


quturat 


raihcay train* 


•in; rat 


perfumes 


kubarat 


gran 


i)uyudat 


shackles 


'i.-iuuiai 


fir* 


wisiilat 


receipt* 


talal 


third' * 


asbyat 


things 


qirshi 


i of two 


kutubat 


booh* 







1 A. confused form biyatrutat Lb sometimes beard. 
- From lial. venti. A more common plural La banatl. 

'Kint ujl. 

1. guanti. 



64 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



(h) A few passive participles used as substantives, as : — 
mashrubat drinks melauwinat things of 

inasruqat l stolen goods various col- 

ours or kinds 

(i) A large number of verbal substantives, including all 



those of the 


form bardk and 


all those which 


are constructed 


from the derived forms of the verb ; e.g. : — 




talab 


demand 


gawab 


letter 


badan 


body of a 


mahill 


•place 




garment 


ta'sir 


mark 


kitab 


book 


tafsil 


detail 


su'al 


question 


ikram 


bounty 


hiwan 


animal 


tahammil 


bearing malice 


gidar 


foundation, 


imtihan 


examination 




low wall 


istihsan 


approval 


(plur. talabat, 


badanat, hiwanat, 


ikramat, &c). 




(J) Many 


substantives of foi 


-eign origin, as :- 




astabl 


stable 


faraman 


firman 


balakon 


balcony 


qazan 


caldron 


buks 


horse-box 


sharab 


stocking 


bahlawan 


wrestler 


alay 


regiment 


qayimmaqam lieutenant 


brins 


prince 


gurnal 


journal 


babilr 




dukkar 


dog-cart 


frank 


frank 


gine (or 




shilin 


shilling 


gineh) 




rival 


dollar 


khan 


inn 







forZ); 



(plur. astablat, buksat, dukkarat, brinsat, etc.). 

Remark. — Gurnal more frequently makes garanin (n 
•lukkar has also dakakir. 

(k) A few nouus not derived from verbs, though of Arabic 
origin, as : — 

lady 

kind of basktt 
coward (m. 
orf.) 

(plur. b&tat, sittat, &c.). 2 

1 N*)t in use among the lower classes. 

'-' The plural of 'aiimi patented unde and khh\ maternal uncle 
Is i'niaTii. ildiwal, not (at leasl in Cairo) 'ammflt, khalat, as stated 
by Spitta. 



bat 


armpit 


sitt 


gifir 


shield 


'eyar 


khawal 


dancing-man 


gabta 


oahar 


day 




garaz 


bell 





THE PLURAL 



65 



§ 80. The following plurals in at are formed somewhat 
irregularly : — 

behawat (or behat or bahat) 

sanawat 

abahat or (though rarely) abbat l 

ummahat 

zawat 

lurdawat (or lurdat, lordat) 

ikhwat 

ikhwat 

banat 

gamalat (or gumalat) 

qulalat 

Remark a. — Umm makes ummat when meaning having, pos- 
sessed of (see § 261), as niswan ummat hidiim bid women with 
white clothes. Akhkh has also ikhwan in the sense of brethren, 
associates. Ikhwa is another form of plural of both akh and 
ukht. To prevent confusion, we may add the words dukur males 
and banat, as liya ikhwa banat wi dkur / have sisters and brothers. 
Sana has a duplicate plural, sinin. 

Remark b. — 



be (or b«h) 


bey 


8ana 


year 


ab (abb) 


father 


umm 


mother 


zat 


person 


lurd (or lord) 


lord 


akh (akhkh) 


brothei' 


ukht 


sister 


bint 


girl 


gamil 


beautiful 


qalil 


few 



shita 
subh 



winter 

morning 



'asr 
'isha 



afternoon 
evening 



have no plural of their own, but borrow that of kindred nouns 
in iya, expressing the whole period or season, as talat shitwiyat 
three winters or winter seasons. Ghada and 'asha use the forms 
ghadwat, 'ashwat (from ghadwa, 'ashwa). 



VOCABULARY 



nas 


jieoj'le 


gazzar 


butcher 


tashrtf 


reception 


me'allim 


teacJier 


gam 'iya 


society, as- 


'asaya 


dick 




sembly 


taslih 


repairing, im 


tumn 


district }>olice- 




provement 




station 


ballon 


balloon 


dunya 


world, weatJter 


tasa 


bowl 


tarawa 


freshness 


niahatta 


station 


Blg&ra 


cigarette 


kitabkhana 


library 


wust 


centre, middle 


Urubba 


h'urope 


suq 


market 


bflftd it Turk 


Turkey 



The nahwy abaw&t is sometimes heard. 



66 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



Fransa 


France 


tayir (t&'ir) 


flying 


Nimsa 


Austria, Ger- 


naqis 


missing, want- 




many 




ing 


diyuf 


quests 


haddar 


bring, get 


biyut 


houses 




ready, pre- 


gay 


coming 




pare (im- 


mesafir 


travelling, 




perative) 




leaving 


mauwit 


he killed 


masri 


Egyptian 


waddu 


the// conducted 


mabsut 


contented, 




to 




pleased 


'auz 


I want, you 


gamid 


strong, firm 




want, he 


khayrt 


good, beneficent 




wants 


hadir 


ready 


yehibbil 


they love 


mabni 


built 


'amal 


he did, made 


kull 


all 


kan fib 


there was, were 


mistakhdim 


employed, 


'ala shan, 


for, on account 




employe 


'as hun 


of, in order 


mashgbul 


busy 




that, because 


mazbut 


fixed, correct, 


bidal 


instead of 




right 


in nahar da 


to-day 


raqid 


lying, lying 


il lela 


to-night 




ill 


tainalli 


always 


barid 


cold 


inn (con- 


that 


sukhn 


hot 


junct.) 




ghall 


dear 







EXERCISE 13 

Hat il lambat we haddar il 6da, 'ashan fth nas diyuf gayin 
il lela. Is saqqayin illi gabu 1 moiya inbarih bat^alin qawi ; 
humma mLskfi banat kand 1 mashyin fi s sikka we darabuhum 
we ramuhum fi 1 ard, we saraqii fulus-hum minhum. Ana shufte 
fi 1 gurnalat inn il bashawat il magrlyin illi rahu stambul mab 
sutin min tashrifat is sultan. Ana shtarel (ishtaivt) bardh&t mis 
suq, wahid minhum 'fill 'an it tarn in. Wahid ragil gabbar darab 
il qutta 1 maskina illi kanit fi maklizan Mehammad KlVndi talal 
darbat gamdfn bi fas kanit' 2 f idu we mauwitha ; lakin riggalt 
il gam'iya 1 khairlya betaht il ingliz, illi kanu hadrtn wadduh it 
tumn. Salib (§ahib il bet 'amaJ it ta&lthat il lazmtn li gninti 
(ginuniti). II busta gat inbarih, we gabit li gawabat min il 



Sttppl] illi. 



• Pot illi kanit. 



THE PLURAL 67 

banat ikhwati illi fi blad lingliz. Id dunya ahsan in nabar da ; 
fib tarawa kuwaij isa. II milayat wiskhin wi 1 battaniyat ausakh 
kaman. Guztu rahit is suq we gabit .lu bidten (bediten) we 
hittit lahma taza. It talagrafat betu' in nabar' da ahamme min 
betu- inbarih. Biyut qunsulatat Fransa we Nimsa mabniyin fi 
wust il balad. II wiiad is sughaiyarin gum. Fen il kitabat 
betu' abuya ? Laqet il waraqat 'ala t tarabezat. II bantuf liyat 
fi 1 Oda betaht il farsh. Is sanduqen betu" abuk gamdin. 
Skaiyah li qalamen. <auz il kitaben wi 1 waraq illi f idak. Is 
sa'ten illi f udtak inazbutin litnen 1 ana shribte (shiribte) sigarten 
bass in nahar da. Sbuf t id dukkaren fi dukkanu ; litnen kuwai- 
yisin qawi. Banatu 'aiyanin kullubum, raqdin fi 1 bet. Is 
sagarten illi fi gnint abuya 'alyin 'an betu'ak. 

EXERCISE 14 
Bring tbe lamps and put them on the tables in my room. 
Take the twenty-piastre-pieces and give me (some) two-piastre- 
pieces instead of them. The employes of the Egyptian Govern- 
ment are always busy. My feet are cold, but my hands are 
warm. The butchers of London are dearer than those of Cairo. 
There is a school for French 1 boys and another for German 
boys, and there are English masters at 2 both. Put two towels 
in the room and take away the dirty (ones). I wrote three letters 
to my brothers to-day. Your books are on a chair in the dining- 
room. The boys and girls came around me and seized my hands. 
Che gentleman took the receipts for 3 the books. The messengers 
brought the papers from the War Office. The balconies of "our 
two houses are built over the two gardens. The boys love their 
lathers and their mothers. The Egyptian army has beaten the 
Soudanese. He struck him two blows on the head 4 with a stick 
(wl.irh) was in his hand. Your eyes are smaller than mine 
There were three balls in the town in one night, I saw three 
balloons flying in the air. Two collars and three waistcoats are 
missing. They caught the animals in the gardens, and brought 
them to the house. All of them are liars. The ladies arc 
leaving to-day ; send their luggage to the station. There are 
colonels and captain* of the English army in the Egyptian army 
Ihe walls of my garden are very low. The milkman ha* 
brouglH only two bowls (of) milk. The Arabic language it 
richer than those of * Europe. The Beys have brought (some) 

1 Trans, the French, the German. 

' r u ; * betiV. 

* Trans, hie heutL '- betu" 1 . 



68 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



wrestlers from Turkey. How many books are there in your 
brother's library ? Thousands. 

$ 81. The plural termination ya or iya is assumed by a 
number of substantives and a few adjectives ending in i, <ji, 
bdsM, or, or. er, and a few others. The majority (with the ex- 
ception of those ending in i) are of foreign origin, and denote 
trades or professions ; e.g. : — 



askafi 


cobbler 


khizinrlar 


paymaster 


tarzi * 


tailor 


ginninar 


generrd 


harami 


robber 


ikhtiyar 


old 


Efendf 




iinberator 


emperor 


shukalt 


quarrelsome 


bankiyer (or 


bunker 


khimiqi 


guide-tempered 


l>ankier, 




sudani 


Soudanese 


banker) 




kawalingv- 


locksmith 


afukatu 


advocate 


'arbagi 


coachman 


(abukatu) 




unbashi 


corporal 


qunsulatu 


consulate 


hekimdar 


command ai if of 


shawish 


(•unstable 




police 


yawir 


aide-de-camp 



Plur. tarziya, haramiya, khimiqtya, kawalingtya, ikhtiyariya, 
afukatfya, yauriya (for yawiriya). ,v<-. 

Remark a. — Efendi, qunsulatu. bankier, and nouns ending in 
bashj have also plurals in at. (See above.) Bit sha wish chief con- 
stable has a duplicate form, bitshawishiyat. 

Rshabe b. — It will be observed that the plural and feminine 
singular of many of these nouns are identical; thus khulaqiya 
may mean quick-tempered men or a quick-tempered woman, tainar- 
giya men nurses or a woman nurse. 

$ 82. The following take the terminal ion a .- — 

(a) Many nouns of the form barrdfi; as : 



bam mil 


a dealer in 


zaiyat (or 


oil-merchant 




''".!' ' '' 


ZeYat) 




babban 


dealer in straw 


saggan 


turnkey 


gallab 


dove-dealer 


ghassal 


washerman 


hat tab 


wood-cutter 


sammak 


fisherman 


jarraf 


money-changer 


Bhaiyal (or 


porter 


gammal 


camel-driver 


aheyal) 




hammar B 


donkey-boy 


khauwaf 


tn 






rallas 


kick 1 


(plur. bannana, 


tabhaiia, h annua 


la, &&). 





1 Turkish. M.av usually kau.ilini. 

'■ llaiuinatin is SO times used, but apparent!) only in tin* 

b< li< i thai it Bounds educated. 



THE PLURAL 



c:< 



Remark a. — The great majority, it' not the whole, of these 
may also make their plural in in. But on the other hand, a 
great many nouns of this form make their plural in in only. 
Where the noun admits of a feminine form, as ghassala tea 
woman, it is better to use the plural in in to prevent confusion. 

(b) A few adjectives of the form barrik, as : — 



sarrif 
khauwif 



money-changer 
timid 



akkil 



gluttonous 



.Remake. — Sarrif is more common, perhaps, than sarraf, 
especially in the plural. 

VOCABULARY 



lamun 


lemons 


ilbis 


/>ut on 


burtuqan 


orange* 


shalu 


they carried, 


hidum 


clot lie* 




carriedaun 


wiraq (uraq) 


l>aperx 


mishyii 


they walked. 


raf'a 


pity 




walked air ay 


farsh 


Lidding 


yikkallimu 


they speak 


Bign 


prison 


(or vitkal- 




hantalon 


trousers 


limu) 




ogra 


hire, iv a 


katabt 


I irrote 


Iiahwi 


Chancery Ian 


kasaru 


they broke 




guage 


yib 


In li't lj,i 


.tin 


imprisoned 


sal l.i In': 


they repaired 


1 k\< i i 


remaining, rest 


sahhu 


they icoke 


luzim 


sary 


khallasti 


they rescued 


qadir 


powerful 


uiisku 


Ho y at ized, 


d&) ini 


ping 




caught 


talat 


th ree 


kam? 


him- utnity t * 


kulluhum 


all of l/i< /a 




ii"W much f 


khad 


h> took 


k.tir (kitir) 


much, very 


shaiya'u 


/III'// S, lit 


lain gh@r 


without 


dakhalfi 


thetj i i/fi'red 


halt a 


. at tart 


yilhisii 


they put on, 


-l a 





KXKKCISE 15 

In ti.'is il kubar&t yilbifiu kuwaiyis we yikkallimd nahwi. wi 
n oAa il baqyin yilbisO gallabiyat we yikkallimfk 'arabl; lakin 
lefendiyal katnftn wehatta 1 bashaw&l yikkalliinfi 'arabl ti b 

thum. II 1 1 . 1 1 .mi iya dakhalu bel in naggarin wi >araqu kalbiten 



QOUO in t In tUDgulai 



- Suffixed to n.Kins. 



70 THE SPOKEN 7 ARABIC OF EGYPT 

we talat rabohat. Ish sheyalin illi shalu 1 'afshe beta* il beh 
rain il babur kasaru kulle hfiga illi fih, we ba'den talabu 1 ugra 
beta'ithum. Is saggana fatahu bab is sign, khadu qirshen min 
il masgunfn we seyibiihum. II gammala darabu 1 hammara we 
khallasuhum il hattaba. II abukatlya kkallimu ketir. II 
khaiyata shtaru talat lamunat we burtuqanten we fak-ha tanya 
kaman, we hattuhum fi 'eyarat wi sh sheyalin gabiihum 'ala 
bethum. II hekimclariya mabsutin min il bitshawishiyat, wi 1 
bitshawishiya mabsutin min ish shawishiya. Ishtiri nna 1 san- 
dfiqen mis sanadqiya betu' is suq we hathum qa wain. I n naggarin 
gabu 1 khashabat we mistanniyin fulus-hnm ; wi sh shaiyala kaman 
'auzin ugrithum. It tamargiya. wi t tamargiyat nas taiyibin 

EXERCISE 16 

The lock-smiths came and repaired both the locks of the door 
of my house. The washerwoman has brought the clothes, but 
where are the collars and the socks ? Give me two piastres for 
the fishermen who are waiting at 2 the door. The emperors of 
Europe arc very powerful. The tailors have sent the waistcoats ; 
they are very good. The generals are old but strong. The 
children are very timid. Give them an orange; they are also 
very gluttonous. The sun is hot ; put on your hat and sit under 
the trees. The camel-drivers were lying asleep on the ground, 
but the slave- dealers awoke them and they all 3 went on. The 
Rey's stables are very dirty. 

THE BROKEN PLURAL 

§ 83. Broken plurals are constructed in various ways. The 
following is a list of the forms winch they assume, together with 
the principal singular tonus from which they are severally derfr ed. 

1. Plur. form, birak, from singulars of the forms barka, 
birk, birka, birik, birika. burk; e.g. : 



jra/.ma 


pair <>) <hoes 


gizam 


khoma. (for khayma) 


tent 


khiyani 


and the two foreign words 






tanda 


awning 


I mad 


warsha 


workshop 


wiraafa ; 


dibb 


bear 


dibab 


qity 4 


Copts 


qibat ; 


ibra ' 


11a 


ibar 


For ishl ii i lina. 




- ti or Mud. 


3 kulluhum after the verb. 4 Collective 


noun. ' /.-. 'ibra 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



71 



gitta 




body 




gitat 


birka 




pond 




birak 


'itta 




moth 




'itat 


hlla (for 


hiyla) 


wile 




hiyal 


slra 




story 




siyar ; 


gidid 




old small coin 




gidad; 


midina 




city 




midan ; 


shull i 




horse-cloth 




shilal 


2. Burak, 
e.g. :— 
balta 


from sing 


. forms barka, 


barik 


, birik, burka ; 




axe 




bulat 


takhta » 




bench 




tukhat 


lamda 




lamp 




lumad 


harba 




lance 




hurab 


oda x (foi 


• awda) 


room 




uwad 


gidid (gad id) 


new 




gudad ; 


hufra 




hole 




hufar 


bulgha (also balgha) 


kind of shoe 




bulagh 


ukra 




door-handle 




ukar 


sura 




picture 




suwar 


orta l 




battalion 




urat 


buza (for 


buwza) 


beer-shop 




buwaz 


3. Burk or (rarely) birk, from sin?. 


forms 


barafca, biraka, 


bank, barlka, 


abrak, 2 and 


(in one case) ibrik ; e.Q 


'. : — 


'ae&ya 




stick 




<usy 


'abaya 




cloak 




'iby ; 


nitaya 




female 




nity ; 


ghashim 




simple 




ghushm 


qadim 




old, clumsy 




qudm 


'abit 




simpleton 




'ubt ; 3 


hasira 




mat 




husr ; 


akhras 




dumb 




khurs 


ahwal 




squinting 




hul (for huwl) 


a 'wag 




crooked 




fig (for 'uwg) 


almiar 




red 




hunir 


asmar 




brown 




sumr 


aliy ad 




wh tie 




bid (for buyrl ) 


iswid 




black 




sud (for suwd) 


a'm.i 




'Jir/// 




•imy 1 


1 Turkish. 










2 Expressing colours and bodily infinniti 




8 Also 'il>t 


and 'ubata. 








4 A few of these words 


have also the plur. form 


burkan. bii 



72 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



4. Buruk, from sing, forms barik, baruk, birak, birika., burka; 



e,.g. :— 



tariq 


road 


turuq ; 


rasul 


messenger, apostle 


rusul ; 


kitab 


book 


kutub ; 1 


inidina 


city 


mudun ; 2 


burda (burda) 


a kind of coat 


burud (burud) 


5. Birak, burak, from 


sing, forms bark, barka, barak, barik, 


barik (and its diminutive, 


buraiyik), barrik, birk, birka, biiik, 3 


burk ; e.g. : — 






baghl 


mule 


bighal ; 


marra 


time 


niirar 


farkba 


fowl 


firakh 


balad 


town 


bilad 


walad 


boy 


wiliid * 


waraq 


paper 


wiraq 4 


gabal 


mountain 


gibal 


gamal 


camel 


gimal 


garya (for gariya) 


negress, slave-girl 


guwar ; 


tagir 


merchant 


tugar ; 


da'if 


weak 


du'af 


gbawit 


deep 


ghuwa$ 


tawil 


tall 


tuwal 


qasir (and the more 


small, short 


qusar 


usual form 






qusaiyar) 6 






qadim 


old 


qudam 


gamil 


beautiful 


gamil 


sahlh 


true, whole 


Sill Kill 


ghani (for ghanfy) 


rich 


^huiiay 


shaqi (for shaqiy) 


<rick"l, felon 


shuqay 


tari 


fresh 


turay; 


'aiyil 


'■llild 


'iyal ; 



1 The perfect plur. kitabat is more commonly used by the 
less educated. The double plur. kutubat will also bo heard. 

2 A rare form. Midan and (less commonly) mida'iu are 
those in use. 

8 A weakened form of barik. the i occurring mostly between 
weak consonants. 

4 Ulad, liraq air often Usrd by thr educated, u> ;dsu aulad, 
auii'uj. 

6 Qusaiyar has also the perfect plur. qusaiyartn. 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



ear 


widan 


teeth 


sina.ii ; 


handful 


hifan ; 


new 


gudad 


great 


kubar ; 


toicer 


birag 



widn 

sinn 

hifna 

gidid 

kibir 

burg 

Remark. — Nisa women has no corresponding singular form. 
C. Birk, from sing, form baraka ; e.g. : — 

dawaya inkpot diwy 

7. Biruk (or buruk, the u being often assimilated), from sing, 
forms bark, barik, birik, barki, birk, burk ; e.g. : — 



batn 






bell;/ 


butun 


gahsh 






foal of doulcey 


guhush 


dab' 






hycena 


dubu' 


sab' 






lion 


subu' 


naqz 






L-affeas brawli 


nuquz 


ban- 






shore 


burur 


tall 






hill 


tilul 


alf 






thousand 


uluf 


b.':t (for 


bayt) 




house 


biyut (or 
buyiit ) 


raff 






shelf 


rufuf 


daqn 






beard 


diqun 


asl 






root 


usul 


sef (for 


sayf; 




sword 


siyuf 








aniuj 


giyush ; 


malik 






king 


muluk (or 
milfik); 


shahid 






witness 


shuhiid ; 1 


saighi 






delivery -book 


E i rug 


gidr 






root 


gidur 


hind 






Indians 


binud 


gidd 






grandfather 


L'i'lud 


dik (for 


diyk) 




cock 


diyuk : 


buig 






pig> on-coi on roof 

of t' 


buriig 


8. Hir.ik. 


, from 


sing. 


form b&rik ; t.g. : — 






r B&'is, 


sayis) groom 




•iyiq 






da idy 


tyiq 



1 More umi:i11\ nhuhh&d, especially amongsl 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



9. Burrak, from sing, form barik ; e.g. : — 



qasir 



minor 



qussar 



10. Burrak (and birrak), from sing, form barik ; e.g. 



tagir 




merchant 


tuggar 


hagib 




chamberlain, usher 


huggab 


rakib 




passenger 


rukkab 


haris 




guardian 


hurras 


shahid 




witness 


shuhhad 


zabit 




officer 


zubbat 


kafir 




infidel 


kuffar 


hagg (for 


hagig) 


pilgrim 


higgag (hug- 
gag) 


hakim 




judge, ruler 


hukkam 


shatir 




clever, cunning 


shuttar l 



11. Buraka, 2 from sing, forms barak, barik, barika, barik, 
birlk ; 3 e.g. : — 



amir 

'abit 

qadim 

hakim 

Khalifa 

hawi 

qadi 

bikhil 
shirik 



12. Barik and (weakened form) birik, from sing, forma 
bark, birk, birak (burak) ; e.g. : — 

'abd slave 'abid ; 



chieftain 


umara 


imbecile 


'ubata 


ancient 


qudama 4 


physician 


hukama 


Caliph 


Khulafa ; 


juggler 


hiwa 5 (for 




hiwaya) ; 


judge 


quda r> (for 




qudaya) ; 


greedy 


bukhala 


partner 


shuraka 



mrz 

himar (or hum&r) 



slave 
goats 
donkey 



mi'iz ; 
himir 



1 These words were all originally present participles, Shatir 
has sometimes the perfect plur. shatrin. 

2 Representing both buraka and buraka of the classical. The 
a is sounded somewhat lung in a. few eases. 

8 Weakened form of barik. 

4 This form is only used as a substantive. 

5 Or hiwfi, qudfi (pronounce biw&h, qudfth). Sos&'l messenger, 
.su'a or sir.ih. 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



7:1 



13. Ihruk (abruk). 


from sine, forms bark, 


birak ; e.g. : — 


farkh 




sheet of paper 


ifrukh 


daqn 




beard 


idqun 


raff 




shelf 


irfuf 


nafs 




soul 


infus 


dal' 




rib 


idlu' 


sahn 




disk 


ishun 


dira' 




arm 


idru' 


14. Ibrak and (stroi 


iger and less commonly 


used form) abrak. 


fruiii sing, forms bark. 


barak, barik, birk, burk ; e.g. : — 


ganb 




side 


ingab 


dal' 




rit> 


idla' 


'am ni 




paternal uncle 


i'main 


goz (for 


gawz) 


pair, husband 


igwaz 


kom (for kawm) 


heap 


ikwam 


der (for 


dayr) 


convent 


idyar 


shA' (for 


shay 1 


th ing 


ashya' (for 
ashya') ; ' 


qafas 




<-age 


iqfas 


lchal (for khawal) 


hiaternal uncle 


ikhwal 


bab (for 


bawab) 


door 


ibwab 


nab (for 


nayab) 


canine fnoth 


invab; 2 


sahib 




owner ; friend 


ashab, ishab ; 


gins 




kind 


ignas 


•ibb 




breast-pocket 


i'bab 


gidd 




grandfather 


igdad 


dinn 




wine- cot 


idnan 


bizz 




"bread 


ibzaz 3 


sinn 




teeth. 


isnan 3 


gii 




century 


igyal 


tin 




land, soil 


atyan 


waqt 




time 


auqat 4 


bir (for 


bi'r) 


well 


ibya i- 


zir 




water-jar 


izyar 5 


d i 1 w 




bucket 


id law 



1 But commonly pronounced ashya. The mixed plural ashy&t 
is in more genera] use. 

- E*ronOUnced also nival* (see § 15). 

3 Or bizaz, sinan. 

4 A.s ma yefutushwala waqt il auqat, he will never leave 
I 

5 Or ziyar 



7G THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

'id festival i'yad 

sid lord isyad ; 1 

tuql weight itqal 

gurn barn igran 1 

guz' part igza' 

sur (for suwr) wall iswar 

sfiq market iswaq 

buq trumpet ibwaq 

ruh. spirit irwah 

Remark. — Alf thousand makes alaf (as in literary Arabic) or 
alaf ; raiy (or ra'y) opinion ara ( = ar'a of tbe classical) ; ism nance 
asma (classic, asma'). 

15. Ibrika 2 and (rarely) abrika, from sing, forms barak, 
barik, birak, burak, birik ; e.g. : — 

hanak mouth ihnika ; 

kanif closet iknifa; 

girab scabbard igriba 

higab amulet ihgiba 

hiram woollen cloak, blanket ihrima 

biram earthen saucepan ibrima 

lisan tongue ilsina 

zirar (itself plur. of buttons izrira j 

zirr) 

busat carpet ibsita 

husan horse ihsina 

ghurab crow ighriba ; 

righif loaf irgbifa 

sibil fountain isbila 

Remark. — Tabib physician makes atibba (for atbiba). 

16. Abrika and ibrika, from sing, forms barak, barik; 



e.g. 



dawa (for dawa') medicine idwiya 3 (or 

adwtya) : 
gbani (for gbaniy) rich agniya 

shaqi rebellious, villain ashqiya* 



1 Or siya'l. giran. 

2 Including ibrika of the classical. Man) words of this form 
are pronounced blrika (see § 15). 

8 Tin- qat'a changing to u. 

4 Tbese, in classical Arabic, belong to the preceding form, 
They are not much used by the lower classes. 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



77 



17. Bawarik, from sing, forms 
birika), barik, burk, barika; e.g.: 



barka (contracted from 



hadsa 

fak-ha 

nadra 

madna 

hafir 

khatim 

dufr 

saniya 
Remark. — Suba 1 finger 
sabi'. 

18. Barayik (bara'ik), 



occurrence 
fruit 
incident 
minaret 
hoof 

signet-ring 
jiuger-nail 
trail 
makes sawabi', 



from 



ha wid is 
fawakih 
nawadir 
mawadin ; 
hawafir 
khawatim ; 
dawafir ; 
sawani 
an unused sin^. 



from sing, forms barik. barika, ba 



bariika, birka, birik,- birika, 2 bireka, burka, buruk ; e.g. : — 



habib friend 

garima cri me 

'aguz ld 

'azuma banquet 

'arusa bride 

shiffa Up 

Sllfa husband's brother's 

wife 
cattle 

lock of hair 
city 
garden 

one of two or more 
wives 3 
zubun customer 

Remark. —It will be noticed that, with the exception of birka 
and burka, the second syUable of these singulars is long 

19. Birkan burkan, from sing, forms bark, barka, barak, 
baraka, barak, bank, barik, burk, burak, abrak ; e.g. :— 

* babb , , (Witt sbubban 

far(forta'r) me firan*(for 

fi'ram 
var tambourine (Iran* (for 

__ t6r(for t awr) bull Jg** 



bihim. bibima 

gidila 

midina 

ginena 

durra 



habayib ; 
garayim ; 
•agayiz ; 
'azayim 
•arayis ; 
shafayif 
salayif ; 

bahayim ; 
gadayil 
madayin ; 
ganayin ; 
darayir ; 

zabavin 



1 For the pronunciation of these words, see § 19 

2 Weak forms of barik, barika. 

* Li their relationship to one another, eo-ejuwe. 
Generally pronounced firan, tiran, <fcc. (§ 15). 



■78 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



hosh 




enclosure for cattle 


hishan 


hod 




tank, basin 


hidan 


kom 




heap 


klman 


ghet (for ghayt) 




field 


ghitan ; 


taqa 




window 


tiqan ; 


gada' 




youth, fine fellow 


gid'an 


ghalaq 




pannier 


ghulqan 


'arab 




Arab, Bedouin 


'urban 


bab (for bawab) 




door 


biban ; 


khalaqa 




old garment 


khulqan ; 


ghazal 




gazelle 


ghuzlan 


ghata 




cover, ltd 


ghutyan ; 


'aris 




bridegroom 


'irsan 


'arish 




pole of carriage 


'irshan 


qadib 




rod 


qudban 


shagi* 




brave 


shug'an 


sabi 




lad, apprentice 


subyan ; 


iahib 




monk 


ruhban 


het (for ha'it) 




wall 


hitan ; 


ku' 




elbow 


ki'an 


kuz 




mug 


kizan 


ghul^ 




ogre 


ghilan ; 


shuga* 




braoe 


shug'an 


ghurab 




crow 


ghirban ; 


a'ma 




blind 


'imyiin 


Remark a. — The 


form abrak is peculiar to 


a few adjectives 


denoting colours and 


pers 


onal defects, which have the duplicate 


form burk or (in the 


case 


of a'ma) birk. 




Remark b. — The 


word 


niswan is used <is the plural of mara 


woman. 








20. Baraka, from 


sing, 


. forms barka (including barika), barik, 


barkan, birka, birkan 


, birika. barkant, burkani ; 


e.g. :— 


halwa 




sweetmeat 


halawa 


/.auvii (zawiya) 




angle chapel 


tawaya ; 


yatim 




orphan 


yatama ; 


hibhi 




pregnant 


habala ; 


'iryan 




naked 


'araya ; 1 


tikiya 




Moslem monastery 


takaya ; 


ghalban 




wretched 


glial aba ; 


nasranl 




Christian 
(Nazarene) 


nasara ; 


wustani 




<-en 


wasata 



The perfect plur. 'iryanin is much more common. 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



79 



21. Buruka, from sing, form barrik ; e.g. 
qassis priest 



qususa 



22. Barak! (for barakiy), from sing, forms bark, barka. 
barkiya, barakkiya, birka, birki, birkiya, birkiya, burki ; 
e.g. :— 



ard 

ahl 

sakw 

du - wa 

lela (for layla) 

qalnva 

shakwa 

hara 

shamsiya 

fasqiya 

ma'addiya 

birba 

migra 

kilwa 

mikhla 

miisa 

birri 

sts! 

bittiya 
hiddaya 
mikhbaya 
burgbl ' 

kursi 
kubri » 



earth 
family 
overcoat 
claim 
night 

coffee, coffee-house 
complaint 
quarter {of a town) 
umbrella, $h utter 
fountain 
ferry 

ancient temple 
stream 
kidney 
nose-bag 
anclwr 
wild 

pony 

cask 

kite 

hiding-place 

screw 

chair 

bridge 



aradt 
ahail 
sakawi ; 
da'awi 
laj all 
qahawt 
shakawl 
hawari ; 
sham a si 
fasaqi ; 
ma'adi ; 
barabi 
magari 
kalawi 
makhalf 
marasi ; 
barari waste 

lands 
sayasi ; 
batati ; 
hadadi 
makhabi ; 
baraghi 
karasi 
kabari 



Remark. — Dura maize, baltu overcoat, and bintu (or binti) 
napoleon, have plurals of this form, namely, darawi fields of mai:.> . 
balati, banati. 

23. Buraka. Sing, forms, bark, barak ; e.g. : — 



hagar 
da'if 



stone 

weak 



hugaia ; 
du'afa 2 



Turkish. 



2 LVaf ia wore common. 



30 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



24. Biruka, buruka, from sing, forms bark, barak, birk ; e.g. : — 

baqf ninny buqfifa 

nat* uncouth nutu'a 

sab' lion sulm'a 

dab' hyena dubu'a 

saqf ceiling suqufa 

naqz leafless branch nuquza 

bank bank, bench binilka ; 

dakar male dukura ; 

nimr tiger numura 

Remark.— Nouns which make buruka generally admit also 
the form buruk. 

25. Birraka, from sing, form barik ; e.g. : — 

ragil man riggala 

26. Bawarik, 1 from sing, forms barak, barik, baruk, baruka, 
barruka, birak ; e.g. : — 

ma'ad time, period mawa'id ; 

tarikh date (time) tawarikh ; 

'amud column 'awamid 

satur chopper sawatir 

basur hamiorrhoid bawasir 

gam ua buffalo gawamis 

ta'ils peacock tawa'is ; 

tab. una mill tawalnn 2 

hadduta tale, gossip hawadit 

hazzura riddle hawazir ; 

diwan office dawawin 

27. Bayarik, from sing, form barrak ; e.g. : — 
sarraf money-changer sayarif 

28. Lakhabit, from sing, forms lakhnat, lakhbata, lakhbatt, 
lakhbit, lakhbita, likhbit, likhbita, lukhbit, lukhbut : p.<j. : — 



mabrad 


file 


mabarid 


magma' 
mafrash 


assembly 
table-cloth 


magami' 

mafaiish 


rafraf 


splashboard (of car- 


rafanf 


barbakfa 


riage 
culvert 


Kiiabikh 



1 Usually pronounced bawartkh, with a very slight accent on 
the second a (see § 13). 

- .Samula rivet sometimes makes aam&wil (for gaw&mtl). 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



81 



doraq (dawraq) 


kind of bottle 


dawariq ; 


mabkhai'a 




censer 


mabakbir 


makkama 




court 


niahakim 


barda'a 




donkey's saddle 


baradi' 


shabraqa 




treat 


shabariq ; 


'antari 




chemise 


'anatir ; 


bulisa (bawlisa) 


invoice 


bawalis ; 


gilgil 




small bell 


galagil; 


gimgima 




skull 


gamagim ; 


burqu' 


• 


veil 


baraqi' 


gumruk 1 




custom-house 


gamarik 


dungul 




axle (of carriage) 


danagil 


Remark. — Mebar (for 


maybar) packing needle makes mawabir. 


29. Lakhabit, 


2 from 


sing, forms lakbbat, 


lakhbata, lakb- 


bati, lakhbiitiya, 


lakbbit. 


lakbbita, lakkbut, lakbbilta, likbbat, 


likhbata, likhbit, 


likhbiyi 


it, lukhbat, lukbbata, 


lukbbatiya, lukh- 


bet, lukbbeta ; e.g. : — 






ballas (or ballasi) 


kind of jar 


balalis ; 


sahhara 




trunk, box 


sahaliir ; 


gallabiya 




gown 


galalib ; 


tafsil 




detail 


tafasil 


mazzika 




music, band 


mazazik 


barrima 




corkscrew 


bararim ; 3 


barghut 




jieas 


baraghit 


katkut 




eh icken 


katakit 


zarbun 




low, vulgar 


zarabin 


ma'zum 




invited, guest 


ma'azim 


masgun 




prisoner 


masagto 


mazlum 




o j 'pressed 


inazalini 


ma'mur 




a Government re- 
presentative 


ma'am i i- ; 


tannura 




ekirt 


tananir ; 


biiwaz 




j'i lure-frame 


barawiz 


shibb&k 




window 


shababik; 


-ikkin 




knife 


8 ik.ikin ; 


shinl Lyan 




troueerBWormby women Bhan&ttxi . 


mu! 




key 


inafatih 


ddl&b, dulab 




cupboard 


daw&ltb : 


-uliaiiiva 




botol, basin 


BB latin ; 


qustdk 




kind of voatchrchain 


qaa&l tk 


bun 




hat 


bar! 



Turkish. -' The second a is practically short, as above, 

3 Better barrtm I 



82 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



sharkas 

samkari 

berberi, barbari 

gabbax 

masrawi 

turkawt 

hindawl 

talmiz 

maiyidi (or meyidi) 

dakruri 

targuman 

fara'un 

diktor 

dungulawl 



30. Lakhabta (lakhabita), from sing, forms lakhbat, lakhbati, 
lakhbat, lakhbati, lakhbit, lakhbiti, lakhbuti, lakhbutan, lakhabut, 
likhbut, lukhbutawi ; e.g. : — 

Circassians sharaksa ; 

tinker samakra 

native of Berber barabra ; 

tyrant gababra ; 

Egyptian masarwa 

Turk tarakwa 

Indian hinadwa ; 

sclwlar talamza 1 
an ancient small 

coin mayayda ; 

native of DakrHr dakarna ; 

interpreter taragma 

Pharaoh, tyrant fara'na ; 

doctor dakatra ; 

native of Dongola danagla 

Remark. — Fayilmi native of the Fayoum (fayayma) may be 
included in this list. 

The quinquiliteral kustiban thimble makes kasatbin ; - ardabb 
a dry measure, aradibb and aradib. 

§ 84. The following nouns, in addition to those already noticed 
(as akhkh, ukht, dura), form their plurals quite irregularly : — 

shekh old man, sheikh masha'ikh 

(mashayikh) 
ras head ru§ 3 

yom day Ova in. ivain, 

i \ a in , vain, 

yam 
ra'i 4 shepherd ra'&h 

(ma') 8 water mi'ah 

miya hundred miy&h 

K In'- 1 hoi'8( 8, rriswan (or oisa) worn* n, o&speopli are represented 
in the singular l»\ husan, mara, and ins&n respectively. 



1 I'.ui generally talamiz. 

2 But re usually kustibanat 

3 Nahwy ra's, ru'ua 

4 Bee below under buraka. 

•'■ The diminul i\ e moiya in t be only 



sine, in use. 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 83 

The plural of dira' arm is usually idru', but in construc- 
tion it takes the form diri't (idri't), as diri'ti litnen my two 
arms. 

§ 85. A few plurals, as funis money, manakhir nose (literally 
nostrils), usul principle, are used as singulars, the forms from 
which they art- derived not being in use or bearing a different 
meaning; but some of them are regarded as plurals for the 
purposes of concord. Sutuh roof and its singular Bath axe both 
in use, but the former is the more common. 

§ 86. Comparatives and superlatives have no plural form, with 
the exception of akbar greatest (in the expression akabir in naa 
(jrandees). Many collective nouns also, aud in particular those 
denoting small animals, have no plural, as dud worms, nam! ants. 
Lastly, the adjectives enumerated in § Gl> as having no separate 
form for the feminine remain unchanged in the plural. 

§ 87. Id hand, rigl foot, and 'en eye use the dual form for the 
plural, as arbaht iden four hands, riglen il husan the horse's 
feet. 1 

§ 88. It will be observed that foreign words, though generally 
making their plural in -at, are also susceptible of broken tonus. 
< Mi the whole, there is a tendency to prefer the broken plural 
when the foreign word lend- itself to such a formation. 

A- is shown by the above lists, many words have more 

than one form for the plural : thus dal' rib makes idla', i.jln*, or 

dulii'a. Experience alone will pio\ e which of these is in common 

or whether, as is the case with some of them, one form is 

heard as often as another. 

§ 90. Uluf. plur. of alt' thousand, and its double plur. ulufat, 
of an indefinite number. Thus we say talatt ilat 
/. but uluf (or ulufat) thousands/ or (adverbially) by 
thousands. 

§ 91. The learner must not be discouraged by the long list of 
broken plurals. A careful study of the singular forms from 
which tiny may in each CaS6 be derived, and a comparison of 
the different plurals which may be constructed from the same 
angular form, will convince him that the system is not without 
trder. The following plural forms- are those which are mosl 

commonly heard : — 

1 'nun eyes is, however, sometimes heard, as in Allah yihmlk 
min 'ivi'in in n.'is Qod protect you from (he eyes of men (ie.. 

(Ii< <-r,l eye). 

io the singulars, those that are rare are indicated h\ I be 
.-mall number of examples accompanying them, 



84 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



(1) birak, (2) burak, (3) burk, (4) buruk, (5) birak, (7) biruk, 
buriik, (10) burrak, (11) buraka, (14) ibrak, (15) ibrika, (17) 
bawarik, (18) barayik, (19) birkan, burkan, (26) bawarik, (28) 
lakhabit, (29) lakhabit, (30) lakhabta. Of these (1), (2), (5), (14), 
(18), (28), (29), and (30) occur more frequently than the others. 



VOCABULARY 



kura (1) 


ball 


matni 


doubled, 


li'b 


game 




warped 


'umda (2) 


notable, head- 


yishtaghalu 


they work 




man 


yeshilu 


they carry 


qutta (2) 


cat 


yigft 


they come 


sikka (1) 


street 


yebi'u 


tliey sell 


haram 


pyramids 


yimshu 


they walk 


masiii'a (26) 


pipe 


yelimmu 


they pick up 


sa'id (or si'id) Upper Egypt 


yekhafu min 


they fear 


gammas (-a) 


buffalo-drover 


rikbu 


they rode 


Muski 


a street in Cairo 


ishtaru 


tliey bought 


sauwah 


tourist 


saraft 


I spent 


garni' (17) 


mosque 


yeshufu 


they see 


lukanda 


hotel 


qa'adu 


they sat 


shanta 


bag, portman- 


yuq'udu 


they sit 




teau 


wadda 


he brought, led 


sitara (18) 


window-blind 


ramu 


tliey threw 


dahr 


back 


gabu 


they brought 


'utuqi 


cobbler 


yisallahu 


they mend, re- 


tikhin (5) 


thick 




pair 


talib 


asking 


nazzil 


bring doirn, 


mahtut 


placed 




draw down 


rakib 


riding 


sim'u 


they heard 


labis 


wearing 


shirbu 


tic y drank 


ma'kul 


eaten 


hutt 


J'lit 


rikhis (5) 


cheap 


yihkuniu 


they j 'lull- . 


tari 


fresh 






bardan 


cold {of per- 


kham.is 


fir. 




sons) 


minhuin 


some of tliem 


maksur 


broken 


walla 


or 



Note. — The numbers refer to the plural tonus. The adjec- 
tives to which no number is attached form their plural b 
(except, of course, those vrhioh have been mentioned as having 
a different formation). Where a participle admits of both a 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 85 

perfect and a broken form the latter will be employed onlv 
when the participle fa used as a substantive ; thus we Sul 
ma'zumin they are invite,/, but il ma'azim (or il r,rvzuminU? m 
fe guest, I ; katbin rkAtibin) ^ Li^SafS 

Aa« un&m), but il kutaba ^p rferfe y (01 



EXERCISE 17 



. Ir rigcrala Di yishtaghatt fi wiraah in naggartn betu' MW 

ZsZl S wi t ^' U rK hUm ghUShDl - ^ k ™ b^l^bl 

torn* bid w, kbar (kubfir), we betu' il iskoshrakit humr we 
fughanann Fi gnint ig Giza fih dubu' wi sb* kuMr w! 
nmura. we hiwmat sughaiyarin kaman. U hurras bet* dWf^ 
il fallahm y.shilu We kubSr tukhan, we larnma v tn ^ V a 
yidrabuW. Myar il qibat minhum qndam -jaw, D^aS 
shaiya' ladw;y, wi 1 mturat. II 'arbagiya nabsut n mTn 
zabayinhum. 1 ebi'u 1 khirfan fi 1 iswa^ 5 Zubbat fl „Til 
maari minhum mgliz u minhum wilad <arab. ' II mth^H w 
IW yihkunm fi 1 bilad. Lighriba (il iglnil, vin ?1 A V] 
ganayu, ^e yelxmmu hitet <&h we hagat tlnyto min il ra di 
II ft in yekhafu m in 3 qutat, wi 1 (ju tat yekhSu min il K& 
Shi 1 il hugara min is sikak. II < urba n betu' il haram vikkallimA 
ngl, 21 ,,.,,, mm il hammara betu' Maar. II «S£j£K 
«* dak !::,■ kanu maksurfn ; mm ^abiuml Subyan 

fayayma nkbu Lumrhum we rahu ishtaru talatt irghifa min il 
lyam. II kh,l betft' ikhwatu shuqay. II kit abk ill; fi t-5? 

uwad" 1 iSSSXF^ T1 ^ ^^" Ll^fl 

uwad. Ikhwati khur? w urnml w abQva hul. Is sayasl betu' 

} ; / ! T • UTa - J^wanna gum we 'ayztn yeshufu 

ban itil miah, I n ate gam rakbtn kbel wi bghal wi h 



M '///<. 2 TV ~ i 

Hie trater-comj'u/iy. 



86 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



EXERCISE 18 

The mounds of Cairo are very ancient. The children are 
very hungry ; their mouths are always open. The carpets are 
moth-eaten. 1 The sisters took- the blind (men) by 3 their hands 
and led them to their houses. The Bedouins threw their lances 
at 4 the young men. There are camels, bulls, buffaloes, and 
goats in the enclosures. The Beys bought (some) ready-made 
trousers from the tailors in the Mouski. The cobblers mend old 
pairs of shoes. The merchants bought (some) cheap, dirty old 
carpets, repaired them, and sold them dear to the tourists. The 
minarets of the mosque are new. The jugglers sit on the 
balconies of the hotels. Put the books and papers on the shelves. 
The ponds are very deep. The carpenters have brought their 
hammers, their files, and their planes. The sheikhs' beards are 
very long. The officers' portmanteaux are in the train. The 
air is fresh, but the sun is hot ; draw down the blinds and 
open the windows. Bring three handfuls of clover for the 
horses. Put the lids on the jars. The walls of my brother's 
house are old but strong. The judges heard the women's com- 
plaints. The orphans are minors. Women are weaker than 
men. There are emperors and kings in Europe. The horses are 
cold ; put the cloths on them. 5 His nails are always long and 
dirty. The handles of the doors are broken. The porters are 
clumsy ignorant people. The peasants work in the fields. We 
saw the pretty tails of the peacocks in the gardens. The cattle 
drank water from the tanks. The donkey's ears are very long, 
much longer than those of the horse. The messengers have 
brought the invoices. His paternal and maternal uncles are 
partners. There are fountains in the streets. I saw (some) beau- 
tiful women in the villages. The ladies' veils were thick. 



VOCABULARY 



Darwish(29) 
fanus (26) 
sarg, serg (7) 
sigara (18) 

tarbusli(L".i) 


dervish 

lantern 

saddle 

cigar, cigarette 

fez 


kammasha 

musmar (29) 
zanbil (29) 
sillim (28) 


pair of tongs, 
pincers 

nail 

has/,-' t, hamper 

ladder 


ma'laqa (28) 

shok.l (2) 


spoon 
fork 


masyada(28) 
qunsul (28) 


trap 
consul 



1 Trans, eaten by (min) the moths. 

2 niisik. 3 min. ' 'ala 
5 Trans, jmt on them (lmtti lhum) the cloths. 



THE BROKEN PLURAL 



87 



'asfiir (29) 

kharbasha 

(-at or 29) 
'afrit (29) 
martaba(28) 
shabaka 
khurni (7) 
shaqq (7) 
ibriq (29) 
ibriq beta' 

ish shay 
dukkan (29) 
sirir (18) 
siggada (29) 
katib (11) 
daftar (28) 

tir'a(l) 
gardal (28) 
ti'ban (29) 
sirsar (29) 
muhandiz 
fa'il(ll) 
shankal (28) 
shakcta 
rubbawi (or 
urubbawf) 
'askari (28) 
muslim 
malyan 
maskun 

me f alluq 

'arid (5) 



small bird, 

sparrow 
scratch 

spirit, devil 
mattress 
net 
hole 

fissure, crevice 
jug, jar 
tea-pot 

Shop 

bedstead 
carpet 
clerk 

ledger, writing- 
booh 
canal 
bucket 
snake 

cockroaches 
engineer 
workman 

i Kin J: 

jacket 

European 

soldier 
Mussulman 

full, loaded 
inhabited, 

haunted 
hanging, hung 

up 
broad 



qafil 
harabit 
khabatd fi 

wiq'um 
ghirquni 

saraqu 
itfaddal 
uq'ud 
khud 

tU'a 

safru 
yishbiku 
u'a, (6'a) ! 

me'ashshish 
mistini', mis- 
tana' 
gibt 
yimlfi. 
ba'u 
laqu 
'allaq 
baiiu 
iftah 
vitla'um 
iqfil 

gu, gum 
hattet ? 
bilad bai-ia 
is subh 
kettr ' 
bashqa l 

min gher 



shutting, shut 

they jied 

they knocked 
against 

they fell 

they were 
drowned 

they stole 

pray ! 

sit, be seated 

take 

they went vp 

they travelled 

they entangle 

look out I be- 
ware off 

nesting 
forged 

I brought 
they rill 
they sold 
they found 
hang vp 
they built 
open 

they go up 
shut 

they came 
did you put ? 
abroad 
this morning 
much, too much 
one thing, an- 
other thing 
without 



EXERCISE 19 

II barabra harabu min id darawish. II hanafir bctu' il b&sha- 
w.tt khabutu f dakakir iz zubbat we kasam raf arif htnn we faw3 
nis-hum. (ium nas ulut'at we sim'u 1 mazaztk fi 1 ganavin. Fth 



Turkish. 



88 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

tramwayat fi shari' id dawawin we fi kull is shawari il kubar betu' 
Masr. Is surug betu' il khel bashqa wi 1 baradi' betu' il himir 
bashqa. Is sufragiya illi yishtaghalu fi byut ir rubbawiyin minhum 
barabra u minbum danagla, u minbum shuttar u minbum tanabla. 
11 merakbiya wiq'um min il marakib we ghirqum fi 1 bahr II 
haramiya saraqu burad wi hrima we galalib min dawalib giranhum. 
Ishtirinna talat sanadiq sagayir min 'and id dakhakhniya. Le- 
fendiyat il muslimfn yilbisu tarabish, wi n nasara minbum yilbisu 
tarabish, we minhum yilbisu baranit. Shufte nas masarwa fi 
blad barra labsin baranit sud tuwal. Isb sbuwak wi 1 ma'aliq 
wi s sakakin mahtfttin 'as sufra ; itfaddal uq'ud. Fen il mafatih 
betu' ibwab il balakonat? Kbud kammashat we qawadim we 
talla' il masamir min iz zanabil. It taragma betu' il lukanclat wi 
1 khamamtr ya'raf u 'arabi wi nglizi wi fransawi we laghwat tanyin 
kaman Is salalim betu.' bitna 'alyin. Sbufte wilad 'urge masakin 
mashyin bi 1 'akakiz. Misikna f ran (firan) fi 1 masayid. It talamza 
mabsiitin min il madaris wi 1 me'allimin. Qanasil Fransa wi 1 
miskof safnl fi babur wahid. II 'asafir me'ashsbisbin fi sh shamasi 
betu' sbababikna. Fih galagil me'allaqin min raqabiyit quttitna. 
Is sifariya kanit 1 akwas min gber il gamarik. 

EXERCISE 20 

Beware of the guns ! They (are) loaded. The letters came 
by the French boat and the newspapers by the Italian. I saw 
(some) scratches on 2 your fingers. Yes, they (are) from the 
nails in 3 the lids of the boxes which came this morning. The 
frames of your pictures are very pretty, but too large. The 
house is haunted by sphuts. 4 Put the mattresses on 5 the bed- 
steads. The carpets in 3 the upstairs rooms are longer and wider 
than the mats in 3 the dining-room. The cockroaches come out 
of holes and cracks. I brought the cups from England, but 
bought the teapot and the trays in the shops in the 6 bazaars. 
The women fill the jars from the canals and carry them on 7 
their heads to the villages. The young men raise the water 
from the wells in buckets. The donkey-boys sold some scarabs 
to the tourists in Upper Egypt, but they were all 8 forged. The 
customs-officers seized the boxes, opened them, (and) found them 
full (of) snakes. The public offices are closed to-day. They 

1 Would be. 2 fi. 8 Trans, which (are) in. 

4 Trans, by (min) the spirits. 5 'ala. 

6 betu'. 7 foq. 8 kulluhum. 



THE NUMERALS 89 

brought ladders and went np on ■ the roof. The engineers have 
built bridges over' the large canals. The workmeS we" la"e 
v^ravT 0~!; h the T Th f S °" t,a " eSe3 -StaS 

r„:rinThetpoS. and put tbe >*** — 5? £ 

THE NUMERALS 

§ 92. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are :— 



1. wahid (f. wahda) 

2. itnen 

3. talata, 4 talat 

4. arba'a, arba' 

5. khamsa, khamas 

6. sitta, sitt 



7. sab'a, saba' 

8. tamanya (for tamaniya), 

taman 

9. tis'a, tisa' 

10. 'ashara, 'ashar 



th£ t f y «? nitS ruleS can be laid d ™ for the use of 

the two forms from 3 to 10, but the following remarks will tin 
the speaker to make a correct choice. rem arics will help 

(a) Talata, arba'a, &c, are used :— 

1. When standing alone, as humma talata 'auzin 
X:% d °M~" ^ ** ° f «» -nth, as at 

2. Generally speaking, with nouns denoting human 
beings, unless the plural ends in -at, as talatf S 
sab'a madrftbin tamanya nas, tis'a khurs, the no n k 
tins case being in reality in apposition to the numeA 
or the word persons understood. We hear, howeve such 

;xr b r s as talat niswan *** ^ «-rt 
P rotss4 yllables ' as talata khca (here «— * 

naml USUally ^ Collective nouns > a « *^ta harim, gamus, 

«35o7m ?llT f m + T y \ When «rf «» ^e angular 

$650), as talata (or talata) ./row, khamaa K in6h a 5 
arba'a nyal (but arba' riyalafc) 

6. Generally with words belonging more properly to the 



'"'I- 2 'ashan. 



- 'iishan. a si'iduii\ i 

Sometimes talata, if followed by a noun. ' 



90 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

written than the spoken language, as talata kutub and 
even talata ihsina three horses (in spite of the vowel). 1 

7. When the numeral is emphatic ; thus we might say 

hat li talat karasi, and, on repeating the order, talata 

karasi. 

(b) Talat (and talatt), 1 &c, are used in all other cases in 

preference to talata, &c, and in particular with plurals in -at, as 

talat harimat, taman kitabat, talat suhun. 

§ 94. When followed by a noun beginning with a vowel, the 
second form, talat, &c, appears as follows : — 

3. talatt 7. saba't (or sabaht) 



4. arba't (or arbaht) 

5. khamast 

6. sitt 

Example : — 
talatt ishun three dishes 



8. tamant 

9. tisa't (or tisaht) 
10. 'ashart 



tamant eight persons 

unfus 



Remark a. — Talat, <fec, are occasionally, when the final 
syllable of the noun La accented, heard before a vowel, as talat 
Tngliz, khamas aradibb Jive ardebbs, as also (though still more 
rarely) the uncontracted forms talutit, khamsit, tamanyit (for 
talatt, khamast, tamant). 

Remark b. — Wahid, when used as a numeral, follows its noun, 
while it precedes it when playing the part of an indefinite 
alt icle. 

§ 95. The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19, whatever their 
position, are as follows : — 



11. 


bddfi shai (or ihdashar) 9 


1G. 


sittashar 


L2. 


il ii.; -liar 


17. 


saba'1 ishar (sabahtas- 


13. 


talattashar 




har) 


1 I. 


arba'tashar (or arbah- 


18. 


tamantashar 




tasliar) 


L9. 


t isatashar (tdsaht4shar) 


15. 


khamastashar 







RBMAltK. It will be observed thai the above are OOmpoaed 

..I 'ashar ten and the units, but fehe Eormer l>a-> dropped its • and 
lengthened the a of the iir-t syllable by way of oompeosation. 
The units of hidashar and Ltnashar appear also in a truncated 
form. Note that the ./of wahid Deoomes (according at Leaf 
the usual pronunciation) d in bidasbar (§ 1 7 ». 

i Bee l"'l'>\\ I >r hidashar, Lh Lash u i 



THE NUMERALS 



91 



§ 96. The cardinals from 20 to 99 are :- 



20. Ishrin 

2 1 . wahid u (or we. wi) 'ishrin 

22. itnCn u ,, „ "ishrin 
L'5. khamsa u ,, ,, 'ishrin 

29. tis'a u ,, ,, 'ishrin 

30. talatin 



40. arbe'in 1 

50. khamsin 

60. sittin 

70. sabln (sab'en) l 

80. tam&nin 

90. tis'in (tis'en) 1 



Remark. — The unit invariably precedes 
khamsa u talatin five and thirty, not talatin 
§ 97. The remaining are as follows : — 



the ten ; thus v. 
u khamsa. 



100. 


miya fin construction 


2000. 


altY-n 






mit) 




3000. 


talatt alaf 




101. 


miya u wahid 




4000. 


arbaht alaf 


(arba'f 


102. 


miya wi tn.'-n 






alaf) 




121. 


miya wahid u 'i 


shrin 


5000. 


khamast alaf 




199. 


miya tis'a u tis' 


in 


6000. 


sitt alaf 




200. 


miytcn (miten) 




7000. 


Sabaht alaf 


(saba' 


300. 


tultemiya 






alaf) 




400. 


rub'emtya 






tamant alaf 




500. 


khum8emtya 




9(M)0. 


tisaht alaf 


(tisa't 


600. 


suttemtya 






alaf) 




700 


Bub'emiya 




10,000. 


'asharl daf 




800. 


tumnemlya 




11,000. 


hidashar alf 




900. 


tus'emtya 




100,000. 


luit alf 




1000. 


alf 




1,000,000. 


inalvun 




1001. 


alf ii u ;ih id 




i\<H i0,000. 


malvuncu (oi 




1021. 


alf. wahid u 'isl 


irin 




inalyfin) 




L199. 


alt', a miya, 1 


u ti.-'in 


3,000,000. 


talat ma 1 . \ ;i 


i 


131 I. 


alf. tultemiya w arbah- 










ihar 











1 ,817 khamaa mal&yin, miyten sitta w arb61n alf, turn 
bar. 
I;im\i;k o. When used with the tens, wahid does not take 
the feminine form, as wahid □ 'ishrin mara. With the hundreds 
it may, but >"in tim< i remains unchanged. 

I;i.m\ i />. The conjunction »•<■, u, is always employed t<> 
connect the units and the tens, and generally the thousands 
and hundreds, bul otherwise is heard only before the 
numeral. 



l-oi the pronunciation of these word 



92 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark c. — The cardinals from 3 to 10 inclusive must (with 
a few exceptions) be followed by a noun in the plural, the re- 
mainder by a singular. 

Remark d. — AVahid (with feminine wahda) is often used with 
the numerals above 10, and occasionally with the units, to em- 
phasize the number, as lean fih kam ragil ? alf wahid hon- wan// 
men were there? a thousand! With numbers under 11, the fern, 
plur. wahdat must be used, whatever the gender of the noun 
understood, there being no other plural form of the unit. Wah- 
diten or itnen wahdat cannot be said. 

Remark e. — The numerals from 200 to 900 (with the excep- 
tion of 600) are formed by the union of the fractional numbers 
with miya, when standing alone, and with its construct form mit 
when followed by a noun, whether beginning with a vowel or 
a consonant. 

Remark /. — "WTien a unit forms part of a number above 99, 
the noun, if expressed, is generally placed between the larger 
number and the unit ; or when the unit is two the dual of the 
noun may be substituted for it, as mtt kitab u wahid 1"1 I 
mit kitab wi tnen (or mtt kitab we kit&ben) 1"' boohs. If the 
whole number precedes, the noun is usually in the plural, being 
influenced by the unit immediately before it, as miya a khamss 
kitabat. Miya u khamsa kitab is admissible, but slovenly. 
Miya u wahid kitabat is occasionally heard for miya u wahid 
kitab. 

Remark g. — The following expressions should be noted : 
itnen talata two or three ; kitiben talata two or thret book* : 'ashar 
itn&shar kitab ; ihna litnen both of us ; humma t talata all three of 
them. 

% 98. The ordinal numbers from first to truth are : — 

1st. auwil, auwilani (f. 6th 



ula, 1 amvilaniva) 
2nd. tan) ff. tanya) 
3rd. talit (f. talta) 
1th. rabi' (f. rab'a) 

5th. khamis (f. khamsa) 



7th. sd.i' (f. gal 
8th. tainin (f. tamna) 
9th. taai' (f. t 
Kith. 'asbir(f. 'ash, a) 



The remaining ordinals are identical with the cardinals, 
as ir i I tashar the 19th num. 

1 Ola savours of nahwy, and, as an adjective, is rarely heard. 
It, is used, as ii also the regular fern, atra ila, of the first prmj 

DOOC on Friday. 

8 Nation s.idis, sadiaBi 



THE NUMERALS 93 

§ 100. The ordinal.- below 10, except the form auwilanl, ma) 
i noun definite in sense without varying their 
ler, neither taking the article ; or noun and ordinal may . 
odef, the ordinal following the noun, and both taking the 
article, as talit ragfl, talit mara, or ir ra«:il it talit, il mara t 
bait* the 3rd man, the Srd woman. The former construction is 
the more idiomatic. Tani yum signifies the nej~t day or the day 
foUo I Lnl yftm il 'id the day following the festival at 

.'//'/ day of the festival. Last is expressed by the word akhii. 
which may also precede the noun, or by akhii ani, which fol- 
lows it. 

1 . The Turkish ordinals from 1 to 9 are also in use, but 
they are almost entirely restricted to military matters. They 
are aa follows : — 



1st. biringi 
2nd. ikingi 
3rd. utshingi 1 
4th. durtingi 
5th. beehingf 



6th. altingi 
7th. yedingi 
8th. sekizingi 
9th. dukuzingi 



s' 102. The Italian words berimu, sukundu (or sugundu !, 
used far L-t, 2nd and Srd clans on the railways, 

3. The numeral adverbs once,i . . .. are expi 

■ I •. by the help of the word marra tone, as marra wahda, 

marraten, talat mi , or by the use of a verbal noun of th<- 

tion, and generally of the same root, as an accom- 

darabtu darbiten, talat darbat / struck him 

. thrice. - ' </.) 

I; [ark. Notice th<- expressions darabtu anwil marra wi t 

tan_\ n. darabtu marraten wi balata ; kulle ydm wi t 

. or kulle ydrnen or kulle tan] ydm every ■ auwil l> 

auwil tU; auwil w&hid A 1 . talit hum or it talit fthfim (oi 

minhum) the fit ml >>ne of them . itnen ti talata ' • thi 

ta f arba'a to multiply tin-" by four. 

i. Multiplicative adverbs are rendered by the word blq 
with v 1 j* • :nti<l>- followed by the cardinal nun. 
huwa ghanl 'anal it (aq itnen, ir hlq b 

/ . . - .in trabla about 

tunes as muili a 

1 I D ' iiiju. 

2 Sukundu if i >>f an under servant. 



94 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 105. The following multiplicative adjectives are in use : — 



mufrid 


sinijle, simple 


mesabba' 


L-fold 


migwiz, 


two-fold, 




(mesoba') 




luctanni 


double 




metammin 


eight-fold 


metallit 


three-fold, 


cube 


(rnetuniin) 




inerabba' 


fourfold, 
square 




met.i 

(metosa') 


nine-fold 


mekhammis 


j ire-fold 




me'ashshar 


tetirfold 


inesattit 


six-fold 




(me'Osbar) 


1 


(mesaddis) 











g 106. Distributive adjectives are expressed by the cardinal 
numerals, as follows: — 



wahid wahid one by one 
wahid ba'de one after the 
wahid other 

or we may repeat the noun, as : 



sitta sitta by ei. 



khatwa 

khatwa 



step by step 



ragil ragil, 
kitab 
kitab 



one man, book, 
at a time ; 



or the notion is gathered without any repetition, as nizil La 
salalim sillimten he came downstairs two steps at a time. 

Remark. — Wahda wahda is used adverbially in the sense of 
slowly, cautiously, wahda kede u wahda kede — half and half. 
Tura is used of things that arc sold iii fours, ae 'ishrtn turit 
laiiiun ; dasta of a packet <fa doti ■> >/t ; 'ishrtntya of a 

of piastres { • rival). - 

L07. Numeral adjectives of the form burakl 8 express the 
number of parts of which the Bubstantive with which thej .. 
is composed, as maglis sulasi, khum 
■In- ■ ,five, /" rsons. 



1 The forms mesoba', .w., arc used mostly In the sei 
possx ■< as dlk me'oahar a cock with i In 

other cases abu, umm, &c., are used with the cardinal, as omm 

alha'a w arln'-'m motif r ),i.v.th - 261.) 

Pox gi ■■ <i pair, Bee ;' S 1 3. 
■ These words belong to the Chancer) lai uad perhaps 

in- uiil\ one in general 



THE NUMERALS 



95 



§ 108. The fractions are as follows :- 
^ nu-v ] khums 

| tilt' ,' suts 1 



tumn 
tus' 

•iislir 

by periphrasee 



i 
i 

in 



tilt 
- 4 - rub' ] sub' 

.'. Those less than ,',, are expn 
il <ruz- il 'ishiin ininiiu the 80th part of it, SUts il "u.-lir (or 'ushi 
• hitta min talatin ', . guz'gn min ihdashaj 

-fin- min sab'a u sab'ln 18 parts out About 

Id is expressed by 'ishrin wi ksiir (wi kustir). 
Kkmark a. — The plural of the fractions from | to ,',, is 
formed after model (14). 

Remakk b. — The noun in Arabic comes mostly betw< en the 
whole number and the fraction, as khamasl irghifau auss (rarely 
khamast u nus< irghifa) thret loaves and a half. 

i 110. Tli" following examples, with those given in the 
. will illustrate the various ways of expressing the time 
of day. the year, the days of the month and week, and the 
of a person : — 



id iluhr 


noon 


is sans dl alf 


the j 'resent 


qabl, ba'd, 


A.M., I'.M. 


u tultemlya 


year, Arabic 


id iluhi - 




U khuii 


a 1316 


QUSB il h'-l 


mid/night 


bar 






what tune i* it : 


•uabi, or is 




(nr is a&'a 




san 




DD ') 




'arabi (or 












wahda, 


o'clock 


u tulteu 




it r i 




u kham a 




ta'ala li i 


at '-'ojlit 


bar 




■ 


o'clock 


afrangl (car 


A.D. 


.i u rub' 


ti quarter i<a-<t 


afranglj 






fi nu- 


or inil.i'U 




• lit 




i mll&dlya) 




kli.iin>.i u mi-- 


ll at/ 


ti aanat alf 


in tht year 


i u 


fivt mil 




Ji" 


kh.n 




in oahar da 


it is : 


Ola khan 




kh.ilii^i \s.- 


of ." 


. ill. i 




'iahrtn ti 


to-day 


tilt 


to t> II 


ah ahahr, or 








iah ahahr 




ilia, ii. • 




kli.un-,i w .• 




larabil 


ii struck n 


'iahrtn in 




daqqil 1 









' 



96 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



auwil, 

khamsa 
yanayir 

kam fi sh shahr 
in nahar da 



the 1st, the 5th 
of January 

what's the da;/ 
of the mouth 
to-day ? 

Monday 



Kit il khamis 

'umrak kam (or 

kam sana ) ? 
'umri •ishrin 
ibne kharusa, 
taliitin 



Wednesday 

night x 
how old are 

you? 
I am twenty 
a boy of five, a 

man of 

thirty 



nahar (or yom) 

litnen, or 

simply litnen 

Remark. — The Mohammedan lunar months have been super- 
seded by the Latin in Government offices, though the latter are 
only familiar to those who are in contact with Europeans. The 
Coptic are universally known, but they are agricultural months, 
and not in general use. 





VOCABULARY 




ugra (2) 


pay, A//' 


nahar il 


Thursday 


hulls 


poll'' 


khamis 




oafar ( 14) 


person 


nahar ig 


Friday 


bdad ish 


Syria 


gum's 




Sham 




nahar is Babt 


Saturday 


hariqa 


fire 


yanayir 


January 


shahr (13) 


month 


fibrayir 


/'• tiruanj 


siini 


aye 


mars 


March 


shakk - 


cheque 


abril 


April 


fadda 


,s// 


in 1 yu 




diqiqa (18) 


minute 


yunya 


June 


sala 


drawing-room 


yulya 


July 


>ati 


. line, file 


aghuttos 


Augmt 


oahar (or 


Swt 


aibtimbar 


- 


ydm) il 




nktubar 


'<• c 


hadd 8 




nofambar 




nahar it 




disambar 




talal 




pim'a 




nahar il 


Wednesday 


mistaqrab li 


'/»;/. 


arba' (oi 






• t<> 


larb 




tal»h'j 'ala 


i 



■\;i\ . 



The Arabs consider that the night belongs to tlu> follon 



L9. 

thai and y6m may be omitted in each case Fdno Lb 
more generally osed by those who wish t<> speak "correctly." 



THE NUMEBAM 



.]: 



mai. 
j iarif 

yiaallimfi 
yeqfbm 

kunt 
ruht 
tibqa (f.) 

fat 

fatum 
wafit,tammit 

tiha- 

yitla' 

inatil 
rigi 4 

itwjtlad 
D DO 



hapi 

./ killed 

they go 
i tltey 
lie, it, starts 

I ir</,. 

I 

remains, 
comet, 

s/ie pat 
they passed 
it (f . ) 

she, it, reaches, 
comes up tu 

they • 

It- red. 
he was born 
he si' i . 
bed 



qaaam 'ala 
(alls', q 

tizil 
min 
qam 

" iiimauwil 
luh 
taiuaru 

dl 

ilma 
dilwaqti 
an] I 
gh&libao 

ba*d id dubr 
'audi 

'andak 

ah i 

lamina 



97 

he divided by 

he deduct 
from 

he a 

last i/t-ar 
t'i hiii>, fie has 
comply*-, ex- 
actly, just 
this (f.) 

now 
which t 

rally 

■ 

P.M. 

with me, I have 

xritii you, you 
have 

trl/^ri 
like, abmd 



EXERCISE -1 

J) fu'ala wi„ ngrit talatl iyto. Abfty. gib „al 
Uiamtawegabikhwatl larba'a. !1 barf 

bullj ana* ,] kh am aa t aaha r sbaql illi (abb*) 'amnamri] -at ■ talat 
:"•"' h, " t 'l' u -•'' "« mauwitfl wftkid we fehrtn nafar G 
piual u rub«emit hu^n u wahid min bildd iah ahAm. 
Y';."" ""*« Khamastalaf.miytenu-aabamto, 

,; 1 i| " 1 .>:-; ,;1 '" ! ""- l! "-< «- yi-allina <ala aahabhum. 

11 lI . klU !*! """ - T,r u - .l.i- rafl we khalli Ui li 1 

h " m ~ u ' ' ','"•■ '" "■■''■" ■«■■• "Atfd b teUfttn li afa shahr 

"»" J ^nduni alf Q suttemtya sitta 

;.;"'"• J* 'If u tumnemlya tis'a u ti 

•; U>1 '"'■• »' m taldt. sibtimbar. ttna dilwaql 
kbam.rtl.hu ukl Ibar. II qaa 






98 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

il lei. Fi ani sa'a yequm il babur? Ghaliban yequm is s&'a 
hidashar ilia khamsa ba'd id duhr; taiyib, haddar il 'afsh; fen 
isli shanta t talta ? Enta kunte fen? ana ruhte betak khamas 
marrat. Khamsa fi sab'a tibqa khamsa u talatln. 'Ishrtn min 
tamantn tibqa sittin. Fi arbe'in 1 kam 'ashara u kam tamanya \ 
Huwa bne wahid w arbe'in sana. Abuya ragil kibir qaw5 li a 
-inn ; 'u'.nru aiyada 'an mit sana. 'Andak kam I Fi eh ( is s;Va ? 
La 1 , fi vsinnak. Mehammad akbar min Hasan bi santen. Khud 
ish shakk we hat It sab'a we 'ishrin gineh min il bank, itn.'n 
fad da w arba'a nsas 2 wi 1 baqyin suhah. Tilt.'-n u khamast i 
tibqa talata u suts. Bukra nahar il hadd we huwa fikhir y8m 
ish shahr. Enta safirt f auwil aghustus walla fi akhir yulya \ 
Qasam 'ashara 'ala khamsa. Qata' tamantashar min sitta u 
sittin? Larama safirt ana kan khamsa fi sh shahr. Is sa'a kam 
'andak? Sa'tak kam ? Daqqit kam ? Darabit tamanya u DUgs. 
Mistaqraba li tnashar. Wafit hidashar. Tammit itnashar u 
rub'. Naqsa diqiqten li larba'a. 'umiak kam sana i 'audi 
talatin fatum. Hiya thassal itnashar. Yitla' ii S sinn 
khamsin sana.. 'umri yitla' 'ishrin tauiiim. Huwa mi-taqrah 
li t tamanin. Yigi arba'a u nuss. 8 

EXERCISE 22 

There are 320 books on the shelves in the drawing-room. 
2-41 7 men were killed 4 in the battle. The wine-merchants * 
sold 15,201 bottles in five months. The tourists bought more 
than 8000 carpets ill the bazaars. There are 640 sheep, 93 
buffaloes, 5 cows, and •"> goats in the enclosures. There are 29 
days in February this year. There are 12 month-. 52 w< 

and iM>53 "lays in the year. Fight times thirty are 240. I 

came to Egypt in (the) beginning ° of (the) year 1887. II 

in the second week of January and returned at 7 the end " of the 

month. My father is older than my mother; h.> i- titt\ 

The bunk- are the M\th ;ilid seventh on the fourth shelf. He 

was the 1 went \ tirst man in the tile. December m the last 

1 itli of the year. I bave been ten times in Paris and tit't. 

in London. We returned 11 to Ggypl on the "_ ,v; ;l mber. 

1 ( »r ii 1 arbd'ln. 

£ 1 in half sovereigns j four lialt* sovereigns would be 
■ l aderstand ii e 
4 Trans, died, '•' Ti •■■ . 

''■ auwil. T ii. thir, 

v Trans. Ia.< aj> is jifty-.-ije. u ' R HUM H ' 



THE PRONOUN 90 

Ivefrom twenty-six leaves fourteen. There are mow than 
four and a half million people in London. 19 is the quart 
" ,; - Half of two and a half is one and a quarter. It 
o'clock. He will come at 8 5-30, h wants three minufc 

:. The boy was born twenty minutes aftei mid- 
He went to bed at a a quarter to ten, and got up at 
twenty minutes tu nine, 

THE PRONOUN 

THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS 
§ 111. These are: — 

SfHOUL&B 

MASC. FEM 

1st pers. ana ana 

2nd pers. inta, enta j, lt] - 

3rd pers. huwa, hua, huwa 3 (hawwa) hlya 

Plural fob both Gendeba 
1st pers. ihna 
2nd pers. intu (or int.um) 
3rd pers. liuiiuria, hum 
112. Huwa is sometim ; to Ml, hd, hu, or ho 

when preceded by the conjunction wa (always so pronounced in 
this connection . the particles ma, da, the preposition fen u 
the interrogative pronouns mln, man. the inseparable intern 
ti\,- particle an, en, and the interjections ha, a, ... The length of 
the firsl rowel depends on the emphasis thrown on it. Similarly 
hlya becomes hlya, bl, hi (occasionally also ha), while humma is 
shortened to hum; thus wahu gih and 1 wahya « 

ya mahu latff! howagreeabh h. is / dkh6 thafs Ju ' 
mmhu? whoulu .' fenhu (also fenu)1 when i»h 1 &Uth 
Rkmaeb a.--Hoisusedasan interjection, without .1: 
"•'••'\<" "' ■!•" wions binah61 km mux 

l;,MWI •; With "'- negative particles ma and ah, ana 
become, manieh; huwa mush, mush, or mish, and hlya mahish 

'"", "' , ; f" 11 " 1 '"""- mahuwaah or mahOsh and mahn 
manyaao 

Whenemph 
forms, ol com . emnhai 

Live. 



100 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 113. As verbal suffixes expressing the accusative, the 
personal pronouns take the following forms : — 





Sin- 


gular 




M ISC. 






FEM. 


1st pers. ni 






ni 


2nd pers. ak, k 






ik, kt 


3rd pers. u, u, h 






ha 



Plural for both (Ienders 

1st pers. oa 
2nd pers. ku, kum J 
3rd pers. hum 

§ 114. ak, ik and u are used after consonants; /r, hi and h 
after vowels ; e.g. : — 



darabni 

darabnak 

darabik 

khallaki 

darabha 



he struck i»e 
we struck thee 
he struck thee 

he left tlvee 

hf struck her 



darabukii they struck you 
(plur.) 

iddilmi '-' give it to TM 

ma darab- ice did 
nahsh strike him 

madarabuhah they did not 
strike him 



§ 115. The vowel u becomes ri when placed immediately be- 
tween the verb and the sh of the aegative, as ma darabuah he did 

nut strike //////.'■ Ma daralmash is occasionally heard for DM 
darabnahsh, and ma darabuah for ma darabuha 

.^110. The a of a feminine adjective or participle is li 
ened when taking a verbal Buffix, as htya 'auzak > (is 

wanting) you, hlya mestanniyahum sht is awaiting t) 

M7. Tlic personal pronouns are also appended to preposi 
tions and other indeclinable parts of Bpeech in truncated forma, 
which will be best illustrated by :t few examples; it will be 
observed that the prepositions themselves sometimes under] 
change. 

1 K a and kum are used optionally in mo L'he latter 

is, however, more "educated," as being the only form used in 

H lit iic_'. 

\n instance of two suffixes attached to the same verb. 
8 Ma darabush maj thus mean either //'■ did 
or they did n <t strike, or even ti m. 



THE PRONOUN 

1. I'.i fry, with, to: — 



101 



>IM.I UK 

Ma ~ fem. 

• 1st pen. blya, bl blya, l>i by m* 

2nd [..is. bak, bik, bik 1 bik, bikl, blld by 

bnh,Doh,bu biha, biha him, her 

l'l.i BAL FOB BOTB I iKNDBBS 

1st pers. bina 
2nd pare, bikum, blkum, l.ukum 
3rd pers. bihum, bihum, buhum 

'J. Li/o.— 

SlNGULAB 

" ' EM. 

1st pers. li. liya 11, llya 

2nd pers. lak, ]ik )ik. (iki 

3rd pers. luh- loh, lu laha, liha 

J'i.i kai. km: BOTH GBKD] 

1st pers. lina, lana 
2nd pers. likum, Inkum 

3rd pers. luhtun 

Rkmabk. When sta n d ing alone, or with the negative termi 
■ p . generally l.ik,' lik for the 

id l'iki (blkl), liki for the fern.; bqt bak, lak for the 
. and bik, lik for the fem. when appended to a \. 
other word. /.'.</. : — 



lik sa'a ! 

liki g 

ma i 

ma Udah(for 
ma liklsh) 



•■ ■ in. 'i 
watch : 

>.'i"i a hus- 
ban 
Imi' you imt a 
watch ! 

lull' I/mi lint U 

husband ? 



iddl lak 

idda lik 

ma lak .' 



you 



(m.) 

II /lilt IS ! 

matt' 

i in. | 



EUmabk. The forms blya and Llya are u^-.\ when standing 
done, bl and II when appei ther words, includi 

form bika 1- used in th< ezpreai 
'" ni IflV ' ■ on from. 

• The h oi l.ul,, luh is alwaya dropped unleaa thi 

• I. 



102 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

rally the negative particles, and occasionally by themselves. The 
vowel of lu is lengthened with the negative when the h is dropped, 
as ma luhs (or ma lftsh) he has not} "With the first person we 
have ma lish or (less usually) ma liyash. 

3. Ma', mi' with .— 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. mi'i, ma'aya; neg. ma mi'ish mi'i, ma'aya with 

me, &c. 
2nd pers. raa'ak, ma'ak ; neg. ma ma'ak&h ma'aki ; neg. ma 

ma'akish 
3rd pers. ma'ah, mi'u ; neg. ma mi'ush ma'aha,mihha; neg. 

ma ma'ahash 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. ma' ana, mi'na, mihna 
2nd pers. rna'aku, ina'akum, mihkum 

4. Fi in : — 

Singular 

masc. FEM. 

1st pers. fiya; neg. ma fiyash fiya 

2nd pers. fik fiki 

3rd pers. fib ; neg. ma fihsh, ma fish, ma fi'iish- fiha 

Plural fina, &c. 

Remark. — Fih often signifies simply there is as well as 
is in //, ma fihsh there is not ; and the A, when they are ased in this 
way, i.s often dropped, especially in the negative, as ma fish 
hadde hina there is nobody here. 

5. Wara behind.' — 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. war&ya war&ya 

2nd pers. warak warakl 

3rd pers. warah waraha 

Plural waiana. Ac 

§ lis. Similarly, other prepositionfl ending in a vowel; l>ut 
i "t ■ that 'ala <■>> changes 'i to ''. thus 'alfiya, l ali lv. &c, and in 

1 Ma lliusli (for ma lltmsh) is also said, hut the above are the 
more usual contrad ions, 

'-' < >r, 1>\ assiniilat ion. in i t'u'ush. 



THE PRONOUN 103 

the third pers. ring, may, Like fi, drop its h with the negative 
making ma'alSsh For ma'alehsh.' Hawalen around generally 
drops its », and so belongs to this class. (See § 75.) 
Minyhwj; — 

Singular 
masc. FE ^ 

1st pers. minni m i nn j 

2nd pers. minnak minnik 

3rd pers. minnu m i n h a and (rarely) minniha* 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. minna (or minnina) 
2nd pers. minku, minkum (rarely minnuku) 
3rd pers. minhum (rarely ainnuhum) 

formt n// ° m ' t,U ' n Slnii, ' ul - V doublea tl '" "' but has no duplicate 

119. Other prepositions ending in a consonant present no 
irregularities, so that a single example will suffice:— 

'And with, ,if : — 

Singular 

, «. „ Mwr - ran. 

1st pers. 'audi <all( j i 

2nd pers. 'andak /. lllllik 

•''"1 pers. 'andu («anduh)«; neg. ma'andush «andiha 
('anduh 

Plural fob bote Genders 

1st pers. 'and ina 

2nd pers. 'andukti (kum) 
3rd pers. 'anduhum 

Remark a. -h is sometimes heard at the end of the 3rd 
pers. sung., and before thesA of the negative. Nfo1 
1- lengthened in the uegative form. 

120. Tin- suffixes are appended to the conjunctions inn 
that, i/./.av, i/./.'v how, tauw until, and a few others. With the 
conjunctions they have the Bame forms as when attached to 

1 In prepositions ending in a, the h Bhould be maintained 
though warash is sometimes heard, 
minnah, as Bpitta. 
Cahl I onetimes used for tahtu, as more em- 

phatic, so tahttk, &o. Bimilarly qablth befm 

(it l>. : 



104 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EOYPT 



prepositions ; e.g. inni, innilia that I, that she, izzayak (or izzeyak) : 
how are y</u ? Lana is sometimes heard for l;"mi. With the 
particle ha we have hahu, hahe, hahum. The 1st pars, retains 
its full form, thus ha ana. 1 

Remark a. — The negatives md t Id are never used with the 
suffixes of the 2nd pers. sing, and plur. 

Remark l>. — The sign of the 2nd pers. sing, appears in a few 
adverbs, or words used adverbially, as qawamak, tyak, Ac- Bard 
becomes bardiya, with the suffix of the 1st pers. sing. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

§ 121. When appended to nouns, the same suffixes Berve to 
express the genitive case of the personal pronouns, as baladi the 
village of me, i.e. my village. They take the forms appended 
above to the prepositions 'and and wara, according as they end 
in a consonanl or a vowel, except that in t\\<- case of feminine 
singulars and plurals ending in a the suffix is attached 
construct form ; e.r. : — 



bSti 


my house 


siggadtak 


thy '•«/•/ et 


kitabak 


thy l< ml; 


(for sig- 




bintu 


his daughter 


gaditak) 




idha 


her ha ml 


raqabtik(ra- 


thy (f.) neck 


babna 


our iloor 


qabitik ) 




qalamhum 


their pen 


waraqitna 


our /■ i 


ibnuhum 


their son 


khulafithum 


thi ir caliph* 


gahnina 


our dish 


gha^aya 


my ■•■ 


riglik 


thy (f.) foot 


kursiki 


thy (f.) '-hau 


sut'riti 


my dining-tahle. 







ReMARB a. A lilt (al>) father add 8 the Buffixi S t.i its emisirucT 

form abu, tlms abuya my ■ , abukf, abuhum, Ac. Akhkh 
(akh) makes akhuya, akhuk, akhuki, akhlna, akhtku, akhihum. 
In the vocative ya khi (i.e. ya akhi) is used as well as ya khuya, 
and occasionally ya khaiy, when the speaker wishes to com 
reproach, as ikhtishl ya khaiy. 8 Ya l>a , father And \.i mma 
my m other are heard for ya abuya and ya ummt. 4 



//,/ i-. n..' ii^.vi with t he Recond p- i 

r0, nmler a, Qote. 
• llaasic diminutive ukhaiy. 
' l I ii I | ■ i ■• i I", j pi ya mma) a i* used. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

tr J : 7' PWsof Reform buwka, and some others ,,.. 

^."»~» termmating in long a, as in classical Arabic^ 
^ -Hu-n.-.l and the t added as well, as n, 

.khu],f ;i t,,,„,,,,/ v ^, sll .; u , shivath ,;,• 

•■'^ , ' • The same is the case with a few 

t.-.....n,H. sm.n.lar. ,„ „. M l, lir | 1; - llmiII „,. , v A|/| .^ 

mawe.' [khwa /.,-„>/„ ,•.<. ,/,/,,,, ma kes ikhwati 

Hkmakk.-. Somenonnsin t take y only in the first pen 
as baladly mp countryman (f or baladtya). Verbal nouns, J> ,„,-' 

:/. usually msert y, and are thus treated as ending in 
^n»nt throughout^ as inaglyu (or magfh)A« comingTZeiyl 
*- «gO0 |~r —i* Sgiyina (mag^a? 

Nouns ending in long accented d or 6 insert /, between the 

vowel and suffij, as bur61 ,.■/,„..,-,/ , , tll . r V , ' 

>chang< >the final vowel into*, as baltfya (or baltl : 

■ 1,:il,, - v; ' k ""• ^t& .< .,/. ballina «r /J/ s,ku 
// makes sakwi. 

1; ', M '- K '•■ The ,P 088 essive adjective beta', with the suffixes 
^ where xt would be clumsy to append ihein ,.. th, ££ 
teelf. Femimne plurals in & are many of them nol considered 
{•«* the suffixes; thus we say * feft, betu'i .„, , 

tr ,:,M ' ' disappearan, E the una! n with the 

suffixes ,., thedual oi ld,rigl,and di 71 

, ,, l; The full form of the pronoun may in all . 

MW award which already has the suffix, as beti ana o, 
"" j ^alehumhumma,darabnahna/« ^Z 

, ;' I MV Turkish suffix m (-Arabic!) occurs in the 

otha words borrowed from that language 

bheUterarylanguaj 

1 the Greek Avlcvnp. 

1 : "^ militarj grades, as onl 



106 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



VOCABULARY 



shabah 
khalaqa 

makhdum 

hurma 
gumla, gimla 

maktab 

geb 

isfalt, asfalt 

'agala 

raqaba 

hamat 

bizr 

sha'ir(ll) 

bass 

ta'alu 

tailaq 

ya'nl 
akubb 

rabatil 

rafasft 



likeness 

bit of old cloth- 
ing, rag 

master (of ser- 
vant) 

woman, lady 

total, quantity, 
number 

writing-room 

pocket 

aspJtalt 

wheel, bicycle 

neck, collar 

mother-in-law 

xrr'dn 

poet 

he look' 'I, 

peered 
tome (pi.) 
he divorct d 
that is to say 
/ will pour 
they fasti ned, 

bound 
they Licked 



gibt 
talla* 


/, you brought, 
have brought 
take out 


safrit 


travelled (f. 


sallim 


sing.) 
■ h liver 


bi't, biht 


yOU sold 


zara'na, 




zarahna 


twed 


nisit 


J, you, forgot) 




liar- 


ti'raf , ta'raf 


guff' n 
you 1: 


tuq'ud 
uqaf 


you sit 

stop (imperat.) 


miggauwiz 


marrying, 




married to 


medauwar 


looking r 


'a la 


for 


niaslihur 




leinn 


that, in i - 




that 


ganb 


by tl 




if ir 



EXERCTSE 23 

Ummiha qa*da 'ala kursiha we hawaldha wiladha. A.buya 
basse ti wishshiha we qal liha: "Ya hinti inti ahabah ummik 
tamam." FGnisaagayir betti'ak? Bumma 'andi li gebi. I 
ya gid'an, ana mistannlku. tr ragil ghanl qawl w ana mabsut, 
ya nkliti, le innik miggauwizah. Ma lush akhkhe mau| 

Guzha tallai|lia. wiliva ' khadit khalaqitha W6 rah it 'alftbdtal 

Ijuua darab akhuk? La', darabnl ana; w ana w ak 
darabnah darba kuwaiyisa. 11 qalam illi 'andak beta' akhti 

la', huwa beta'! ana: akhina (i)ddah li. 1 1 iva inata b 

guzha tdyiha tamam. I> ragil illi ganbil khtiha wi 111 

ya i.a (waraya ana) ibne 'ammiha. II _ it mihha, I- 

kh illi ma li'i'i>h malli iiin-h ku\vai\ is. Shuft <• l.:ilt i \ 1 la', ana 

kaman medauwar 'aldh. [s sitte 'auzAkt fi $ ? [mratudai 

Bumma dddh 1 abuk 1 li abflk I 

1 Pot wi hi j 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 107 

ddatd lak walla ltya? lik. II walad ill i <piddamik ibnik? Liki 
wilful ya hurmal la', ma lish. Ruh udt in ndm bet • we I 

i illi fiha 'ala s $utuh,u naffadhum taiyib. II haramiya 
gum \uidina 1 fi 1 1§1, we Baraqu minna fulusna. Inta nsit baltik 
fibitna. Shu'arana mashhurfn 'an shirarit biladkum.- 'Arb - 
Ma>i- ahsan min hammaritha. Is sitte gat mi'l we kan abuha 
kaman ma'ana. Humma baladtyatt, ya'nl kullina min balad 
wahda. Va khi ana qultilak inni 'aiyan. F.'n baraqihha ? ana 
'Mithum 3 liha auwil inbarib. Ghasalte i-lTya ri 1 fasqtya betahtak. 
bu 1 walad gumlit darbat 'ala riglgh. Wahda min ■ 
it min it tanva. Inta khadt id daftar betaf, w ana 'auzu 
bukra. Shaiva-Q li 1 lC-la. 

KXERCTSE 24 

Have you seen my inkhorn ? Look around for it; it was 01. 
the table in tin- writing-room yesterday. He fell off his 1 
and broke both his anna. Her aunt is tin daughter of a cele- 
brate 1 brigand. Open your hands, and I will pour the watei 
oyer them. They tied my arms behind my bark, threw me 

ad, and kicked me 4 on my head and shoulders. 5 I 
have brought an apple for your little girl and two or three j 
for her brother; give them to them (in) the morning. I; 
you brought your pen with you; The lady who travelled with 
him is his mother-in-law. Have you Been my stick 1 Y s, I 
it in the corner behind your umbrella. Where did you put mj 
olio? I put it on your writing-table with'"' the papers 
in it. A small boy put his hand in her pocket and I 
her j • of 7 it, but she seized him by 7 his collar and ha 

him t.. th.- police. Have you any land i No. l sold it to m\ 
brothei . We have sown the seeds in our garden. I have brought 

i your h< I od ! give it to them. Stop 

the house in front ' of you. My bicycle is newer than yours. I 

hav< her name. The servant is like his master. The 

ryhot; why are you sitting in it i Where is my chair? 
A. lad} is sitting on it. The gentleman who w>) with her g 

• • 



| TIJ. 

With (In) th> ir 

<>j $hould 

hi. : min. 

I ; ■ 

■ d. 



108 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS 

§ 122. There is no distinct form tor the reflexive pronoun in 
Arabic. Its place is supplied by the personal pronoun, with or 
without a preposition, or by one of the words nafs self, ruh soul, 
spirit, shakhs (or sakhs), /.at person, with the possessive suffixes, 
or by the word ba'd, with or without the suffixes ; eg. : — 

khallik hadir keep yourself iltaqit ruhha sJu found her- 
ready guwa bet « If inside a 

shuf lak get yourself a house 

'arabiya carriage gih huwa he came in 

mauwit nafsu he killed shakhsu person 

hi in self ana zati / myself 

khadu ba'd or tliey took th> m- 
ba'duhum % off 

§ 123. Till length is sometimes used in the same way. as lamme 
lulu //<■ pacJced himself off', 1 and iii the case of mental operations 
tin- winds bal i/iiu</, 'aql intelligence, as ana sh&wirte 'aqll (or 
nafsi) / took counsel with myself, qal ii balu Ic said within, to, 
himself. Zat and nat's, as also 'aid and bal, may In- used together, 
The second word only taking the suffix, as huwa zat nafsu (or 
huwa hi zat nafsu) !,< Ins very self, qal ti 'aqle balu. Ilalati 
halatak '-' (literally my, your, condition) have the force of reflexive 
pronouns in such expressions as ragil zeye halati a man such as 
myself. Ba'd also expresses the idea, of reciprocity or mutuality 
(generally without, but often with, t he suffix), as darabna ba'd 
.■■/nick (in'- another, mauwitu ba'duhum tltey slew om another. 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUJN 
J; 124. The demonstratives are : — 

(') 



M \S<\ 

da, dili, and (rarely) deh 



mm. 
di. di 



th in 



l'l.i i: \i. FOB i."i II ( iEH DER8 

d61, ddlt, dola, ddlal 

Rbmarb <i. Dih is more emphatic than da. the latter being 
'lv used as an < i ol it ie. throwing back it- accent to the 
ceding word. 

i . the expression ana g£l hi tuli or (ul I 
alone. 

Onl\ t be two persons are in use. 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 10'J 

Remark h. — In the "midlna" or city 1 dah is often heard 
for <lih, and dlya for « I i . 

Remark c.- When da stands alone immediately before the 
personal pronouns, the latter may either remain unchanged or 

me the truncated forms described above, as da huwa or da 
b.6 that's he. 

Remark d. — Both the singular and the plural forms are need 

irately, or in close connection with a substantive, which takes 
the definite article, and almost invariably precedes the pro 
noun; e.g. ir ragil dih, ir ragil da, il mara di, il mara 1 di, ir 

Lladdl; but da khaddam this {man is) a servant, d&\ betu'i 
these {arc) mine. Ddli is rarely, and ddla, ddlat are perhaps uevei 
heard with a noun. The latter form i> mostly used In women. 

(2) Singular. 

M.\sr. — dik-ha, duk-ha, dik-hat,duk-hat, dik-haiya, dik-haiyat, 
duk-haiyat, dik-hauwa, duk-hauwa. 

Fkm. — dik-ha, dik-hat, dik-haiya, dik-haiyat, ami ^seldom and 
incorrectly) duk hat and duk-haiyat that. 

Plural for both Genders 
Duk-ham, duk-hamma, dukhuinnia and (occasionally) dik- 

haiinna and dikdiaiyat I 

1 )a. dili, Sec., are often used together with dik-ha, >V<-., to give 

ter distinction to tin- object t<> which they refer, 1- ir-ragil 

duk-ha dih, il hal> duk-hauwa dih, il mara dik-haiya di, tliat man. 

in yonder : duk-ham ddl illi quddamak thoee there in 

front of you. They are further used with another form, dak 

(below), which seldom stands by itself . It remains unchanged 

thus : dak dih. dak di, dak ddl. 

Remark. Ddl is occasionally heard with the singular forms 
(including dik), giving them a plural sense, as 'Ink ha ddl, duk 
hauwa ddl, dik ddl, <Hk haiya ddl, dik-ha1 ddl. 

(:}) I>ik (or dik). dak (/ak),-' tilk masc. and fern. that. 
They are used with a few words expressive of time, a> dik in 
:. tilk il ydm that day, dak il waqt that time, ti tilk il Idla 
\at night, and have no plural form. Thej musi be imm< 
• li.itfh followed bj I be ai I icle. 
I Zalik that'. 
This word is seldom beard in tin' colloquial language, 



/ . in the Bidna l Hi- i., Gamallya, ami nei 
quai ' 

\ nahw\ form "t the literary dhak, and 1 irelj beai 1 



110 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

then only in a neuter sense, as min ba'de zalik after that, after- 
wards ; ma' zalik in spite of that, however. 

The particle a, or (occasionally) ha and ma, maybe prefixed to 
the personal pronouns in their shortened forms, giving them a 
demonstrative sense, as aho (aho), 1 hab.6 ! ahe, ahi! ahum! then: 
'he, she is, the// are ! mahum but there they are! 

Remark. — The full forms are sometimes heard, as ahumnia. 
Aho may be used adverbially of the feminine as well as the mas- 
culine. Thus a woman may say dana (da ana) aho here / am. 
We cannot, however, say il bint aho there is the girl, though we 
may say ah6 il bint ahe. 

Remark 6. — The feminine demonstrative di, di, with a. ■>, or 
ma prefixed, is used adverbially, as voild .' in French, without 
distinction of gender or number, but the noun must be ex- 
pressed, as adi ragil wisikh, niara battala that's a dirty man, a 
bad woman; adi qershen here are tim piastres. The union of ana 
with adi results in the forms adini, adi'ni, adin, or adin, as adini 
hina quddamak, adin get. 

Remark c— Da, and even the fern. di. are also used adver- 
bially in certain cases. (See Syntax, § -11G.) 

Remark d. — In the expressions il y6m to-day, il 161a to-night, 
is subh this morning, is sana this year, ish shitwtya this winter, and 
a few others, the article has the force of a demonstrative pronoun. 

THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 
§ 125. The interrogative pronouns are : — 

(1) ?klin irh'ii e, t'jl, <*sh, Ilia '.' what t 

Remark a. — Min may have the short form of the j" i 
pronouns attached to it. as minhu? who is /it/ but it i> more 

usual to say niiu huwa, &C. 

Remark 6. — Esh or ish (as i1 sounds when followed by a con- 
sonant) Lb of much rarer use than §. It is a shortened form oi 
.'• she 1 i what * - 

Remark c. E, 6h, with the preposition li prefixed, forme the 
interrogative adverb \i\\( u-hyf 

(2) Singular. 

MaSO. anliu. enlui, aiiliun, eiiln'in anlii, enhi, anh< . 

huwa, enliuwa (anhuwa, enbuwa). 

I'i m. cnliin. anlii. enhi, anhe, enhe, anhtya, enhtya. 

I'l.fi;.-— aiiliun, enlnin. aiiliuiu. enlmiu which, whoti 

1 For the aocent, Bee J 39. 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN" 111 

Rem lbs i. — The maac. anhu is occasionally used with a 
nine noun. 

forma which end in a vowel •'.. 
is on tin- final Byllable b in of anhuwa, an! 

where it La always on the penultimate) when they stand a] 
and on the penultimat • when they are followed by the 
oar other word whieh they qualify, as anhu I 

' ii anhi hi't. bal.id ^ in which fionse, town? The accent i-. 
however, sometimes on the final syllable when the demonstrative 
■ la follows, as anha-da I • for anhu dal Those which end in a con- 
sonant are only u.-,e<l alone, the indeclinable an; being substituted 
tor the plural forms. 

(3) A for both genders and all numbers. 

as ani ragil ? ani mara I ani bilad .' 

THE RELATIVE PROXuUN 

j 126. The relative pronouns are, for all genders and num- 
bers : — 

(1) Illi, used both of animate and inanimate obj< 
(*2) Ma, ma, used mostly of inanimate ol> 
Remark a, — The personal pronouns may be u r em- 

•■ illi and a verb expressed or understood, as illi 
huwu gih. ill i hiya binl S > ri 372.) 

' i ted only where the object to which it 

1 or not defined by the article, as 'ala shan ma 

qal "it account "/that which ■ ihsan ma kan 'hicfi) 

; lit ma kan henak during the tin 
kulle ma a tqul lu whatever >jiu say to him, ya ma saraqt o qatalt 

kill* d (i.e. 
number <>/ robl .'). 4 

lbs '■. -Whoa la expressed by illi and the personal 
oded to the noun, aa ir ragil illi huganu gih, literall j I 

I he word min (Koranic man) is used in pi 
illi in some pi mi religious <■•. 

without it, Allah vunsurak 
•ala min yi'adlk God 

i 1 also with kull ( id with au« U 

I min shuftu, ac. 



anhuh da than anb 
* The final vowel La pronounced almost short. 



112 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN 

§ 127. The indefinite pronouns are : — 

Kullemin (kulle min kan, kulle min qam) whosoever ; ey, eyiha x 
(or eyuha) whichever, whatever; eye wahid, eyiha (eyuha) wahid 
tohichever one ; kulle manhu whoever, whosoever; hesu (followed by 
the subs, verb kan) whatever ; wahid erne, somebody; hadd somebody, 
anybody ; fulfill, il fulani 2 such a one ; kaza 3 such. 

Remakk a. — Kulle min is generally accompanied by the verb 
kan or qam. 

Remark //. — Kv is usually followed by the genitive form in in,* 
when the latter is followed by a verb, as min eve betin kan, 
baladin kanit from whatever house, village, it mat/ be. (See Syntax, 
§ 454.) 

$ 128. II wahid corresponds to the English one in one hopes 
for the best. II insan (linsan) or il insan minna is used in the 
same way. (See Syntax, § 443.) 

THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN 

§ 129. The distributive pronouns are : — 

Kull every, kulle wahid everyone, kulle min (with kan), kulle 
manhu each, ba'd, minba'd (either alone or followed by the pre 
position min) some, tani other, bashqa one thing, another thing. 6 



V< )CABULARY 



kalam 


word, talk 


lisan 


tongue 


guwar 


environs 


fi'l 


deed 


matrah 


place 


Vsh 


bread 


mahiya 


salary 


ahl il bCt 


Janti/y 


mas'ala 


question, 


qartb (18) 


relation 




matter 


shidda 


violence 


sibil 


(I rin hi it. if- 


auwil 


' ■ finning 




fountain 


qirsh, qirshe 


a tariff piastre 


khadd&m 


servant 


Bagh 





1 The accent is generally on the antepenult. 
- Kulfm never takes the article, while its adjective fulani is 
never without it. 

3 Kaza is the nahu v form of the ;i'l\vHi kede (el.i- 

4 Bui see g 63 c, note. 

6 For othei w.i\> >ing distribution and division, *ee 

Syntax, §g 138 12. 



THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN 



113 



kelubb(klubb)<-/u6 


shiribt 


/ drank 


akbir 


end 


txwaddi 


it (f.) lea 


kebir, kibir 


old 




con 


kullu 


the whole of it 


qui 


say, i \ \ 


•at. -ban 


th irsty 




(imperat.^ 


nazil 


descending 


quit 


/, you, said 


mashi 


walking on foot 


tenam 


you t 


waqif 


standing, 


beyikkallini 


he in speaking 




stopping 


'an 


of 


marbut 


tied 


ye nam 


he sleeps 




seeing 


saiyibt 


I left 


( Bheyif) 




ibt) 




dan' 'an 


defending 


'amalt 


I, you, did 


akaab 


I gain 


yishrab 


inks, 


gara 


it happened 




smokes 


•irift 


I knew, per- 


yiskunu 


they 




ceived, 


insaraq 


he, it, was 




nd 




robbed 


'irift ? 


did you know, 


addi 


I give, will give 




learn ? 


wahdu (or li 


by himself 


ltklmnqu 


they quarrelled 


wahdu) 




nadaht>- li 


Iealled, sent for 


wahdiha (li 


by ]<■ 


-- ' 


lie r> turned, 


wahdiha) 






need 


fa, fi, fe 


but, and 




I rut, ded 


wi 


by (in oa1 


(qataht) 




'ala 


uu, of, about 




h> sees 







EXERCI8E 85 

Kolleyom akaab U qershen. A«li 1 kal&m illi 'audi. Kulle 
uiiu kan yiakur fill kettr qawt. Kulle wahid qa'id 'ala kurst. 
Addllakhamsa sagh walla ah? l-l-li la ."v.- ] . Fenirrftgil 
illi kun -aii'l.t'. In • i. '. Bah g&bak hina? ana g£l bi 

Humma gam li wahduhum. Kulle maubu yakhud ugritu. 
Hadihna na/.lin. Da khaddam 'andt. Da bnukum walla bne 
' Quite 'ala mini Da Hi hina ganbina. 'Irifte ism 
il balad dl i Ewa, hlya iamiha Qina. 1 Ajdi 1 gaw&b illi gib 
bi 1 bofta betahl in naliar da, l-'li' kasa noon iafa shahr. 
M huwa i- ragil illi waqif -lak dih \ G I balad fi 1 midlna, 
ya'nl ti Bidna 1 EisSn wi 1 Gamallya wi gwarha yeqtilti ix i 
dab wi 1 hurma dlya. I • lhayif duk-bammal d&l illi waqftn 
M Eawa 1 malik uafau. 11 barabra, illi 

■ 1\. i eh, a • m a in Dpj ai 



114 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

humma kkaddamin 'andi, itkhanqu mbarih waiya ba'd ; fe Wahid 
minhum darab it tanl *fi 'enu, tallahha. Wi nta 'anialte eh ? 
Ana nadahte li 1 hakim; gih, raggahha ; we qataht ugrit il 
hakim min inahiyit illi tallahha. W Allahi 'amalte taiyib. 11 
wahid lazim yertih l yeshuf il mas'ala bi nafsu. II babiir yequn 
min masr fi ani sa'a? Huwa kulle yomen talata yigl 'andina. 
Kulle min qam nisa walla rigal.- Lisanu kan inarbiit min shidtlii 
ma hasal hi. Hat li shuwaivit Vsh min hesu kan. Ahumm 
dak dol illi waqfin 'and il bab. Kulle min kan yequl innu r&gil 
taiyib. Tigi f ani sa'a? II balad di anhin fihum. Kunte mash! 
fi s sikka we 'irif te naf si leinni 'atshan ; f e ruhte shiribte inoiya 
min is sibil illi wara betik. Qui gih 'andak ful&n il i'ulani, tequl 
lu eh? Min eye sikkitin ruht bardiha tiwaddik il balad. 

EXERCISE 26 

These are the men who were in the train with me. In which 
room did you sleep? My brother sleeps in (the our) which i.-. 
behind your mother's. Every one knows his (own) busi 
I met somebody at the club yesterday (who) knows your father. 
I was defending myself. The boy with whose Father you c 
from Upper Egypt is now a servant in my house. Hi- has 
married a woman fifteen years older than himself. 3 By which 
boat did you come? Everybody who was there was pleased. 
Why did you leave me these and take the best for 1 yourself? 
Husbands and wives should 6 always love one another. He who 
smokes ten cigarettes a day 6 smokes too many. Is there any- 
body here? To talk is one thing, to do is another. 7 The two 
brothers live in the same house. 1 'hie sees inside the rooms 
He is always speaking of himself. 1 'id you oome alone, or with 
your family? I came with my lather and mother and all m\ 
relations. 1 read the whole of the book from beginning to end." 
1 have given you the besl I ha 1.'" Wh\ di.l you lei him 

liecau.Mi he hit m\ linger. Whose horse i> that 1 It he. 

to the man whi was robbed yesterdaj . 



1 /..■. it ! > , that. 

- A plur, of ragi] less used than rigg&la. 

/• than him by (hi) _///'/• 
1 li. mi. ma. ./; / 

Trans. 'Hi, tulle . . ., anil the 'hoi . . . 

ins. in <"i'' hot 
'-' Trail -. fro the beginning to th> 
'" Trans. 



THE VERB 1 15 

THE VERB 

§ 130. Verba may be either trilateral or quadriliteral, i ■ 
may contain either three or four radical letti rs. 

11. Radical Letters may be either strong or weak A 
strong radical is one that remains unchanged throughout the 
conjugation of the verb; thus k, t, b, the root or radical let* 
the wb katab to write, being strong, appear in the >ame order 

in every phase ol the verb, though the vowels may chaj and 

other letters be added. The weak consonants are w and y. 
§ 132. A tnliteral verb which contains tin , radioals 

rmed strong, while a verb containing w or y or qat'a I 
one of its radicals is termed weak. Those which have two such 
letters are doubly weak, and those which have three trel.lv weak 
166. Strong verbs are subdivided into two classes :— 
Co) I hose whose three radicals are all different, and 
(/>) 1 hose wlu.se second and third radicals are identical The 
former are called perfect verbs. 

I'll. From the simple form of the verb, composed only of 
the radicals and their connecting vowels, other forms, or con- 
ju^taons, are constructed by the doubling of the radicals and 
fine addition of new Letters. 

|:; " The v.-rl. a rule, only one voice, nameh the 

• two moods, the indicative and the imperative, and two 

■""P* tenses, ,l! " P 11 * and the aorist or impei ect, from which 

however, others ar« formed by means of prefix or by aid of the 

substan ive verb kan, and two participles or verl iladjectives one 

■ and the other passive. The infinitive m 1 is represented 

D J JwW oouns expressing the nature or quality of the verb 
: l36 - V'"'" :ir " two ttttmbers, singular and plural, three 
one, and, for the 2nd and 3rd persons singular, two genders. 

THE SIMPLE PERFECT VERB 

Lngularof the past tense takes one 
three following forms: barak, birik, buruk, as darab he 
truck, Bhirib he -Ira,,,, pughur he woe email, and the I 
conjugated thus: — 

BlNQl LAB 
HAf i i : M . 

rabt darabl / dr , U rk 

J™ darabtl thouetrucl 

darab darabit he etntck, she, 

, ially expressed by of the derived forma 

but lee below, g 111 ai 506. 



116 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. darabna (-na) we struck, fyc. 

2nd pers. darabtii (or darabtuni) l you struck, fyc. 
3rd pers. darabfi (or darabum) 2 they struck, 8{c. 

§ 138. Similarly shirib and sughur ; but it must be remem- 
bered that the short vowels i and u often disappear between two 
consonants. 3 

Remark a.— Many verbs of a neuter sense take the form 
birik or buruk optionally, though the latter is perhaps more com- 
mon, as 'utus (or 'itis) to sneeze ; a few take the forms barak and 
birik, as bakhal or (more usually) bikhil to be stingy, and still 
fewer all three forms, as khumur, khimir, and occasionally khamar 
to rise (of dough). 

Remark b. — Most verbs of the form barak are transitive in 
meaning, those of the form birik mostly intransitive or passive, 
while those of the form buruk are invariably intransitive (neuter 
or passive). 

§ 139. In the formation of the aorist, the first vowel of the 
past tense falls out, and the second becomes i (or less commonly 
a or u), while the persons are denoted by affixes or suffixes. 







Singular 






MASC. 


fem. 




1st pers. 


a drab 


adrab 


I strike, will strike 


2nd pers. 


tidrab 


tidrabi 


thou strikest, $■<■. 


3rd pers. 


yidrab 


tidrab 


he, she strikes, fyc. 



Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. nidrab toe strike, §c. 

2nd pers. tidrabu (or tidrabum) you strike, Sfc. 
3rd pers. yidrabu (or yidrabum) they drike, $c. 
§ 140. Similarly aktib J "-rite, adkhul / entrr (from katab, 
dakhal), but with i and u respectively throughout in place of the 
a of the second syllable. 

Remark a. — Occasionally the y of the 3rd person is indis- 
tinctly heard. In in'al (or il'an) from na'al, la'an to curse, it is 
often dropped altogether. 4 

1 Kote that the u is quite short in all verba when -um is used 
both in the 2nd and 3rd persons. Even a is hardly pro- 
nounced long. 

- Possibly the older form. Ct. Aramaic p'alun. 

8 See § 33. 

4 So regularly in Assyrian and Hebrew, and in the dialects 
of Algeria and Malta. 



THE SIMPLE PERFECT VERB ll7 

Remark b.— The form of the 1st pers nlur is in « f 
pressions used for the 1st ner* «™ 1 ? ■" m\ •? few ex- 

the 2nd pers. masc. and the 3rd fern. sing, of the a^rist vl 

invaSXTth^of 2T l 1 th % 1St peFS - ** ° f the ***** - 
sonfrK THp 1 i Pf^mative syllable of the other per- 

aorist :- ^^^ ^ teke « in the ^syllable of the 

(1) Those whose second radical is h,h, or «, except:- 



(a) taham 
tahaf 
ta'ab 

ta'ain 

gaham 

dahan 

dahash 
da'af 
ra'ab 
ra'ash 

ra'a<lit 



accuse 

give as a present 
tire 

engraft 
expel 
grease 
bother 
weaken 
frigid en 




thunder 
which take i, making athim, athif, &c. 

(£)sha<ar fed ' m ^ k 

qa'ad git 

which take u, making ash'ur, fa.. 



loon en 

encliant 

cough 

prosperous 
mah 

speak well of 
load 
annoy 
soldi r 
.vras/ a ?■ 
be drowsy 

crush 



pers. si , ,;,. A '""' i: '" md MalteS ° " fa "*■"■* «■- 4- « <l.- to 
i»ut yj raf, ,vc. are used. 



118 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



Remark. — 

rahan pledge zihid loathe 

(rihin) dahash tread on 

take a or % ; ni'is occasionally makes an'as ; zahar, zihir appear 
occasionally azhir (for azhar). 

(2) Those whose final radical is h, h, l , q, or kh, except : — 



(a) dala' 
raba' 
salah 
shabah 



sicindle 

trot 

be reconciled 

resemble 



shara' 
faraq 
fanakh 
qana' 



begin 
separate 
retract, rescind 
content 



which take i, making adli', &C 1 
(/v)baraqit it lightened 



sharakh 

shanaq 

qaraq 



tell 



split 
hang 
prattle, 

tales 
throttle 
exhaust 
pull from the 

socket 
blow 



bazaq spit 

tabakh cook 

taraq knock 

dalaq spill khanaq 

razaq provide for mashaq 

zaraq slip away malakh 

sadaq be true 

salaq boil nafakh 

sarakh cry 
which take u, making tibruq, abzuq, &c. 

Remark. — Fakah eat fruit takes a or i. 

(3) A number of words nearly all intransitive or neuter and 
of the form birik or buruk, 2 or both, and expressing mostly 
mental or physical qualities or conditions. The following is a 
nearly complete list of this class, exclusive of those which fall 
under (1) and (2) : — 



bilid 


be dull 


birid 


get cold 


biligh 


reach maturity 


tukhun 


get thick 


(balagh) 2 




tilim 


be bluntt d, 


bikhil 


be stingy 




blunt 


(k.khal) 




tuqul, tiqil 


be heavy 



1 Qanah convict of an offence and lafaq sew may be added to 
this list of exceptions, but they scarcely belong to the colloquial 
language. 

2 Birik and buruk correspond to barik (fa'ila) and barak 
(t'a'ula) of the literary language. Birik also represents fa'ala, 
as misik (literary masaka), &c. 

:; But yiblugfa gharadu he attains his desire. 



THE SIMPLE PERFECT VERB 



119 



tamar (tumur 


, hear fruit 


silik 


behave well 


timir) 1 




suqut 


fall 


turush, tirish 


become deaf 


suduf 


chance 


tafash 


i-un away 


sughur 


become small 


gifil (gafal) 


he shy, shy 


shibit 


hold on, climb 


gimid 


get hard 


(shabat) 




ghifi] 


dose 


shimit 


gloat 


' (ghuful) 




shimis 


hasklin the sun 


ghilit,ghulut 


err 


'utul 


be interrupted 


ghurum 


pay a fine 


'urug 3 


be lame 


(ghirim) 




'ilim 


know 


ghimid, 


he closed 


'irid 


he vide, broad 


ghumud 




'imir ('uniur 


i he inhabited 


harab 


flee 


'igiz 


become infirm 


hurun 


he restive 


'uqul 


be, become, vise 


hilim 


be patient ; 


'irif 


know 




dream 


<itir 


stumble 


hizin 


he sad 


'itis, 'utus 


sneeze 


hidir. hudur, 


be evident, 


'itish, 'utush 


be thirsty 


hadar 


appear 


(faragh)firig 


\be empty 


hafad, hafaz 


retain in one's 


fidil 


remain 




mind 


fitir 


breakfast 


himid, 


hecome sour 


fitir 


he tepid 


humud 




fitish 


choke 


ha sal 


happen 


qirib, qurub 


draw near 


dibil 


wither 


qishil, 


became bank- 


dirik (darak) 


arrive at 


qushul 


rupt 




maturity 


qidir 


he able 


rimid (or 


have ophthal- 


qisir, qusur 


be, get, short 


rimid) 


mia 


qudum, 


become old 


raghab 2 


desire 


qidim 




rikhis, 


get cheap 


kibir 


grow big, 


rukhus 






grow up 


zaman 


continue, last 


kafar 


rebel, he dis- 


simin 


get fat 




obedient 


silim 


he safe 


kimil 


he finished 


>ikliin, 


get hot 


kisil, kusul 


be lazy • 


sukhun 




kutnr, kitir 


increase 



1 Also atmir. The forms in brackets are less used than the 
others. 

2 Also arghib. 

3 'Arag, yi rug is more usual. 



120 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



khulus 
(khalas, 
khilis)' 

kliimir 
(khumur, 
khamar) 

khidil 

khigil 

khurus, 
khiris 



be finished, end 



leaven, ferment 



be weary 
be ashamed 
be deaf and 
dumb 



khisir, 

khusur 
khuruf 



lizim 
libid 
nidif 
nidim 



be spoilt, lo*e 

drivel, be im- 
p aired 
(intellect) 

be necessary 

lie in wait for 

be clean 

repent 



To the above list 
having a correspond 
passives l : — 

ialif 

ghidib, ghudub 

ghilib 

hilik, hulik 

himid 

sibit 

sikin 

sikir 

'idim 

fiqir 

qiris, qurus 

qirif, quruf 

qusum 3 

mirid 

nishif 

niqis, nuqus 



must be added the following verbs, which, 
ing active form, may be regarded as pure 



be destroyed, perish 

be vexed, sullc 

be conquered, weary 

be exhausted, perish 

be exhausted, worried 

be proved 

be inhabited 

be made, get drunk 

be destroyed 

be made, get, poor 

be stung 

be disgusted, bored 

be divided, allotted 

be made, get, ill 

be dried, get dry 

be lessened, grow less ( 



act. talaf) 
ghadab) 
ghalab) 
halak) 
hamad) 2 
sabat) 
sakan) 
sakar) 
'adam) 
faqar) 
qaras) 
qaraf) 
qasam) 
marad) 
nashaf, 
rarely used) 
naqas) 4 



1 Pure passives, because they are derived directly from the 
active without any external change. Cairene Arabic resembles 
H threw in its dislike and spare usage of these forms. Manj 
of the above also had no doubt originally an active form, which 
has now been supplanted by the first derived form barrak, 
barrik. 

2 As hamad u bi 1 'asaya. 

3 Mostly in the expression qusumit il qisma it teas fated. 

4 Others are peculiar to Upper Egypt, as gilid be flogged, 
qitil be killed. 



THE SIMPLE PERFECT VERB 



121 



Remark a. — Some of the exceptions to (1) and (2) are perhaps 
explained by the fact that the active verb must take i or u in the 
aorist, so as not to be identical in that tense with the passive 
form, as in the case of da'af, razaq, sahal, sa'ad, fanakh, and 
qahar, which have passives, di'if, riziq (or ruzuq), sihil, si'id, 
finikh, quhur, making ad'af, arzaq, <fec, in the aorist. 

Remark b. — Apart from the words mentioned above, the 
pure passive is rarely used conversationally, even by the edu- 
cated, in the past tense, 1 though it is heard now and again in 
the aorist in the form yibrak (literary yubrak) ; and it may 
happen that an active verb forming the aorist in a will be 
identical in that tense with the active, as il kalam da ma 
yiqbalsh, ma yifhamsh that statement is inacceptable, incompre- 
hensible. 

(4) The following transitive verbs : — 



daiab 


strike 


shirib 


drink 


daman 


guarantee 


qibii 


accept 


hiblit 


conceive 


kasar 


break 


rikib 


ride, drive 


kusub 


gain 


sakhat 


turn to stone 


khataf 


snatch 



§ 142. The following verbs take u in the second syllable :- 
(1) Those whose second radical is t, d, s, sh, or kh, except : 



fasal 
khasam 



(a) The few which take a (§ 141). 
(A) The following which take i\— 



divide 
deduct 



lakham 



embarrass 



(2) Those whose final radical is t , d, r, or z, except 

(a) The few which take a. 

(b) The following which take i : — 

basat (basat) please 

sahar enchant 

.->hahar speak well of 

shi'ir a make verses 

Remark. — Zahar, zihir appear, 'arad exhibit, 'asar squeeze out, 
farad impose, duty on, nazam, put in order, take either u or /. 

1 Qutil (for inqatal) and a few others may perhaps be excepted. 
- Mentioned above (§ 141, 1 a). 



faqar 


impoverish 


fakar 


think, imagine 


qahar 2 


annoy 


nakar 


deny 



122 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



(3) The following : — 



barad 

balas 

baram 

baraz 

bazaq 1 

tiqab 

tarak 

talab 

tabakk l 

tarad 

gbanag 

haras 

haram 

hakam 

darag 

damagh 

damak 

dakhal 

raqad 

raqas 

zaghad 

sabak 

sikin 

sikit 

samal 



file 
extort 
ticist 
project 
spit 
pierce 
leave 
demand 
cook 
rxpel 
be coy 
guard 
bereave 
judge 
insert 
brand 
compi'ess 
enter 
lie, lie ill 
dance 
push 
east lead 
dwell 
be silent 
tcithstand, 
dure 



sarakh 1 

salab 

sharad 

sharakh l 

'arag 

'abad 

'aqad 

farak 

faram 

qaras 

qa'ad 2 

kharag 3 

kharam 

lakam 

laqam 

malakh 4 

rualak 

nakhal 

nakhas 

naqaf 

nafakh 4 

nakat 



cry 

crucify, torture 

run away 

split 

be lame, limp 

worship 

tie 

rub 

m ince 

sting 

sit 

go out 

pierce, bore 

touch, strike 

gently 
catch (a ball, 

Sfc.) 
pidl from its 

socket 



sift 

prick, annoy 
strike 
blow 

change ones 
mind 



Remark.— 'Abad and 'aqad make also a'bid and a'qid. 

8 143. All other perfect strong verbs take i in the second 
syllable of the aorist, and are usually transitives ot the form 
barak, never of the form buruk. 



Mentioned above (§141, 2 b\ 
Mentioned above (§ 141, 1 b). 
But kharag yikhiig distil. 
Mentioned above (§ 141, 2 b). 



THE SIMPLE PERFECT VERB 



123 



VOCABULARY 



taqawi 

tuba 

kanabe 
ba'de bukra 

kbabar 
shart 
Rabb 
ramadan 



alam 
hikaya 

fahm 
haqiqa 
hashish 
garaz (or 

garas) 
zaman 
matbakh 
talg 



set ds 

the oth Coptic 

month 
sofa 
the day after 

to-morrow 
news 

condition 
Lord 

the 9th Mo- 
hammedan 
month 
world 
story 

coal, coals 
truth 
grass 
'bell 



time 

kitchen 

ice 



minfakh 

hikma 

karaf 

'aiya 

aqum 

habas 

haraq 

shahat 

khaff 

warrinl 

simr 

rabat 

takhud 

yakul 

vequl (yiqulj 
lahsan 
li hadd 
kulle ma 
(kulliima) 
bi 1 haqq 



bellows 
wisdom 
decanter 
disease, illness 

I get up 

he imprisoned 

he burned 

he begged 

he got well 

show me 
he hea d 
he tied 
she, it, takes, 

catches 
he eats 
he says 
lest, or 
until, up to 
all that, when- 
ever 
truly 



EXERCISE 27 



tnh, V q T fi gn V ltak Walla lissa? Zara'naha fi shahre 

tuba. Humma-irfurragilminwishshu. Intaoa'adte ««1« 1™ 
wanaqa'adte'alakurs.k. Ltt vu-butu riaSn^ r ^akursiya 

Vj hen the penult is accented. 
3 jy^ s f ten fitted between two verbs. (SeeSvntax 8579 ! 

< Pt'rb" ^^" 6 1S ° ften Placed at thL ' ■* of S" 2a22 

5 at. 



124 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

fi 1 bet walla tukhrug barra ? Lamma yiqbadu 'ala 1 haramiya 
yihbisiihum. Illi yishar fi 1 lei yirqud fi n nahar. Namusa 
qarasitni fi sba'i. II wilad yirkabu hmir wi r riggaia yirkabu 
kkel. Lamma tiksar kubbaya walla haga fi 1 bet bass iddini 
khabar 'ashan a'raf. Lamma 1 waliid yi'tas yequl : " il hamdu 
li 11a Rabbu 1 'alamin.'' II bet da sikin 'amnauwil walla la' ? 
Kullima yikallimha ragil tughnug. Suqtit min 'al humar we 
kasarit rigliha. Lamma yigi 1 khaddam yitruq 'ala 1 bab aqimi 
dughri w albis. Lazim tifiiq il kuwaiyisin. Min en 'iriftu 1 
hikaya di? Mush lazim tinkiru 1 haqiqa. II masakin hilku 
min il gu'. Lamma smi'na 1 garaz tili'na barra we fatahna 1 
bab. Khaffe lakin 'aqlu khuruf min shiddit il 'aiya. 

EXERCISE 28 

She sat in a chair in the kitchen. When you grow up you 
will both be like your mother. They went out of the house at 
ten minutes to two, and will return in an hour's time. 1 The 
girl snatched the stick out of 2 her brother's hand. At 3 what 
time did you breakfast yesterday? She denies everything. 
When the women shriek and the men fire 4 off their guns, the 
robbers run away. When you blow with the bellows the fire 
catches 6 the coals. The sun burns the grass. When the bell 
rings 6 you must open the door. She shut the door in my face. 
The sun rises at 4.20. He is a man (who) begs in the street. 
Do you know him, my daughter? (He) who is sad to-day, 
laughs to-morrow. These knives have become old and blunt. 
Who was mistaken, you or I ? It gets soft after a time. You 
must drink the wine to-day, or it will go sour. Show me the 
man who witnesses truly. If you sit by 7 the window you will 
catch cold. When the judges give sentence, every one praises 
their wisdom. When you write to me I will write to you. Put 
the butter in the ice-chest, 8 that it may get cold and hard. We 
have broken a decanter and two glasses. Who will guarantee 
you? The water has got tepid; (it) will get cold soon. She 
laughed at 10 him and ran away. A n good carpenter gains every 
day twenty or twenty-five piastres. The children remain in the 
house alone. The disease will become ohronic with him. You 
(plur.) must sow your seeds in September. 

1 Trans, after an hour. 2 min. ;; li. 

4 darab. 6 misik fi. " darab. 

7 ganb. s Trans, the box of (beta') the ice, 

'•' lia'de slmwaiya. 10 'abi. n Trans, the. 



imsik 


seize 


imsiku 




irqud 


lie doicn 


uq'udu 


sit 



THE IMPERATIVE 125 

THE IMPERATIVE 

§ 144. We may form the imperative from the aorist by 
dropping the initial t of the 2nd pers., thus : — 

idrab strike 

idrabu 
(idrabum) 

With the negative, however, and the particle ma, the t is 
retained. 1 

Remaek. — A wish or command having reference to the. 1st 
or 3rd pers. is expressed by the aorist, or by the verb khalli 
let followed by the aorist, as nidrab let us strike, khallini adrab 
(or khallin adrab), khallihum y idrabu let me, them, strike. Note 
that khalli remains, as a rule, in the singular even when several 
people are addressed. It may be used with a neuter or passive 
verb as well as an active one, as khalli yiskhan il hammam let 
the bath he heated. 

§ 145. The unfinished present is expressed by the aorist 
with the syllable be (or bi) prefixed to the preformatives. The 
vowel disappears before the a of the 1st person. 







Singular 




MASC. 


fem. 


1st pers. 


badrab 


badrab 


2nd pers. 


betidrab 


betidrabi 


3rd pers. 


beyidrab 


betidrab 



I am striking 
thou art striking 
he, she, it, is striking 

Plural for both Genders 

benidrab we are striking 

betidrabvi (betidrabum) you are striking 

beyidrabu (beyidrabum) they are striking 

Remark a.— Beyi is sometimes contracted to bi in the 3rd 
pers. plural. 

Remark b. — The syllable me {mi) is sometimes heard for be 
(bi) in the 1st pers. plural, as menidrab for benidrab. 

Remark c. — The intensive adjective 'ammal (lit. doinij fn 
(piently), from the verb 'amal to do, occasionally precedes the 
above form or that of the aorist itself. It agrees with the 
subject in number and gender, as ana 'ammal badrab (or adrab) 

> bee §491. 



126 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

/ am in the habit of striking, or simply I am striking, inti 'ammala 
betidrabi (or tidrabi), hunima 'ammalin beyidrabiL 1 

Remark d. — The unfinished present may also be expressed 
by the active participle with the substantive verb understood, 
as ana darib, htya darba, ihnadarbin I am, she is, we are, striking? 

§ 14G. The unfinished past (imperfect) is expressed by means 
of the auxiliary verb kan to be in the past tense, followed by the 
unfinished present, thus : — 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. kunte badrab kunte badrab / was striking, 

used to strike 
2nd pers. kunte betidrab kunti betidrabi 
3rd pers. kan beyidrab kdnit betidrab 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. kunna benidrab 
2nd pers. kuntu (-um) betidrabu (-urn) 
3rd pers. kanu beyidrabu (-um) 
or with 'animal, kunte 'ammal badrab, &c. 

| 1 17. The finished past or pluperfect is expressed by k."ui 
followed by the past tense of the verb, as kunte darabt / had 
struck, kan darab be bad struck, kumia darabna, inc. 

§ 148. The unfinished future is expressed by the aorist of 
the verb kan followed by the unfinished present, thus: — 

SmauiiAB 

M.\ FEM. 

1st pers. akun ba Irab akun badrab I shall be striking 

2nd pers. bekun betidrab tekuni betid] 
3rd pers. yekun beyidrab tekun betidrab 

Plural fob both Gkndebs 
1st pers. uekun benidrab 
2nd pers. tektLnft (-um) betidrabu (-um) 
3rd pers. yekunu beyidrabti < -um) 

Remabk. This tense ma] also 1"' expressed by the aorist 
of kan with the active participle, as akun darib, tekun darba, 
yekunu darbln /, she, they will In striking. 

■ it i^ in in,. i.- frequent use in Upper Egypt, where it gene 
rails appears in tin- contracted form 'amma, vrithout changi 
gender or Dumber. 
3; • 



THE PRESENT AND FUTURE 127 

§ 149. The finished future (future perfect) is composed of 
the aorist of kan followed by the past tense. Thus akun darabt 
/ shall have struck, tekuni darabti thou (f.) uilt Jiave struck, 
yekunll darabil, &c. 

§ 150. The indefinite future is expressed : — 

(1) Simply by the aorist. 

(2) Emphatically by the aorist preceded by rayih (the 
active participle of rah to f/o), agreeing with the subject in 
gender and number, or by its indeclinable form rah, or 

(3) By the aorist with the particle ha (sometimes pro 
nounced ha) prefixed ; e.g. : — 

Singular 

MASC. FEM. 

1st pers. rayih (rayh) : rayha (for I will or am going to 

rah adrab, or hadrab rayiha) strike 

adrab - 
rah adrab, or 
hadrab 
2nd pers. rayih tidrab, rayha tidrabi 
rah tidrab, or hatidrab rah tidrabi, or 
hatidrabl 
3rd pers. rayih yidrab, rayha tidrab, 
rah yidrab, or rah tidrab, or 

bayidrab hatidrab 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. rayhin nidrab, rah nidrab, or ha nidrab 
2nd pers. rayhin tidrabu, rah tidrabi), or batidrabu. 
3rd pers. rayhin yidrabu, rah \ tdrabu, or hayidrabu. 

Remark a. — The past tense of the auxiliary followed by the 
future indefinite •" , that something was going or about 

Ice place, or nearly took place, as kunte rayih (rayh a. hah. 
knnte rah adrab, or kunte hadrab, (fee, 1 was going to si 
kan rayih yuqa',rah yuqa', nayuqa' he was near falling. (Synt 

.iik b. — 1.1a is appended to the imperative in the donkei 
■ is . barga' I (».< . be u _ 



' Note that the qatfa of the first syllable generally disap 
pears, bo thai rayh, rah adrab will be pronounced raj , ra, hadrab 
Or © at racted, rayha' drab 



128 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



Remark c. — The inseparable particle la conveys with the 
aorist an oath or a threat, 1 as w Allahi larmik fi dahya by Gud ! 
I will cast thee into adversity. 

§ 151. The subjunctive and so-called optative or potential 
moods are expressed by means of the aorist and past tenses 
(Syntax, §§ 494-5). The combination of the past tense of kan with 
the aorist of the verb is equivalent in the apodosis of conditional 
sentences to the English would have, as iza kunte shuftu kunt 
adrabu if I had seen him I would have struck him. (Syntax, 
§510.) * 

§ 152. The participles active and passive are respectively darib 
striking and madrub struck, which are declined like ordinary 
adjectives. 

• VOCABULARY 



mal 




property, 


akun 


/ shall be 






riches 


kunna 


we were 


namus 




mosquitoes 


dakhkhal 


he put in 


waqt 




time 


zi'il 


lie got angry 


haga 




thing, any- 


get 


I, you, came 






thing 


till' f6q 


he ascended 


'asha, 




dinner 


matarit, na- 


it rained 


shi'ir 




barley 


tarit - 




hamd 




acid 


qafal 


he shut, closed 


buya 




paint 


qable ma 


before that 


darab 


buya 


he painted 


bidill ma 


instead of 


fi 






tamalli 


ahcays 


farran 




baker 


iza (with 


if 


khisara 




pity 


past tense) 




(khusara) 












EXERC 


'ISE 29 





Betidral) il khOl leh ? Lamina kam'i beyidrabu 1 ban&diq kunte 
betii'qud walla la' I Hiva betikhrug kulleydm i^ s&'a tiu'n ba'd id 
duhr. 11 hus&n be1 isman 'ala > 1 1 shi'ir, Betidhab 'ala min? Bad- 
liak -airk. L- h I 'ash&n betirkab hus&nak /."villi beyirkab auwil 
mara. Intt, 3 1 bittt, kutti l>t i'milj §h ti 1 ginf oa beta'it giranna ? 
liable ma rigi'na kan ish shughle kbulus. Kuntu tlihtu laiiiina 
gih il hakim walla Lissa I Kunna bnirga' we Lissa ti b sikka. 

Kulle ma .saiakbna lina kanit lu\a betiskut Kan bc\ islnud niin 

bi't abuli lainina qabadfi 'ak'li [za iklin lissa 



1 It is not very often beard in the spoken Lang 
'■' Dunya world, weather is understood. 



THE PRESENT AND FUTURE 129 

bahab bi 1 kura barr.i. welakin iza get is sa'a sab'a akim rigi't 
'ala 1 bet. Inta rayih tukhrug einta 1 Ana rah akhrug is sa'a 
rba'a u tilt. Humma rayhin virkabu nnaharda walla la 1 ? La', 
bass is .sitte hatirkab. Itla' min hina. Ishrabi nioiya ndita 
Ifdalu li 1 bet lamma rga' ana. Khallina niftah ish shibbak. " Id 
dakakin fathin bukra s subh ? La% qaflin 'ashan il 'id. Fin 
kubbaya maksura ; min kasarha ? Hiya maksura min nafsiha 
kede. Kunna bnishrab qahwa. Kanit betimtur wi btir'id wi 
btibruq tul in nahar. 

EXERCISE 30 

Where l were you sitting ? At what » was she laughing f I ran 
away from him when I saw him getting angry. 2 In England they 
used to hang thieves, 3 but now they imprison them. The water 
is getting less every day. They covet her riches. She was 
going upstairs 4 two steps at a time. They were painting the 
house when I came. They will be sitting in the kitchen laugh- 
S with the cook till dinner-time. e You will have returned, 
my daughter, before we go out. We are going to beg (some) 
cigarettes of 7 you. The acid will burn the paint. You will 
tire yourself. She is going to ascend the pyramids. (It is) a 
pity ; she will be tired. (Is) the lady contented with 7 her ser- 
vants ? She (is) contented with one of them, but the others are 
always getting drunk. What (is it) that makes them drunk' 
Why were you sitting outsid,. the door instead of doing « your 
work '! It is going to rain. Put the horse in the stable ;*he will 
sold outside. Wash your bauds before you cook anything 
The horse was running away. The baker closes on Sunday, but 
iln- tobacconist remains open. 9 Shut the windows and open' the 
doors. The clock was striking twelve when we went out. I am 
being stung all daylong by 10 mosquitoes. She was about to 
knock at the door when the girl opened it. Will they remain 
here when their children return « Let her come in and sit down 
Why was she angry ? Because you (/.) shut the door in her face 
W e we,, going out when they were coming in. You were 
writing upstairs, and your dinner was getting cold downstairs. 

1 The interrogative* should be placed at the end of the sen. 
t( ' n f- Unfinished pres. 

l^"^- II" thieves. 4 tili* 'as salalun. 

: ' fl) " sl "" 1 F"s«Mit c Trans, the time of dinner 

' ,mu - 8 Aon,.,. 

Act. particip. 10 liy (bi j ihp mo8quiioe ^ 



I 



130 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 153. The verb is rendered negative by the particle ma (nid) 
being placed before it, and sh after it in the form of a suffix, 1 as 
ma darabsh he did not strike. The vowel i is inserted between 
it and a verb ending in a consonant, as ma darabtish you did not 
strike. The conjugation of the negative past t<>nse and aorist, 
firstly without, and secondly with, the verbal suffixes, is ad 
follows : — 

Singular 

MASC. FEM. 

1st pers. ma darabtish ma darabtish 

2nd pers. ma darabtish ma darabtish 
3rd pers. ma darabsh ma darabitsh 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. ma darabnash 
2nd pers. ma darabtush 
3rd pers. ma darabush 

Singular 

U ASC. FEM. 

1st pers. ma drabsh ma drabsh 

2nd pers. ma tidrabsh ma tidrabish 

3rd pers. ma yidrabsh ma tidrabsh 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. ma nidrabsh 
2nd pers. ma tidrabush 
3rd pers. ma yidrabush 

1st pers.— Singular 

ma darabtush / did not strike him 

ma darabtihash ,, ,, her 

ma darabtaksh ,, ,, thee (misc.) 

ma darabtiksh „ ,, thee (fern.) 

ma (larabtuhutush ,, ,, them 

ma darabtukush ,, ,, y<m 

2nd pers. masc. — 

ma darabtush thou didst nut strike him 
ma darabtdhash „ ,, 

ma darabtintsh „ ,, me 

ma darabtuhumsli „ ,, them 

ma (In .ibt inasli 



1 Couip. tie . . . p<U in French. (See further Syntax, § 533 
teq.) 



THE NEGATIVE VEKB 131 



2nd pers 


f>'IU. — ■ 










ina darabtibsh 


thou didst not 


strike him 




ma darabtibash 


II 


>» 


her 




ma darabtinish 


>> 


W 


me 




ma darabtibuinsh 


>5 


1) 


them 




ma darabtinask 


>l 


>) 


its 


3rd pers. 


inasc. — 










ma daiabush 


he did not i 


strikt 


' him 




ma darabhash 


>i 




her 




ina darabaksh 


>> 


.. 


thee (masc.) 




iua darabiksh 


:■> 


>» 


thee (fern.) 




ma darabnish 


»? 


i? 


me 




ma darabbumsh 


>> 


ii 


them 




ma darabkush 


if 


>> 


you 




ma darabnash 


)» 


i) 


us 


3rd pers. 


fem. — 










ma darabitush 


she did nut strife 


! him 




ma. darabitbash 


>» 


ii 


leer 



Plural 
1st pers. — 

ma darabnahsb we did not strike him 

ma darabnahash ,, ,, her 

ma darabnaksh ,, ,, tliee (masc.) 

ma darabuakish „ ,, thee (fern.) 

ma darabnahumsh „ „ them 

ma darabnakusb ., ,, >,ou 

2nd pers. — 

ma darabtuhsh you did not strike him 
ma darabtuhash, (fee. ,, .. her 



3rd pers. 



ma 'larabuhsh they did not strike him 

ma darabaksh ,, .. thee (masc.) 

ma darabukish, (fee. ,. ., ttiee (fern.) 



Singular 

1st pers. — 

ma drabusb / do, will, n^t strike him 

rna drabhash ,, ,, her 

ma drabaksh ,, ., thee (max 

ma drabiksh, <kc „ ,. thee (lem.; 

2nd pers. ma.-":. — 

ma tidrabush, a*c. thou (m.) dost, wilt, wA strike him 



132 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

2nd pers. fern. — 

ma tidrabihsh tliou (f.) „ „ him 

ma tidrabibash, <fcc. „ „ „ her 

3rd pers. — 

ma yidrabush he does, will not strike him 

ma yidrabhash, kc. „ .. her 

§ 154. The prepositions li ami bi with their suffixes may 
intervene, as well as, or in addition to, the verbal suffixes, 
between the verb and the negative sign sh, as ma tabakhit lush 
she di'l not cook for him, ma tabakhitu lush she did not rook it for 
him, darab bi 1 'asaya? la', ma darab bihash did he strike with the 
stick ? No, he did not strike with it. But we may also say ma 
tabakhitshe luh, ma tabakhitush luh, and ma darabshe biha. 

§ 155. In the compound tenses the x/i is generally attached 
to the auxiliary, as ma kunnash kharagna, but sometimes botli 
of the negative signs will, for the sake of emphasis, accompany 
the principal verb, as kunna ma kharagn&sh (.^ 541). 

£ 156. In prohibitions the aorist is used instead of the im- 
perative, or, in other words, the initial t reappears, as ina tid- 
rabsh, ma tidrabush do not strike. (See further Syntax, § 491.) 

§ 157. The negative particles may also be joined to the pro- 
nouns, whether in their full or truncated forms, as ma hush (or ina 
huwash) not he, ma lish, ma 'andush (it is) not to me, toith him, i.e. / 
have, he has, not, ma 'umrish shuftu I never saw him in my lift . ma 
'ilmish (it is) not my knowledge, i.e. / do not know. They are 
very commonly joined to the indefinite pronoun hadd one, <ut> - 
body, as ma haddish darab no one struclt. As the preposition fi, 
with or without the suffix of the third pers. sing., is used in the 
sense of there is, so ma fihah (or ma fish) signifies there is not. 

§ 158. Mush or misli (contracted from ina hush, ma huwash) 
may he used as the aorist of the negative Substantive verh of all 
numbers and gender, as hiya, humma, hina \ La', mush Inn a 
is she, are they, hen ' No, she is, they are m<f, here. It some- 
times serves to negative the verb, as mush kharag barra, dakhal 
gdwa he hasn't gone out, hi has come in, mush darabha i <li<hit he 
strikeheri Mush quit! lak tigiJ didn't I tell you to com Mush 
tig! waiy&na? won't you o&me with ust Mush tiskutl won't you 
keep </"i' f ! 

i i. In thr fust of the above phrases the verb kharag with 

its c plemenl is in reality the subject of the substantive verb 

understood, so thai we would translate literall] t is not that he 
went <"//.' The emphasis would be losl it we said ma kharagahe 
barra* In the other sentences there is implied a Btrong belief 

1 We might also saj mush leinnu kharag. 



THE NEGATIVE VERB 



!33 



or persuasion in the mind of the speaker that it has been, will 
be, or should be, performed. 

§ 160. La is used for via in the word wala, composed of w.i 
( -wi. we) i.i)i' I and la not; and the verb or other word following 
it does not generally take the negative suffix sit unless the 
negative with the conjunction may be translated by without or 
and yet, the previous sentence being an affirmative one, as la 
ilakhaltish wala tlihtish / neither went in nor came out, but ana 
dakhalt wala hush 'arif / icevt in without his knuwing? 

VOCABULARY 



bal 


mind, memory 


gher 


besides, other 


bilyardu 


billiard*, 




than 




billiard- 


yimkin 


it is possible 




talil" 




that, pos- 


kis 


bag, purse 




sibly 


bikhil 


stingy, 


zt'y in nas 


as one should, 




avaricious 




j>ro}>erly 


kanas 


sweep 


abadan 


necer, not at all 


saraf 


spend 


min en 


whence, how 


data - 


pay 


bi z zur 


by fi 


zahir 


cl^ar 







EXERCISE 31 
Ma hummssh raghaiyarln. Ma fish hadde gherna fi 1 bet. 
II 6da Hi ma tihasli sagagtd mush kuwaiyisa. Yimkin ma 
nismahsh. Ma 'raffish la zatan wala isman. Ana ma 'rafhash 
wala hiya ti'rafnt La yishrab wala yakul. Tishrab wal.i 
takulsh. Likshe 2 ikhwaf Ana kulle shahr badfa' lak talat 
ginehat wala ti'milahe abnglak sey in nas. Balaksh 9 il haga 
di? Ana ma 'umrish simihte haga z&ye «li. Ma ntish fahma 
kalami? La', kalamak mush zahir abadan. Ma kuntish be- 
tindahi 11? Ihna mush ravhin ni.dihat minhuui haga. Mush 
kan ibnak bina qabl id dnhr? Ma hasal luhumshe haga. Hiya 
iuish rayha titla* tul in oahdrl Tani marra ma ti'miHsh haga 
■dye di. Mush niknis sliuwaiva qable ma tuq'ud i Ma'aksh ■ 
qirshen? Ma llflh akhkhe wala ukht. Mush ana Hi kas 
fan&gtn; da r ragil il 1 i kan beyidrab buya ti 1 bet, hAwa 11: 
k i-ailiiim. U bikhil ma yisrifshe fuliis ilia hi z zur. Ihna in a 
kunnash 'arfin h'innik ma 1.1 iksahsln- ziyada 'an kede. Lamina 

ma tindahihshe ha ya'raf min 6n leinnik 'auzah 1 Ma k&nitshe 
hidrit laftsma gih abuha. Ma tirkabshe hussn beyi'rug. 

e further Syntax. 
J ^ 1 . t is omitted in some circumstances (§ 534). 
8 The preposition ti is understood (s' ">' s "» • )• 



134 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

EXERCISE 32 
Don't sit up after eleven. (He) who goes to bed early does 
not repent. The work will not be finished before sunset. 1 I am 
not going to burn it. Doesn't your mother ride? She did not 
dance at all. Don't sneeze just in front of me. It thundered 
and lightened, but it did not rain. I have not eaten or drunk 
all day long. He doesn't play billiards better than you. Won't 
you open the door to him ? There is no bread in the house. 
Didn't any one seize them ? Won't you sit down and keep quiet ! 
She took her purse from her pocket without her knowing. Don't 
go down to them. Don't insult a man 2 who has not insulted you. 
We didn't hear him when he came. Don't snatch it away from 
me. It doesn't rain much in Cairo. They won't ever get dry. 
Don't listen to him. We shall not return before Friday evening. 
I neither won nor was beaten. 

§ 161. The derivative verbs are eleven in number, and kike 
the following forms : — 

I. — Barrik or barrak, the latter where the doubled or the 
final consonant is one of .the letters t, gh, ft. d, /, z, 8, ', q, /. , 
and the former in other cases. 

Remark. — Barrik matte kneel and shaghghil cava, to work 
form exceptions to the above rule (but shaghghal ifi also in use). 

§ 162. Verbs of this form arc usually transitive, either causa- 
tive (where the primitive verb is intransitive) or intensive (when 
the primitive verb is transitive), as qa"ad eautst to sit, kasnar 
break in pieces, habbis imprison a number of persons. 9 Naggis 
signifies either to cause to be or to consider unch an, saddaq considt r 
true, believe. Instances of intransitive verbs of this form are: 
bahhar go north, gharrab go west, gaddar have smallpox, nJlaq 
ppery, 'affin be putrid. 

1!i:.m\kk a. — It not infrequently happens that a verb appear 
ing in this form is not used as a simple triliteral, as khammin 
conjectun . or it may be denominative, i.e. derived directly from 
a noun, whether of Arabic or foreign origin, as dabbish 
rubble (dabsh), bannig put under cldoroform thing narcotic), sabbin 

to soap (sahtin). 4 

Rkmabb A. Some verbs, mostly bearing a neuter sent 
used both in the primitive and first derived form withoutanydiffer- 
i me of meaning, ^ bilid (or ballid)^ / dull, 'igia (or 

1 Ti ans. thi sunset. 
'■ Trans, the man. 
\V. iit ; \ i'. I ib hum or habbif hum, but we cam, I 
habbisu in t bifl sense. 

I ' m i he I talian t hrougli Turkish. 



THE FIRST DERIVED FORM 135 

Remark c. — A few are used both transitively and intransi- 
tively, as shahhil hurry, qarrab come or bring near, battal abolish 
or be abolished, take holiday. 

§ 163. The first derived form is conjugated as follows : — 

PAST TENSE 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. barrikt, barrakt barrikt, barrakt 

2nd pers. barrikt, barrakt barrikti, barrakti 

3rd pers. barrik, barrak barrikit, barrakit 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. barrikna, barrakna 
2nd pers. barriktu (-urn), barraktii (-um) 
3rd pers. barriku (-um), barraku (-um) 

AORIST 

Singular 
masc. fem. 

1st pers. abarrik, abarrak abarrik, abarrak 

2nd pers. tibarrik, 1 tibarrak tibarriki, tibarraki 

3rd pers. yibarrik, yibarrak tibarrik, tibarrak 

Plural for both Genders 
] si pers. nibarrik, nibarrak 
2 1 M 1 pers. tibarriku (-um), tibarraku (-um) 
3rd pers. vikuriku (-um), yibarraku (-um) 

UNFINISHED PRESENT 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. babarrik, babarrak babarrik, baban*ak 

2nd pers. bitbarrik, 2 bitbarrak bitbarrikl, bitbarrakt 

3rd pers. biyibarrik, beyibarrak bitbarrik, bitbarrak 
(or bibarrik, &c.) 

Plubal fob lorn Genders 
1st pers. binbarrik, binbarrak (or binebarrik, &c.) 
2nd pers. bitbarriku 2 (-m 3 ), bitbarrak u (-m) (or bitebar- 

riki'i, &c ) 
3rd pars, btbarriku (-m), 4 btbarraku (-m) 



1 Or tebarrik, and bo throughout. 

For biti (te) barrik, <fec. 
• /.■ . -inn, the '• being shortened when the m is added, and 
s<i i bronghoal . 

4 Or anoontracb d biyi (ye) barriku, <fcc. 



136 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



IMPERATIVE 

Siii' r . niasc. barrik, barrak Fein, barriki, barraki 
Phir. barriku (-m), barraku (in) 

Particip., active and pass., inebarrik. mebarrak (mibarrik, 
mubarrik, tfcc.). 1 

'Remakk. — The participle of this form is frequently used aa 
a substantive, as nie'allim one who teaches, a matter. 



VOCABULARY 



kallini 


address 


raggu' 


give hack, re 


qabbil 


go south 




turn 


khabbar 


inform 


'azzib 


tori 


gallid 


bind (books T 


kaddib 


give the 




&c.) 


kassil 


grow lazy 


fassak 


make roctt . 


dakhkhan 


smoke (chim- 




walk (act.) 




ney, Ac) 




(f/nnit 


ta"ab 


tire 


liammil 


load 


f.-ihhim 


inform 


farrag 'ala 


slww over 


taiksh 


dri\ 


kbaddim 


employ 


qaahshar 


shell, peel 


fassal 


i-'it out (cloth, 


kattar 


inert 




&e.) 




much 


hadaf 


tli row 


sallini 'ala 


>ite 


eabbar 


keep waiting 


'alliin 


teach 


gabbis : 


grow hard, 


•;illini 'all 


sign 




harden 


menaggid 


ufthnhterer 


ballat 


l>ii ■■■ 


qnm&sh 


stuff 


gammid 


harden 


bisilla 


peas 


sallii 


/' //■' 


ganaynJ 




kharrag 


take out 


baraaml 


■■ 


1 


make cl 


iui7.nl 


. 


khaftsar 








(kh 




twliV 




dahhak 


make laugh 


nla 




ghabbar 


throw dust 







1 Pot the vowel <>t' the firsl syllable, Bee ~i W In the 

literal*) language the vowel ol the final syllable is always i in the 
l / in the pass, pari iciple. 
Krom gibs rum. 
* Sometimes pronounced ganeni. 



THE FIRST DERIVED FORM 137 

EXERCISE 33 

Ana rayh af?alli<l kitab£n 'and il megallid. Dimaghu r 1 1 « » - 
gabbisa. Bahhar sana wala tqabbil yom. II furne bitdakhkhan 
kettr; lazim nenaddafha bukra a subh. Ihdif li kora wahda, 
mush haddif li 1 kull. Sallim li 'ala wiladak. Inta Hi 'irift il 
hikaya, khabbarni 'anha. Taiyib, ana hafahhimha lak. Ya 
barasml inta bitharnmil humarak hamla qadde kede tiqlla leh ? 
ti'azzibu leh, ya gabbarl Allah yi'azzibak zeye ma 'azzibtu. 
Hat Una 1 waraqa "ask'ni ne'allim 'ah'-ha. Khaddimtish il baia- 
bra dol ii betak ? Ya ganayni ! ma tkattarsh il moiya ; rah 
tikhassar il ward. Dabbish ya walad 'ala 1 banna. II gammal 
kan rayih yibarrik gimalu. Ivhalli wahid menaggid yinaggid Una 
mertabten. Hiya rah tikallimik 'an il mas'ala. Nazzil it tars 
beza di min 'as sutuh. Ma tkliarragfihash baira. In nas dol 
yinaggisu 1 kalb. 

EXERCISE 34 

Hurry up (plur.); don't keep us waiting. Why arc you 
driving those men away? The cat was looking for her kittens 
all day long. I am going to teach you Arabic. I don't get 
tired coming down; 1 what tires me is going up. a You have 
stolen my pencil: give it Kick to me. Will you lend me five 
pounds? The road isn't paved. The story will make you 
! tugh. Are you not going t<> take the child for a walk? J 
don't believe your statement at all. 1 am ir» >i u^r r<> cut the 
stuff out myself. After lunch we are going t<> show you over 
the stables. What are you doing, girl? 1 am shelling peas. 

§ 164. II. — Barik. 8 Verbs of this form denote: — 
(a) An attempt or striving to perform the action exp 
by the primitive verb, as ghalib sefk to ooereoi 

(6) A mutual performing of that action by both subject and 
object, as rihin to mo/ce one bet with oneself, wager. In the 
r sense the indirect object of the primitive verb becomes 
the direct object of the uecond form, a-~ La'ibnl ( liu'l> waiyaya 
he played with me. 4 Others have an apparently primitives 
the simple verb not being in use or bearing an entirel) different 



1 Trans, ft u< the deea id. 
:•.•-' • nt. 

3 The Koranic barak(a) (rarelj heard). 

4 In the former it sometimes reman;- indirect, m 
waiy.ih (or »bqu) he raced tnt/< min [raced him), lit. tried /<< poet 

knit. 



138 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

meaning, as safir start on a journey, barik bless, ctinrfratulate, 
qabil meet. 

§ 165. The principal tenses are conjugated as follows :— 

PAST TENSE 
Singular 

MASC. l'Klf. 

1st pers. barikt barikt 

2nd pers. barikt barikti 

3rd pers. barik barkit (for barikit) 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. barikna 
2nd pers. bariktd (-m) 
3rd pers. barku (-m) 



AORIST 




Singular 




MASC. 


KEM. 


1 st pers. abarik 


abarik 


2nd pers. tibarik 1 


tibarkl 


3rd pers. yibarik 


t ibarik 



Plural fob both Gendebs 

1st pers. oibarik 
2nd pel-, tibarku (-m) 
3rd pors. yibarkQ (-m) 

IMPERATIVE 

Sing. masc. barik Fern, barki 

I'lur. barki) (-in) 
Particip., act. and pass., mebarik, mebarak' 
Remake a. — It will be observed thai the conjugation of tbis 
form differs in n<> way From thai of the first, except that 
vowel ? disappears in some <>i the persons in accordance with 
i In- rules of pronunciation. 

Remark b. -The passive participle is sometimes borrowed 
from fche primitive verb, though the other parts ol the La 
are not In us.- or bear a different meaning, as mabrfik I 



1 Or tebarik, j ebarik, 

i The l.iti.'i form La sometimes used rive participle, 

in the written language. 



THE SECOND DERIVED FORM 



139 





VOCABULARY 




4 a\rik 


quarrel with 


dafi' 'an 


defend 


•Alig 


heal, attend 


samih 


pardon 


barik fi 


bless 


sa'id 


help 


barik li 


congratulate 


'amil 


treat, deal witii 


tagir 


be in commerce, 


'arid l 


expose, exhibit 




business 


hasib 


settle account:' 


sharik 


take as a part- 




with, bei cart, 




ner 




look out 


'akis 


annoy, tease 


hafiz 'ala 


look after 


sahiq 


race with 


bitqul 


you say 


khalif 


oppose, con- 


fayit 


passing 




tradict 


mas'ul 


/< sponsible 


shatim 


insult, band;/ 


mush'arani 


hairy 




words with 


gary 


a running 


fariq 


leave one alone 


sabqa 


race 


khaniq 


quarrel with 


ba'dfn 


afterwards 



EXERCISE 35 

Huwa kulle y8m bf'arikni. Ihna rayhln neqabilhum fi 1 
mahatta. Mln bl'algu? II hakim illi 'align! lamma kutte 
'aiyan 'amnauwil huwa Hi me'algu. Allah yib&rik fik. Huwa 
beyitagir wahdu? La' mesharik wahid tanl waiyah. Huwa 
miggauwiz gidld; mush rah tibarik hi? TamaUi Lamma tkun 
fayta min bina, yi'aksuha 1 wilad d61. 11 waladen duk-hamma 
i ah yisabqu ba'd fi 1 gary. Basbi ya wllya! Ihna kunna 
iiitahniii ba'dina bi 1 t'ulus 'ala 8 sabqa. 11 binti di tamalli 
mkhalfani fi 1 kalam. Kami beyishatmu ba'd quddam bitna 
lamma gih ish shawish u waddahum it tunm. Inta inusli rah 
tefariqnj abadan I Bitkhanqi 2 1 walad da llh ya hint ? ( ihalibna- 
hum li 1 kora. Bitqul khanquh walla khanaquh? Barak 9 Allah 

fi r ragil il mush'arani wala liaiak Allah li 1 mala 1 mush- 
'araiiiya. 

EXERCISE 36 

The boss woe playing with the girls. I will inert you 
outside the shop. 1 didn't strike him; I was only defending 
myself. If you do this, I shall never pardon you. When do 
you (plur.) start? I am starting by ' the train which leaves 
:it *J •."»'; r.M. The} weren't helping us; we did it by ourselves. 

1 I'.- iter 'arrad. - For bitekhaniql. 

; Foi the use of the past tense, see g 17.'; ■ -. 
* ma' yequm. 



110 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



Your enem y does not always become l your friend because you 
treat him well. They are not going to exhibit their goods in 
the windows of the shops. Spend the money out of 2 your 
pocket, and I will settle with you afterwards. When they 
quarrelled my brother reconciled them. You are responsible, 
and must- 1 look after everything. 

§ 1 66. III. — Ibrak 4 and occasionally (the literary form) abrak. 

It is either transitive, bearing the same meaning as barrik, 
as ikhbar inform (for the more usual khabbar), or intransitive 
(or neuter), as izman endure, last, islam become a Mussulman. 

Remark. — This form is of very rare occurrence in the spoken 
language. 

§ 1(17. The past tense is conjugated as in the other forms; 
the aorist makes abrik, tibrik, tihriki, yibrik, &c. : the imperative 
is ibrik, &c, and the participle mubrik, niibrik. 

Remark a. — The participle may exist where the other parts 
of the verb are not in use. as mudhik caitsino to laugh, laughable. 
Those verbs of this form whose sense admits of a passive parti- 
ciple derive it from the simple verb, as alzam h compelled, pass, 
part, malzum. 

Uemark h. — The word murzaq provided for (by God), 1>ie*t 
seems to represent the past participle of a verb arzaq, which, 
however, exists neither in the colloquial nor the literary language; 
so mus'ad blest, and a few others. 

VOCABULARY 



imkan (am- 


be possible to 


Han 


notify 


kan) 


one 1 * 


igwaz 


double 


ifqar 


impoverish 


mnlisin 


charitable 


alzam 


compel, hold 


mushrik 


polytlu isf, 




responsible 




idolatt r 


ihsan (alisan) 


show charity to, 


niisi'i' 


hurrying 




make gifts 


(musri 


) 


iblagb 


come of age, 


\ imkin 


it is /*< 




inform 




possibly 


ikram. 


treat with 


qiyam 


starting, 


(akram | 


honour 




fit ft a /■>' 


izhar 


bring to light 


kntr 


■ aa 


ib'ad 


remove 


ra>m (7) 




Ltqan 




zira'at 


•/ >.< 




nice 






1 yigt 


min. 


3 1 


w ith aor. 


* Oomp. Ph 


1'iiie. if-il. 


5 With 


a direct object 



THE THIRD DERIVED FOKM 141 

EXERCISE 37 

Ma mkannish agahhiz il gawabat betu'i qable qiyam il busta. 
Ana lzamtak leinnak tifdal hina, ya'ni tkun inta malzum u 
mas'ul 'an kulle haga. Lazim titqin nina (titqin lina) t tabikh 
ziyada shuwaiya nnaharda, 'ashan fib diyuf. Lamma misku 1 
haramiya kanu misri'ln bi 1 gary. Ana lamma get inta 'andi, 
mush akramtak? Yimkin nirkab sawa bukra. 

EXERCISE 38 

The excessive taxation ] was impoverishing the country. 
Won't it be possible for you to write 2 to me to-morrow ? He 
is a very charitable man; he is making gifts every day. Your 
tennis balls did not last more than two or three months. You 
must notify them before Friday. Possibly we shall ^o out to- 
night. They are responsible, not I. There are still many poly- 
theists in the world. They did not show me much honour. 

§ 1G8. IV. — Itbarak. 3 It generally serves as the passive of 
the primitive verb; thus from habae imprison is formed ithabas 
to be imprisoned, from misik seize, itmasak be seized. But the 
primitive form is not always in use. Itbarak sometimes has a 
neuter, reflexive, or middle sense, as itlafat turn round to look, 
and is in a few cases identical in meaning with the primitive 
form, as Ltbasat be pleased, from bisit (little used), ittalab a- 
oneself 

i 169. The aorist is atbirik, titbirik, tdtbirki, <fec, the impera- 
tive itbirik, itbirkl, itbirku (-m). The participle (mitbirik) is not 
much in use, the passive participle of the simple verb generally 
taking its place, as mahbi'is. inamsuk, &c. 

VOCABULARY 



itqafal 


be locked 


itlafat li 


look to, after 


itfatah 


be opened 


ithamal 


be carried 


ishsharah 


be drunk 


ishshataf 


be f/it/', 


itfahain 


be understood 




broken off 


itkbahat 


be knocked^ 


itqalab 


be upset 




bump d 


it'abad • 


bi worshipped 



1 Trans, the excess of the taxes, 

- Aor. {limt) i/ou wriU . 

8 Thi> t'orui, unknown bo literary Arabic, corresponds to the 
Syriac ethp'el, regarded as the passive of tli<- primitive verb. It 
is doubtless!} more ancient than the reduplicated form Ltbarrok. 



112 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



itgama'. 


be added up 


itrafas 


be kicked 


iggama* 




itrafa' 


be raised 


itkhadam 


be served, 


itrafad l 


be dismissed 




waited on 


binaya 


building 


ithamaq 


be quick-tem- 


'agam 


Persians 




pered 


gumla 


total 


it'araf 


be hnoicn 


shukali 


quarrelsome 


it'azam 


be invited 


khulq 


temperament 


itghalab 


be conquered 


hamaqa 


foolishness 


itghasal 


be washed 


taqm 


suit 



EXERCISE 39 

II bab il barrani beta,' betna beyitqifil min gilwa. Itsharab 
'andina nibit ketir illela. Kallimna bi 1 'arabi 'ashan kalamak 
yitfibim min kull in nas. II khaddam il battal yitrifid. II hagar 
dih lazim yitrifi' min hina. Itkhabatna min 'arabiya fi s sikka 
quddam betak. Issarafit fulus ketir qawi fi 1 binaya dL Ish 
shamse kanit betit'ibid 'and il 'agam. Lamma titgimi' il gumla 
hana'raf qimt il kull. Ir ragil da mithimiq 2 we shukali ketir; 
kullima tkallimu yithimiq. Huwa yin'irif bi 1 hamaqa betahtu. 
Hiya mittilba min Allah leinne Rabbina yii'zuqha bi walad. 

EXERCISE 40 

They were imprisoned in their (owu) garden. She was seized 
before she reached her daughter's house. Both the doors of my 
bedroom open inwards. The jacket too, in fact the whole suit 
must be washed. Don't sit there, or :f you will be kicked by 4 
one of those horses. Why was be dismissed % Because he didn't 
look after the house properly when we went away. It yon play 
with them you will !><• beaten. How are you going to be waited 
on if there is no servant in the house i The children were eurried 
on the Camel's back. A small piece has been chipped off. Take 
that glass away or it will be upset 

j 1 7u. V.— Itbarrik, itbarrak. 8 This form La constructed 



1 Itrafal in t be diet ionariea 
8 lalisan. 



2 Or mahmoq. 



5 Itfa"al is nut unknown to the lit « >i ;t i\ dialect. It is 

the llfhr. /iit/tpu'e/, Syriac eihpa'eU (the second radical 

double. 1). 



THE FOURTH DERIVED FORM 143 

from the first derived form by the addition of the prefix it, and 
acts as its passive, or denotes generally the condition into which 
its object is brought by its action, as : — 

naddaf dean itnaddaf be cleaned 

barrad cool itbarrad get cool 

hakkim give one autho- ithakkim have, use (or abuse)) 
rity such authority 

Sometimes it bears the same sense and acts upon the same object 
as the first form, but governs that object indirectly instead of 
directly, as kallim ir ragil (or itkallim waiya r ragil) he spoke to 
(with) the man, hadditu (or ithaddit waiyah) he >• hotted with him ; 
or it may be middle or reflexive in sense, as qallib turn, itqallib 
turn oneself, roll bach. When the first form is intransitive, the 
fifth is rarely in use ; when it is, it is generally identical in 
meaning, as qarrab (or itqarrab) approach. lire versa, when the 
fifth form is neuter, without any reference to the action of a 
transitive verb, the first form does not often exist. 

§ 171. The aorist is atbarrik, titbarrik, <fcc, or atbarrak, 
titbarrak, &c, according as the past tense is itbarrik or itbarrak ; 
similarly, the imperative itbarrik or itbarrak and the participle 
mitbarrik or mitbarrak. 

Remark a. — The literary form tabarrak will occasionally be 
heard in conversation for both itbarrik and itbarrak, 1 as also 
mutabarrik for the active participle, as ragil mutakallim an 
eloguent man. 

Remakk b. — Itbarrid is sometimes heard for itbarrad, itbash- 
shir for itbashshar, itraddad frequent for itraddid. 

Remark c. — The i of the initial syllable of the past tense is 
not infrequently placed after instead of before the t, and pro- 
nounced very shortly, as tikallini (almost tkallim).' 2 



1 But only in imitation of the literary dialect. The Chaldaic 
form is the only one, properly speaking, in use in the colloquial 
language. 

2 See § 14. For the assimilation of the t witb certain letters 
in forms (1), (5), and (u), see ^ 25 b. Its sound often approaches 
that of d. 



144 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



VOCABULARY 



itmarragh 


roll (intr.) 


itrattib 


itbashshar 


be blessed tcith, 


itfaddal ! 




lucky in 


itf assah 


itbassas ('al 


i) play Mm S PV 


it'allaq 


itbassim 


smile, laugh 
knowingly 


itfarrag 'ala 


itba' 'ad 


be removed, 
keep away 


ifcrakal ) 


ittarrab 


l>e covered, 


itghasal 




j i lied with 


kabbar oifsu 




dust 


kbaff 


itqaddim 


be advanced 


biqul 


ithaggar 


l>e harsh, 


gitta 


'"ala 


rough, villi 


bakht 


ittallit 


look with dis- 






dain on 


kliabbas 


itrakkib 


to put up, set in 


kbaivat 


itgarrab 


}>e tried 


laud 


itgallid 


be bound 


wald 


ithassar 


regret 


serg, sarg 


ithatt'az 


be in safe 


hamd il iinik 


('and) 


keeping 




ithanimil 


bear mali-oe 


waga* 


(min) 




ardiva 


issabbin 


be soaped 


sawa 


itfassal 


be cut out 
(clothes, &c.) 


ainiaii 



be arranged 
please I pray ! 
take a walk 
be suspended 
be shewn, look, 

over 
be driven, 

ridden 
be waslied 
<}ive oneself airs 
be recovered 
he says 
body 
good fortune, 

luck 
charlatan 
tailor 
sand 
mud 
sou Idle 
phenie, car- 

bolie, acid 
pain 

floor, ground 
togetlf r 
long ago 



EXERCISE 41 



II hnsan kail bevitniaiT.tgh fi I hashish 'ashan gittitu sukhna 
\vc )imkin tilKaiiMil. lima Uu.Mi -i„u na klirl>i 1 bUR&D 'la,_\a't.. 
basal 'andiiia bakht. Uuztu k.'mit bet it balsas 'il'li l.unm.i kai. 

beyitbaaaim li wahda miab nhibhftlr 11 luuudu li llah Uriqnl 
dilwaqti r ragil da 1 khabbas witba"ad mmm. Ii aikka dilwaqti 

mittarraba bi shmvaivit land J ma filiasli moiva wala wald. Kai, 

/ainaii min ashabt, lakio min yflm ma tqaddim li 1 bukuma kabbar 

ii if us \s i ttallit 'al \a 11 lm-an beta'na be\ it rikib basse bi I 

erg; liaaa ma tgarrabaha lil 'arablya. Sawa ragil gabb&r biyit 
tiaggar /i 1 kattn 'an in oas, ya'nl biqul luhum kalam g&mid, 



THE FIFTH DERIVED FORM 145 

Ba'de makan khaffe min il <aiya itqallib <aleh il waga' tani 
Huwa thakkim 'algya we qal li i'mil di u di. BevithasL ketir 
'ala nafsu bi lit rah minnu. 1 ' " 

EXERCISE 42 
m They were talking together a long time. The book has been 
in his-keepmg (for) years. If you beat him at 2 the game, lie will 
owe you a grudge. The windows were put in yesterday only 
I he floor must be well 3 soa ped and washed with carbolic acid 
ilis jacket was cut out for him by « a tailor. The books were 
arranged on the shelves. Pray sit down ! The boots are cleaned 
every morning. We are going to take a little * walk after dinner « 
I he overcoats have all been hung up behind the door. She is 
going to look over the house. 

«. f i 72 ' £ T?T Itbarik - U bears the same relation to the second 
that the fifth does to the first. When used reflexively or reci- 
procally the direct object of the second form is usually governed 
by the preposition waiya, as qabiltu (or itqabilte waivah) / met 
turn It is conjugated precisely as the second derived"' form the 
aonst being atbarik, titbarik, titbarki, &c, the imperative itba- 
rik, &c, and the participle mitbarik or (borrowed from the primi- 
tive form) mabruk. r 

YOCABULARY 



itbarik 
itghamiz 
ittaqil 'ala 



itghasir 'ala 
itkhasim 



itrazil 'ala 

Lssa'id 

isb.8b.axik 

is sad if 



be blessed, for- 
tunate 
exchange a 

wink 
speak crossly, 
roughly, 
with 
be bold with 
have a differ- 
ence, fall 
out 
blackguard 
be helped 
be associated 
chance to meet 



itkhaniq 

itbahis 

issabiq 

ishshahin 

it'ashir 



iddakhil 
kattar 

kherak 
wugud 
kurbag 
tigara 
sabab 
lnudda 



1 I.e. he has lost. 

* t;.i\il. (after verb). 

5 ahuwaiya (after the verb). 



li. 



6 Tra 



quarrel 
dispute, discuss 

contend with 

wrangle 

associate, 
become inti- 
mate 

interfere 

thank you 

presence 

whip 

trade 

reason 

/" rind, time 



the dinner. 
E 



146 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 



EXERCISE 43 

II hurma tbarkit bi wugtid ish shekh 'andiha. Huwa kan 
beyitghamiz waiyaya 'ashan amsiku. Ir ragil da ttfiqil 'aleya 
ketir qawi, hatta hasal If za'al min kalamu. II 'arbagi da mush 
basse ma qibilsh ugritu lakin itghasir 'aleya we darabni bi 
kurbagu. II khaddam beta'i ma yitkhasimshe waiya hadd. Inta 
titrazil leh 'an in nas dol we tishtimhum min gher sabab ? Huwa 
r ragil da, illi huwa missa'id biya fi sbugblu kullu, ma qal lishe 
hatta " kattar kherak." Ikhwatu inishsharkin waiyah fi 1 bet. 
Kanu biyishshaklu waiya ba'd wara 1 garni'. Iza ssadifte waiya 
Salim sallim li 'aleh. 

EXERCISE 44 

She quarrels with her husband every day. We met your 
brother by chance yesterday afternoon. They were discussing 
together 1 all day long. We are going to race one another. 
Don't wrangle with the people in the street. We have been 
intimate with one another (for) a long time. He is associated 
with her uncle in business. Why do you interfere? This is 
not your business. Possibly we shall meet your brother to-night 
at the sheikh's house. Why are you always seeking a quarrel 
with that poor old woman ? 

§ 173. VII. — Inbarak. It usually has a passive sense, and is 
often interchangeable with the fourth form, as inharaq (or itharaq) 
be burned, burned down, inhakam (or ithakam) b( judged ; but it 
not infrequently bears a middle or a reflexive sense, as inqafal 
be shut, shut, infatah be opened, open, inkasar he broken, break. 

§ 174. The aorisi isanbirik, tinbirik, && ; imperative inbirik, 
inbiiki, &c. ; participle minbirik (or mabriik). 

I!, .mark. — The literary form of the participle munbarik i> 
heard regularly in the word munkasir (for minkisir) when mean 
ing humble, unassuming, and is frequently used by the more 
educated classes in other words; ankasar, yinkasar, will some 

times be beard for ankisir. 



1 IV i ii.s. with one another, 



SIXTH AND SEVENTH DERIVED FORMS 147 
VOCABULARY 



inbadal 


be changed 


inkatab 


be written 


inbarash 


be pulled 


inqalab 


turn over(intv. ) 




asunder, 


ingarah 


be wounded 




split ; spra wl 


ingama* 


be collected 


inbasat 


be pleased, 


itnaqal 


be removed 




enjoy 


intaqab 


be pierced , 


inmasak 


be seized 




bored 


(immasak) 




sogar 


insure 


inzalat 


be swallowed 


wagad 


find 


ingadal 


be plaited 


nahya 


direction 


intaqan 


be done with 


gild 


leather 




precision 


isbinsa 


pantry 


ingazar 


be slaughtered ; 


(sibinsa) 






be grieved at 


khabar eh 1 


what's the 


inga'as 


lounge 




matter ? 


inhabas 


be imprisoned 


masnid 


back of carri- 


inbahat 'ala 


gaze lovingly 




age (inside) 




at 


baqara 


cow- 


ingharaf 


be ladled out, 


tiyatru 


theatre 




dished up 


habl 


rope 


inkhabaz 


be baked 


khashab 


ivood 


inhalab 


be milked 


durg (14) 


drawer 


insaraq 


be robbed, 


ghurub 


west 




stolen 


fingaii 


cup 


inqatal 


be killed 


taqriban 


about 


inharas 


be guarded 


hatta 


until 



EXERCISE 45 

Da mush qalami ; illi bta'i inbadal 'andak. Inbarashit rigleh 
we rahit kulle rigl fi nahya. II gazma Hi gildiha mush taiyib 
tinbirish qawam. Hfnva minbisit ketir min kahlmak. Hat it 
t,i>.i 1 kuwaiyisa illi gat min bilad barra. La', hiya minkisra ' 
'audi fi 1 isbinsa. Da ragil tniyib, inunkasir 'ala Hah. 2 Lamina 
mmasak il harami wagadu waiyah il fultis? La', di inzalatil 
minmi u nizlit ii balnu. Da r ragil da tamalli yinbihit 'ala 1 
mara, 3 we hiya kaman mabhuta 'al€h. It tabikh lazim yintiqin 
kcinaii Bhuwaiya. Hiya rah tingizir qawi milli basal Liha. II 
hable da qudum ma yingidilsh. Chabar §h! it tabikh lissa rua 
ogarafsh.? Qa'adna mag'u$in 'ala 1 masnid beta* il 'arabiya. 
[nqilib 'ala 1 ganb it tank 11 'lah inkhabaz? La - , lissa ma 
nkhabass, 



1 Or ma! 



- Trusting in Ood. 



I.e. "his ><■>'/(_. 



148 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

EXERCISE 46 

Didn't you enjoy the theatre very much yesterday? The 
cow will not be milked before sunset. Two watches and about 
three hundred pounds have been stolen from one of my drawers. 
We are very glad that l the stables have been removed from in 
front of our house. Three of the poor women were killed and 
one was wounded. All the people of the village were collected 2 
outside the omda's house. "Where will the wood be bored? 
You will be imprisoned (for) three years. The garden ought to 
have 3 been watched as-well-as 4 the house. Six glasses and four 
cups were broken to-day. He was seized at the station when 
he was about to leave. The letters had not been written before 
noon. Insure your house, lest it be burned down. 

§ 175. VIII. — Ibtarak. 5 Verbs of this form may be : — 
(a) Reflexive (the reflex object being usually direct, but 

occasionally indirect), as ihtaras c/uard, protect, oneself from, 

istanad support oneself against, iqtadar acquire <pow\ /■, wealth, 

for oneself. 

{b) Reciprocal, as ishtarak waiya ( = sharik, ishsharik waiya) 

be in partnership with. 

(c) Identical in meaning with a neuter simple verb or fourth 
form, as khumur (or ikhtamar) rise (of dough). 

(d) The passive of the primitive verb or first derived form, 
as irtafa' be rais&l (rafa* raise), ishtaghal be occupied or (as a 
neuter verb) be busy (shaghghal occupy), irta'ash be frighk 
tremble, shiver. 

(e) Active, but with a meaning different to that of the simple 
verb or first derived form, as ihtarani honour, istalaf borrow 
(from haram deprive of, sail if lend). 

§ 17G. The aorist is abtirik, etc., the imperative ibtirik, 
tibthki, ike, and the participle mibtirik (or mabriik). 

Remark. — Ashtagbal and aftakar 6 / think, imagine, an- in 
use as well as asht ighil and aft ikir ; and niubtarik and iniihtaiak 
arc sonicl hues heard, as in the words muqtadir id U off, mukhtalit 
opposing, different, mushtarik associating, subscriber, muhtaram 
honoured, honourable, mu'tamad trustworthy, mu'tabar respt 
respectable. 

1 inabsi'it leinn. - I'Vm. >ing. 

8 kan la/.im 4 mush b 

6 This form 18 a variant of ithaiak, and is COmparal 

in the coll< quia] language. 

the literary languace nshtjiehil, aftakir. 



THE EIGHTH DERIVED FORM 



149 



VOCABULARY 



Igtama' 


gather together 


khatrak 


yovr sake 




(intr.) 


'agin 


dough 


irtaga' 


go bark from. 


shurb 


drinking, 




renounce 




smoking 


i'tazar 


excuse oneself, 


hidiya 


present 




be " hard 


ma'isha 


a living 




up " 


fi ma'isha 


living togethe 


iltafat 


attend 


wahda 




i'timad 


trust, rely, be 


mitr (14) 


metre 




convinced 


kam 


a few (with 


iftirad 


retire, live 




noun in 




alone 




sing.) 


irtakan 


lean 


sa'a . . . sa'a 


sometimes . . 


iftaqar 


become poor 




sometimes 


baqa 


become 







EXERCISE 47 

Kulle lela yigtimi'u. waiya ba'd we yithadditu li ba'de nuss 
il lei. Ana htaramt akhuk 'ashan khatrak. Huwa fen ? Aho ! 
mishtighil fi 1 gine.na. Kalamu mikhtilif, ya'ni s;'ra yequl haga 
we sa'a yequl haga tanya. H 'agin rah yikhtimir dilwaqti. 

..ihna 1 iyam dol min shurb il qahwa wi s sagSyir. Huwa 
qtadar ketir u baqa ghanl 'an ikhwatu. Lam ma htazar <:ili 
'andi wi stalaf minnl khamas ginehat. Ana htamadte leinnak 
tisallii" li 1 kitabat ddL Kan fi ma'isha wahda waiyana, lakin 
muftarad dilwaqti li wahdu. Iltifit li shuglak. 

EXERCISE 48 

Why are you shivering? have you 1 fever? Xo, I am only 
shivering from the cold. It is raised - three metres from th>' 
ground. She was supporting herself against 3 the wall. She is 
a woman of means. 4 I must borrow a few pounds from my 
brother. Trust in 5 God. Are you in partnership with your 
uncle, or not ? Don't ever work after eleven o'clock at night. 1 ' 
The door opened when 1 was supporting myself against it. and 
T fell on the floor. I am goin^r to give up drinking tea. Will 
you lend me five pounds ? No, I am hard-up myself. She 
was once very rich, but now she has become poor. We were 
very much occupied ■ all daj . 

1 'andak. • - Rarticip. da. 

4 Particip. of iqtadar. 5 'ala. ° bi 1 h'l. 

7 Particips. from primitive or supposed primitive verbs. 



150 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 177. IX. — Ibrakk. It occurs only in verbs expressive of 
colour or a bodily defect. When the simple verb exists, its 
meaning becomes intensified in the ninth form, as khadar to be 
green, ikhdarr be green all over. The conjugation is as follows : — 



PAST TENSE 



MASC. 

1st pers. ibrakket 
2nd pers. ibrakket 
3rd pers. ibrakk 



Singular 



fem. 
ibrakket 
ibrakketi 
ibrakkit 



Plurals for both Genders 
1st pers. ibrakkena 
2nd pers. ibrakketil (-m) 
3rd pers. ibrakku. (-m) 
Aorist. — abrakk, tibrakk, tibrakki, yibrakk, &c. 
ibrakk, &c. Particip. — mibrikk. 

VOCABULARY 



Imper. — 



izraqq 


become blue 


asl 


origin, original 


ismarr, 


become broion 




condition 


ismarr 




bayad 


white, white 


ihmarr 


become red 




colour 


isfarr 


become yellow 


hamar 


red, redness 


ighmaqq 


become dark 


khala 


desert 


igradd 


get faded 


zahra 


blue (for wash- 


izradd 


get flushed 




ing) 


irmadd 


be affected tvith 


bii'in, bavin, 


appearing, 




ophthalmia 


brvin 


trident 


yehushu 


(hey keep away 


min waqtiha 


since 


insabagh 


be dyed 







EXERCISE 49 
Lamma titghisil il hidiim tizraqq. Is pagan <li ha yirhi* 
minha warde mizriqq. Lon il buya betu'it bitna igradde shwaiya, 
ya'ni mush ( ala aalu. Lamma kutte fi bl&d tinglii kal 1 ldni 
bayad bi bamar l.-ikin bavin 'aldya dilwaqti leinni pmarrtt min 
kutr ish shams. Borate baftikir leinn i-< pagan dl nuvita, lakin 
dilwaqti baqa waraqha kullu mikhdirr. vm'n wil&d il fallfthtn 
birmaddi kttr 'ashan ma \ ikhsilush wishshuhum wala yehushA 
inimiii d dibb&n. Lamina tinshai il l'i'iva tighmaqq. 



1 For kan. 



EIGHTH AND NINTH DERIVED FORMS 151 

EXERCISE 50 

Her body has all turned yellow from the disease. His face 
was red from over running. 1 We got very much sunburnt - 
when we were riding every day in the desert. The paint on 3 
that wall will turn yellow when it gets old. The colours of that 
stuff have quite faded ; it ought to be dyed. Her face is very 
much flushed ; I think she has 4 fever. 

§ 178. X.— Istabrik, istabrak. 5 It is :— 

(a) Reflexive, 6 in so far that the action is performed for the 
benefit of the subject. In this sense it may be followed either 
by a direct object or one governed immediately by a preposition, 
as istashhid wahid he called some one to mtness in his favour ; 
istahsal 'ala haga he acquired something for himself. As a re- 
flexive, it not infrequently denotes an attempt or a desire to 
obtain the object denoted by the root of the verb, as istafhim 
'an haga to attempt to get information (i.e. inquire about) a thing ; 
or a belief on the part of the subject in the existence of the 
notion expressed by the primitive verb, as istarkhas il kitab he 
considered the hook cheap enough for himJ 

(b) Similar in meaning to the simple verb, whether transitive 
or intransitive, as istaqbil receive (a visitor). 

(c) The passive of the primitive verb or first form, as istakhdim 
be employed. 

Remark. — The last sense is borne by a few verbs only. 

1 Trans, from excess of the running. 

2 Trans, broicned by the sun. 

3 Trans, which is in. 

4 yekun 'andiha. 

5 The vowel of the final syllable depends on the consonants 
enclosing it. (See § 161.) Istabrak bears the same relation to 
a form sabrak as ibtarak does to barak. See under quadrilits., 
and cf . Syriac shaqtal and ishtaqtal. 

6 The form of the Semitic verb in s was originally causative, 
that in -t reflexive ; hence the -gt forms must be traced back to 
a primitively causative sense All other senses are posterior and 
derivative. — (S. ) 

7 Both these senses may occur in the same word, as istafragh 
vomit, "retch " (desiderative), and consider empty (from faragh be 
' i/i ))/>/). The idea of reflexiveness is not always apparent, as in 

ghshim consider inexperienced, (fee, and the participle may be 
used adjectively without any reference to an expressed opinion, 
as mi6taqrab near. 



152 



THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 179. Some of those which fall under (a) are formed from 
nouns, as istahmar, istaghash consider a donkey, young donkey 
(gahsh). 

§ 180. The conjugation of this form is similar to that of I., 
the aorist being astabrik, astabrak, 1 tistabrik, tistabrak, &c, the 
imperative istabrik, istabrak, &c, and the participle mistabrik, 
mistabrak. 

Remark a.— Mistabrak is sometimes heard irregularly for 
mistabrik, as mistansab (for mistansib) approving. 

Remark b. — The same verb may be both active and neuter, 
as ista'gil urge on ; make haste. 

§ 181. XI.- — Istibarrik, istibarrak, a variant of the tenth 
form, and very rarely heard as a derived form of the perfect 
verb. 

VOCABULARY 



istab'ad 


consider, find 


istakmil 


be finished, 




too far 




complete 


istatqal 


consider heavy, 


istamlik 


acquire domi- 




too severe 




nion over 


istaghlib 


acknowledge 


istanzil ('an) 


renounce 




oneself con- 


istasghar 


consider small, 




quered 




too small 


istahsin 


find good 


istihallif 


take an oath, 


istahkiin 


exercise autho- 




threaten 




rity over, 


istahfaz 'ala 


protect, guard 




domineer 


garah 


to wound 


istakhbar 


get news from 


'auwart 


you damaged 


istakhrag 


extract 


ghawa 


beguile 


istaghrab 


be astonished 


qatal 


kill 


istabrak 


be blessed, find 


khabta 


a knock 




lucky 


n6m 


sleep 


istadrag 


get to under- 


'aiyil 


child 




stand 


fikr 


idea 


istarzaq 


get one's liv- 


qal'ii 


citadel 




ing 


mishwar 


walk, errand 


istarsad (li) 


waylay 


moiyit il 


rose-icater 


istazr.it' 


consider nice, 


maward 






good 


zahr 


flotoer 


istas-hil 


find easy 


Musyu 


Monsieur, Mr. 


ista'gib 


be astonished 


shugla 


job 


istaqrab 


find, consider, 


agaza 


lean* , holiday 




//'Hi- 


brins 


prii 


istaghraq 


be drowned. 


wusfd 


arrival 




sink deep in 


furigh 


empty 



1 See§ 171. 



TENTH AXD ELEVENTH DERIVED FORMS 15:; 

ghashiru inexperienced, 'ashan kede therefore 

simple ma'lum no doubt, of 



walau,welau although, even 

if ' 
bardu none the less 



course 
madam seeing that 

badri early 



EXERCISE 51 

Lamma tli'na min il bet kan fikrina neruh masbyin 'ala 
riglena li hadd il qal'a, lakin wi hna 1 fi nuss is sikka istab'adna 
1 mishwar u rikibna 'arabiya. ELunte rayh aqul lu 1 kalam da 
lakm istatqaitu shuwaiya. Madam 'auwarti ktabu lazim tis- 
tahsil lu 2 wahid gheru walau bi 1 fulus. Hiya tamalli betistah- 
marni u btistaghshimni, ya'nt betiftikir leinni gbasbim ma <raf slie 
haga. Ir riggala dol nas battalln ; istahfaz 'ala nafsak minbum 
Saraqt il baga di leb ? Aho stabkim 'aleya sb sbetan wi gwani w.- 
saraqt. Humma beyistiliallifu li 'ala innubum, lamma yitqablu 
waiyaya fi s sikka, yikhanquni. II mara di mistakbdima 'ande 
min ? Yistakbra<?u moiyit il maward min iz zubur. II muslim 
yistabrak bi wugud il Qur'an fi betu. Ana dilwaqti istadra-te 
sbuwaiya 'ash shugbl. Ma'lum kulle yOm 'auz yiksab baga 
'ashan yistarzaq. Is sitt istazrafit ir ragil u khaddamitu 'and'iha. 
Rayhin nistasbid larba' riggala dol fi 1 mas'ala. Ista'gibna ktir 
'ala kalamak. Ihna sta,'rafna buh min zaman wi 'ii-ifna ba'd 
Ma smihtinish lamma khabbatte 'ala 1 bab? La', kunte mis^ 
tagbraq fi n nom u ma smihtish wala khabta. Istafraghte 'aqlu 
laqetu zeyi 1 'aiyil. Anhi sikka mistaqrabba, di walla di } 
Lamma yigi inta lazim tistaqbilu wi tqa"adu. Ba'de ma stam- 
liku 1 hitta banuba biyut. Istaghlib nafsu liya, 

EXERCISE 52 

I bought it because I considered it cheap. This wine won't 
keep more than a year. In whose house were you employed 
before Mr. A. engaged you? 3 Possibly you will be astonished 
at my statement, but it is none the less true. Two men waylaid 
the merchants outside the village, killed one of them, and wounded 
the other. He didn't consider the job sufficiently easy, and 
therefore didn't accept it. This road is much longer than that 
The work is not yet finished. He renounced his holiday in- 

1 When we were, whilst ice were. 

- Fiw l lii in a good one. 

3 Trans, before employed you Mr. A. 



154 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

favour-of 1 one of the other employes. 2 Who is going to receive 
the prince on 3 his arrival at 4 Alexandria. Of course you don't 
win any money while you are idle. Why do you take me for 
a simpleton? I don't take you for a simpleton, but I was 
astonished that you confessed yourself beaten by 5 a small boy. 
We must inquire of 6 the police about these people to-morrow 
morning. Don't hurry too much ; it is early yet. You must 
hurry on the work a little. 

VERBS WHOSE SECOND AND THIRD RADICALS 
ARE IDENTICAL 

§ 182. The primitive verb is conjugated as follows : — 

PAST TENSE 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. maddet maddet I stretched out 

2nd pers. maddet maddeti 

3rd pers. madd maddit 

Plural 

1st pers. maddena 
2nd pers. maddetu (-m) 
3rd pers. maddu (-m) 

AO RIST 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. amidd amidd 

2nd pers. temidd (timidd) temiddi (timiddi) 

3rd pers. yemidd (yimidd) temidd (timidd) 

Plural 
1st pers. nemidd (nimidd) 
2nd pers. teniiddii (-in) (timiddu -m) 
3rd pers. yemidd u (-m) (yimiddu -m) 

IMPERATIVE 

Sing. masc. midd, fern, middi. Plur. middu (-m). 
I'.u ti<i|>. act. madid (fem. madda, plur. maddin). 
articip. pass, mamdud. 



1 li. 2 Particip. of istakhdim. 8 'and. 

* fi. 6 li. 6 niin. 



SECOND AND THIRD RADICALS IDENTICAL 155 

§ 183. The other tenses are formed by the help of the pre- 
fixes and the substantive verb, as in the case of verbs whose 
radicals are all different; but note that owing to the accent 
falling on the final syllable, the weak e or i of the aorist prefor- 
matives is either pronounced very rapidly or disappears alto- 
gether, the 2nd pers. singular of the continued present be- 
coming in the case of the above verb bitmidd (for bitemidd), 
the 3rd pers. bimidd (i.e. biymidd for bivimidd), and the 1st 
pers. plural binmidd (for blnimidd). The 2nd pers. singular 
feminine and the 2nd and 3rd pers. plural generally Con- 
tract also, the final open vowels being somewhat shortened in 
pronunciation, as bitmiddi, bimiddu. 

§ 184. Verbs whose first or doubled consonant is t, gh, d, r, 
?, s, q, k, kh, or ', have u for the second vowel in the aorist. 
except : — 

taqq 

which take a, and 
tann a 
ghashsh 
harr 
raff 
raqq 
rann 
stun 
fair 
fadd 

which take i. 

§ 185. Qarr makes yequrr when meaning to 
also makes ye'udd, and kaff keep back occ 
Kh.iss concern and zann think take either i or u, 



when meaning 


sahh 


be correct 


to die 

nrl 


♦add 


bite 


tinkle 


qabb 


rise to the sur- 


cheat 




face 


he hot 


qarr 


confess 


hurry jmst 


qall 


grow less 


be thin 


kashsh 


shrink 


ring (intr.) 


kann 


cover, hide 


tcait 


khass 


get thin 


flee 


khaff 


recover 


en/f (trans.) 


'arr 


disgrace 



talk ill of; 'add 
isionally yekiff. 



VOCABULARY 



bakhkh 


sprinkle 


hairs* for 


vil'irim 


gakhkh 


boast, talk big 


' hagig(10)~ 


gazz 


shear 


hashsh 


cut grass, mote 


g:iss 


sound 


hatt 


l>nt 


hagg 


go on a pil- 


eaff 


arrange in a row 




grimage 


kliall 


be ■> 




1 But cai 


ely used. 





15b 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



daqq 


beat, pound, 


dawa 


medicine 




mash, play 


maqass 


scissors, sh^or 




(music) 


hitta 


piece 


kahh 


cough ■ 


'aliq, 'aluq 


fodder 


rakk 


rain 


balla'a 


sink, drain 


lanmi 


pick up 


fanella 


flannel 


radd 


give back, re- 


sahb (sahib) 


landlord 




ply, put to 


il bet ' 






(a door) 


basbtakhta l 


writing-table 


ramm 


repair 


t^gga, bigga 


the 12th Mo 


kabb 


pour 




hammedan 


hadd 


demolish 




month 


darr 


injure, hurt 


rabta 


bundle 


natt 


leap 


ghasil 


icashing, wash 


dall ('ala) 


indicate 


dubara 


string 


shadd 


pull 


shull 


horse-cloth 


maghshiish 


false 


matara, 


ram 


fakk 


unfasten 


natara 




hasib 


look out 


sha'r 


hair 


nrim 


get soft 


buffeh 


sideboard 



EXERCISE 53 

Hasib ! ma tbukhkhinish bi 1 moiya. Ir ragil da tamalli 
biyegukhkhe bi 1 kalam, we ma yikallimnish ilia 'an nafsu. Ye- 
gizzu sha'r il kharuf bi 1 maqass. Ana lazim agiss ir ragil fi 1 
mas'ala. Tl goz wi g goza mush tamalli yehibbu ba'd. II mus- 
limiii yeliiggu fi shahr il hugga. Husanak khasis qawi, yimkin 
'aliqu shuwaiya. II bersim mahshush walla lissa? Miya kanit 
hatta burnrtitha 'at tarabeza. Kull il qaza viz mahtutin we mas- 
fufin f6q il bufffdi. E*h yekhussak bi 1 mas'ala dl \ Mush 
shughlak. Inta 'aqlak makhlul walla eh ? Lazim teduqqi 1 
batatis wi tna"amfb.. Ana ma zunnish innu yigi nnahar da. 
II fanella di ma tkhishshish fil ghasil. Ishrabi d dawa dib, 
yimkin tekhiff! 'aleh. Ma kanshe yisahhi hi yidrab in nas ddl il 
masaktn. 11 kura ba'de ma nizlit qabbit 'ala wishsh il moiya. 
U'a 1 kalhc da lahsan yi'addak. Madam bata 'aiyan lazim 
tikinne nafsak min il hard. 11 husan bikuhhe shuwaiya 1 lt-la. 
Taivih, Lddi hi branmashsh wo huttu lu sh shull. 11 matara bit- 
rukke shuwaiya. 



1 Turkish. 



SECOND AND THIRD RADICALS IDENTICAL 157 



EXERCISE 54 

Stretch out your hand, girl, and pick them up from the 
ground. Why didn't you put the door to I My landlord is 
going to repair the house from top l to bottom. 2 Let us pour 
the wine into an empty bottle. They are pulling down the old 
house in the street near us. A little wine won't do you any 
harm. After you have undone the parcel put the string in one 
of the drawers of my writing-table. They seized him as he was 
jumping 3 over the wall. I think the streets are blocked 
Please show us the houses which have been repaired. She 
was looking from the north window which overlooks our gar- 
den. The pilgrims will not have returned before the end of 
the month. We were all pulling from one direction. I smell 
a very bad smell near the sink. This piece must be bad ; it 
doesn't ring at all. 

§ 186. Of the derived forms of these verbs, II., VI., IX., 
and XL do not occur in the spoken language, while III. occurs 
only in a few participles, some of them used as substantives, as 
mekhill injurious, mehimm important, m.e\A\>b friend. The others 
are as follows : — 



maddid stretch out 
amaddid, timaddid, &c. 
maddid 
memaddid 



L Bassas cause to look 
Aor. abassas, tibassas 
Imperat. bassas 
Particip. 4 mebassas 

IV. Itmadd be stretched 

Aor. atmadd, titmadd, &c. 

Imperat. itmadd 

Particip. mitmadd 

V. Itbassas play the spy itmaddid stretch oneself 
Aor. atbassas, titbassas atmaddid, titmaddid, <fec. 

Imperat. itbassas itmaddid 

Particip. mitbassas mitmaddid 

Remark. — Mitraddad is sometimes heard for mitraddid. 
VII. Indarr he injured 
Aor. andarr, tindarr, &c. 
Imperat. indarr 
Particip. mindarr 



1 foq. 

3 Trans, and he is jumpinrj. 



2 taht. 
4 The same form is used for both voices. 



158 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



VIII. Imtadd be stretched, lengthened out 
Aor. amtadd, timtadd, &c. 
Imperat. imtadd 
Particip. mimtadd 

X. (a) Istiqall l 

(b) istaqlil consider little, too little, small 
Aor. astiqall, tistiqall, &c, astaqlil, tistaqlil, &c. 

Imperat. istiqall istaqlil 

Particip. mistiqall mistaqlil 

Remark a. — Nearly all the verbs of this class are conjugated 
after the first model. 

Remark b. — The participle sometimes takes the form mista- 
birk, as mistamirr (for mistimarr). The literary mustabark, as 
mustamarr, &c, will occasionally be heard. 

Remark c. — Forcns I., V., and X. (b) are, of course, conjugated 
in the past tense, as well as in the aorist, like the second form of 
the perfect verb, namely, barrik, barrak ; while IV., VII., VIII., 
and X. (a) are conjugated like the primitive verb of then 1 own class. 



VOCABULARY 



gannin 


drive mad 


ithaqqaq 


be verified 


haddid 


bound, limit 


itradd id 'ala 


frequent 


hamuli 


cause to have 


indarr 


feel oneself 




compassion 




injured 


rassas 


place in a row 


ingarr 


take oneself off 


haqqaq 


verify 


ingaEz 


be shunt 


itball, inball 


be wetted 


inhashsh 


be mown 


itgarr 


be pulled 


insarr 


be pl< 


ithabb, 


be Iw 


inkabb 


. 


inhabb 




inkhadd 


be fright ned 


ithakk 


be scratched 


Lstihaqq 


, !■ .- 


itradd, 


be put to (door) 


istiliass (bi) 


ire 


irtadd 




isti'lall 


inquire 


ithatt, 


I- put 


istigann 


It r rtiad 


inliatt 




istii|alT 


run ' 


itlaiinii. 


be gathered, 


isti'ad'l 


be ready 


iltalillll 


colU <■/> d 


shabb 


to now 


itraiiiin 


/,. reptu 


liasana 


charily, alms 


iggaddid 


■ wed 


hibr 


ink 



1 Note that i here takes the place of the a of the perfect 
verb. 



THE WEAK VERBS 159 

EXERCISE 55 
II khaddam da mistigadde 'andi. Humma mistiqarrin 'ala 
nafsuhum. II mara di 1 maskina mistihaqqiya 1 1 hasana. 
Istimarret fi sh shughl tul in nahar. Itgarr il habl min in 
nahyiten. Indarret kettr min kalamak. Ingarr ! irushi min 
quddami ! Huwa meliibbi li ketir qawt II mas'ala di bitganninnt. 
II ghitan mehaddidin min kulle giha. Ithaqqaqit il mas'ala 
walla lissa 'i Ithakke gild il kitab minni. 2 Allan yihannin 'alek. 
Kutte bastidalle 'ala betak. Kunna binistikanne min il bard. II 
kitabat kanu mirassasin fi r ruf uf. Kan mirtadd 3 il bab walla 
maftub? lltammena kullina fi s sikka. Inti mitraddida 'ala 
i'mamu ? Kanit mistaqlila 4 1 fulus. 

EXERCISE 56 
He doesn't deserve a piastre. You will get wet, as 5 you bave' J 
no umbrella. The house ought to be repaired. Your sister 
drives me mad. The sheep will be shorn to-morrow. The horse 
was frightened, and reared. A bottle of ink has been spilt on 
your carpet. They consider their salaries much too small. The 
grass has not been mown this year. She was not ready when I 
called to her. I thought you must have gone mad when you 
put your foot in the fire. We have not yet verified the matter. 
The bottle should not be put on the dining-table. 

THE WEAK VERBS 
VERBS WHOSE FIRST RADICAL IS QAT'A 

§ 187. As these verbs are few in number, and present various 
irregularities, it will be convenient to give a list of them, with 
the forms commonly in use. It will be noticed that in most of 
them the primitive or simple form is wanting " : — 
'azan give permission 
Aor. a'zin, ti'zin, &c. 
Particip. act. mi'zin Particip. pass, ma'zun 

X. ista'zin ask permission 
Aor. asta'zin, &c. 

I. Assar (fi) impress, annoy 
Aor. a'assar, liassar, &c. 
Particip. me'assar, &c. 

1 See § 60, Rem. 2 By me. 8 Mardud is more usual. 
4 ( >r mistiqalla. '■' madam. 6 ma'ak 

7 Tin- imperative, being \x\ every case regularly formed, i* 
omitted tor the Bake of brevity. 



160 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



IY. 


it'asar be annoyed 




Aor. 


at'isir, &c. 




Particip. 


mit'isir. 




I. 


Aggar let, hire 




Aor. 


a' aggar 




Particip. 


me 1 aggar 




V. 


it'aggar be ht 




Aor. 


at' aggar 




Particip. 


mit'aggar 




I. 


Wahhid recognise the unity of God 


Aor. 


awahhid 




Particip. 


mewahhid 




VIII. 


iltahad l (or ittahad) form a compart with 


Aor. 


altihid (attahid) 




Particip. 


miltihid (mittihid) 




Akhad take, usually shortened to khad 


and conjugated as 


follows : — 


PAST TENSE 




MASC. 


FEM. 


1st pert 


;. khadt 


khadt 


2nd pers 


\. khadt 


khadti 


3rd pers 


;. khad 

Plural 
khadna 
khadtil (-m) 
khadu (-m) 

AORIST 


khudit 


1st pen 


s. akhud 2 


akhud 


2nd pert 


I. t akhud 


fcakhdl 


3rd pers. yakhud 


takhud 




Plural 






nakhud 






takhdu (-m) 






yakhdu (-in) 




Imper. khad, khudi, khudu (-u\). 




Particip act. wakhid, wakhda, wakhdin. 




Particip. pass, wanting. ' 




1 A con up 


tion of ittahad. The latter f< 


trio Lfl in us.< among 


the educated. 







- The a of fehe Orel syllables of the aor. \m not pronouDoed 
.rn long. 

\1 \\, hi. I a-.-, w ill some! imefl be In 
• Ma'khuz in Naliwv. 



THE WEAK VERBS 1G1 

Remark. In Nahwy the past tense of the simple verb is 
akhaz. that <>f the second derived form ,'tkhiz. The aor. of tin- 
latter is heard in the spoken language in the expression ma 
t'akhiznish (plur. ma t'akhizunlsh) do not blame me, pardo i 
Tikhud, yikliud, be., are sometimes heard for takhud, &c. 

I. Akhkhar delay, a'akhkhar, me'akhkhar. 
II. akhir hold back, a'ikhir, me'akhir. 

V. it'akhkhar be late, be slow (watch), at'akhkhar, 
mit'akhkhar. 
VI. ittakhir stand back, attakhir, mittakhir. 
I. Addib teach one good manners, a'addib, me'addib. 
V. if addib be taught, $c. 
I. Iddan call to prayer. 
Aor. addan, tiddan, &c. 
Particip. me'addin. 1 
I. Idda. give. 
Aor. addi, tiddi, ic. 
Particip. act. middi. 

I. Wadda convey (the literary adda), 3rd pers. sing, 
fern, iddat (for iddit). 
Aor. awaddt. 
Particip. mewaddl. 

Aza hurt, vizi, particip. wanting. 
I. Azza. 

III. In particip. mu'zt injurious. 
TV. It'aza be hurt at'izi, mit'izi. 

V. It'azza be annoyed, at'azza, mit'azzf. 

Asar • fake captivt . a'sir, particip, wanting. 
X. istesar (istaysar) same meaning, mistesar. 

IV. It'assif regret, at'assif, mit'af 
X. Particip. mista'sif, regretting. 

I. Ashshar mark, a'ashshar, 
V. it'ashshar be mark"!, fyt. 
Aras inherit, a*ris, waris. 3 

T. Akkid ('ala) i//.<i.<f, press, a'akkid, &c. 
"V. ifakkid be convinct 

Akal eat. The qa^'a and vowel almost always disappear in the 



1 The Nahwy mu'azzin is sometimes heard, especially when 
used substantively of the man who calls t<> prayer, 
duplicate foi m, wii is. 

i. 



162 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

spoken language, and the verb is conjugate 1 throughout like khad, 
as kalit she ate, kalna we cat, akul / eat, yaklu they eat, kul eat, 
wakil eating. In the partieip pass., ma-kfil, 1 the qatfa re- 
appears. 

I. Wakkil (sometimes akkil) cause to eat. 
Aor. awakkil (a'akkil). 
Partieip. mewakkil (me'akkil). 
V. it'akhkhil be eaten, &c. 
VI. ittakhil be eaten, attakhil, &c. 
II. Allif compose, write, a'allif , me'allif author. 
V. It'allif be composed, fyc. 
Amar command. 
Aor. a'mur, ti'mur (rarely tu/nun). &c 
Partieip. act. wanting. 
Partieip. pass, ma'mur. 

V. it'ammar ('ala) arrogate authority ovt \ 
I. Ammin entrust, trust, aainmin, &c. 
II. aniin believe, trust, a'amin, me'amia. 
III. In partieip. mu'min believing. 
X. ista'mln trusty yista'min, &c 
T. Wannis be companion to, awannis, Sx. 
II. anis keep company with, entertain, a'anis, mc\inis. 
V. itwannis (bi) be accompanied, have for companion. 
X. l8ta*nifa^ea7{againBt a decision), asta'nifjmista'nif. 
X. IstannS (for ista'na), astanna, miatannt. 
X. Istahil (for ista'hil) be worthy, deserve, astuhil. 

□aistahil. 
f. Aiyid affirm, confirm, .1 an id, Ac. 
V. it'aiyid be affirmed. 

II. Avis rUk, brace, despair o/\ a'aya (for a' 
me*ays(for me-a\ 
An (for awan) arrive (of a tin , yi*tn, 

pan icip. banting. 

I. Wana - eJlOW, awarri, nirWaii , 

V. itwarra bi shown, atwarra, mitwarri. 



1 In nia'kul • Mittakliil Lfl Ordinarily used foi 

lnaknl. 

Perhaps et 3 mologically connected withra'aw , the third form 
of which (ara) signifies to sho in literary Arabic, and appears as 
aura (aor. aurl), in the dialect of Syria, as though froo ■-•• a.uri 

lionallj be heard also in Kgypt. 



THE WEAK VERBS 163 

§ 188. Attention is called to the following peculiarities, illus- 
trated by the above examples : — 

(«) In some cases qat'a passes into v\ as in wakhid (for 
'akhid), wahhid (lor 'ahhid), or into y, as in istesar (for istaysar, 
for ista'sar) ; or disappears altogether, an a preceding it being 
lengthened to a, as in yakul, yakhud (for ya'kul, ya'khud), istahil 
(for ista'hil) ; ] or is assimilated to t, as in ittahad (for it'ahad), 
ittakil (for it'akil), and to n in istanna (for ista'na). 

(b) The two verba iddan and idda take i irregularly for a in 
the first syllable. Both drop qat'a with its vowel in the aorist, 
and idda also in the participle,- middi (for mi'iddi). 

(c) Mi'zin permitting is quite irregular, resembling the parti- 
ciple of the third form. 3 It should be wazin (for azin), but it 
would then have the same form as the particip. of wazan to 
weigh. 

(d) Ittakhil, ittakhid, and itt;ikhir (for it'akhil, &c), though 
conjugated after the sixth form, bear the sense of the fourth or 
fifth. 

Khad and kal take a for i in the aorist in compensation 
for the loss of the qat'a, and wahhid i for a in the second syllable, 
that it may resemble in sound the word wahid. 

(/) The forms VII.. IX., and XI. are not in use. 

§ 1 8i» . Medial qat'a occurs in the verbs ra'a see, ra'af be in- 
duhjenl , excuse, sha'am /- u n, and sa'al cuk. 

The three latter are conjugated regularly, the aorist being 
ar*af, tir'af, &c, the imperative iraf &c, the particip. act. rayif 
(for ra'it'), the particip. pass, maruf ; but note that while ra'af and 
Ba'al take a in the final syllable of the aorist and imperative, 
sha'am bikes i. Masul is used in the sense of respond i 1 1 > . 
Sha'am his for its first derived form, by substitution of w for 
qat'a, shauwim (rarely sha''am). Ra'a (for ra'ayi makes ravt / 
SOW, &C. (regularly) ; aor. ara'i, tiia'i, <kc. (irregularly, for ar'ay, 



' ( >r, in the language of the grammarians, the hamza (qat'a) 
is converted into the cdif productionis. 

• former appeal - as azzan in Nahwy, and is regarded a> 

the first derived form of azan permit. According to rule. the 
word should be addin in the colloquial. The a of the final 
syllable — ma to be in compensation for the weakening of the 
first I'l'l.'k ta perhaps the literary addft, which also, as has been 
seen, appears as waddd in the spoken language. 

/ le'ivin, which exists in the literary language u 

of informing. 



164 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

&c.) ; imperat. (m. and f.) ra'i; particip. act. ra'i (rayi) ; particip. 
pass, not in use. 1 

§ 190. Final qat'a likewise occurs in a few verbs only. Most 
of them are conjugated regularly, as kafi' reward (.second derived 
form of unused primitive verb), kafi't, kafi'na, «fec. ; aor. akafi', 
&c. ; imperat. kafi' ; particip. meka.fi' ; haiya' (I.) show honour to, 
haiya't, aor. ahaiya', &c. ; hazza' (I.) and istahza' (X.) mock, make 
fun of. 

§ 191. The verbs sa' (for sa\ contracted from sawa') do harm 
to and sha' (for shayi') wish are somewhat irregular in their 
conjugation. The first makes si't, si'na, &c, in the past tense ; 
aor. asi',tist' 7 &c. ; imperat. si' ; particip. act. seyi' (for sa'i). The 
third form is asa' (by contraction), hardly used except in the 
particip. niisi' (for mus'i). 

Sha 4 mokes shi't, &c, in the past tense ; asha', tisha', or (in 
imitation of the literary) tasha', 2 &c, in the aorist. The imperat. 
and particips. are not in use. 

Remakk. — Several verbs which have final qat'a in the classical 
language have >j in the Cairene dialect, as qara (i.e. qaray) 3 read 
(classic qara'). Haiya 1 has a duplicate form, haiya (or haiya). 
with haiyet, haiyena, &c, for the other persons of the past tense, 
and ahaiya. Arc, for the aorist. Sha' often drops its, qat'a in the 
expression in sha' Allah if God tcill, which then becomes in 
sha llah. 

VOCABULARY 



Khad 'ala 


get accustomed 


agrumtya 


grammar 




to 


galea 


sitting 


i; i f 11 it 


site threw 


baskawtt 


biaewita 


gilda 


of leather, 


qadiya 


affair, ruse 




binding 


duiab« 


cupboard 


sima' 


hearing 


sitt 


grandmother 


qam - 


dictionary 


mahkama 


court 



I; t (for ra'et) La used 1>\ Fellaheen universally, and by 
Cairenes id the expression ya ret would that, bo. The literary 
form of the aorist aia, itc, occurs in \;i b 

-' Wnen this Lb used the accent falls slightly (though contrary 
t<, rule) on the final syllable] as it also sometimes does in tisha.', 
\ Lsha'i ifcc. 

See § 208 4 Turkish, 



THE WEAK VERBS 16: 



EXERCISE 57 



Akhuya rain zaman mit'isir 'anni ma yflrallmmtsh. II 
qutta di dflwaqti waklida 'alena. Ana afchiztu kefir fi 1 mas- 
•al;i di. Leh? ma ti'akhzusb, huwa ma'zur. Hiya tamalli 
hetittukhid min gher sabab. Lazim ti'akhir nafsak shuwaiya. 
Kami mittakhrin we qa'din bi'id 'anni. II mraddin biyiddan 
kulle y&m fi d duhr. Abuya ma yi'zil lisb x leinni atraddad 'ala 
n nas bi 1 Kl. Min middi lu 1 kitab da? Ana. II gesh il 
masri mistesar 'as.'ikir rain betii' id darawish. II yilda betaht 
il kitab da me'ashshara. Ittakhir 'anni shuwaiya lahsan id 
dinya harr. Lazim ti'akkid 'aleh leinnu yiwaddi 1 fulfis *ala 
beti. Hiya aysit 'ala 'umriha we ramit nafsiha fi 1 bakr. Ana 
mi'ayis waiyaku, zeye ma tigi tigi. 2 Ma yir'afshe abadan 'ala 
1 kbaddamin min ish shughl. Huwa ha yirafni w ana mush 
hara'th. Zeye ma si'ak si*u. Humma tul in nahar yistahzu' 
li. Hiva ma kanitsh misi'a lik. 



EXERCISE 58 

Are you going to eat this apple yourself or give it to the 
horse to eat '-. z She was convinced that you had not taken the 
medicine. She has composed a dictionary and a grammar. If 
he permits me. 4 I will go. The tree will bear when it- time 
pomes. 5 You don't deserve your wages because you don't work. 
Who took the biscuits from the cupboard? Half of them are 
eaten. I am going to ask permission from him to' take one 
of his old garments 7 and give it to the man who was begging 
in our street yesterdaj . Th«- court has postponed the hearing 
of your case till to-morrow's sitting. The house has been let 
to my grandmother. You are late! Forgive me, my watch is 
slow." Give us the pleasure of your society 9 this evening. He 
does as lie likes. Please God, we shall see you here to-morrow. 

1 For yizin lish. 

2 Fem. in a neuter sense. (See § 4-07.) 

8 Wakkil, with double direct object. 
4 Trans, to 

6 The verb to precede its subject. 
* 'ala inni. 

7 hidma min hidumu 1 qudam. (See § 443, note 2.) 
I 'laying. 

9 tigi wannisna. 



166 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



VERBS WHOSE FIRST RADICAL IS W 

§ 192. These are conjugated as perfect verbs except for the 
contractions resulting from the semi-vowel nature of the to. 
Thus wa'ad promise makes in the aorist au'id, tfi'id, yu'id, &c. 
(for aw'id, tiw'id, &c); in the imperat. u'id (for iw'id), and 
in the particip. pass, mau'ud (for maw'ud). Similarly, auqa', 
yuqa', &c, from wiqi' fall. 

Remark a. — The first syllable of the 1st pers. sing, of the 
aorist sometimes sounds almost as u instead of au. 

Remark b. — "Waqaf stop makes in the aorist tuqaf, yuqaf, 
&,c, and occasionally tiqaf, 1 &c. The imperat. is uqaf. Wiqi' 
(sometimes waqa') makes aqa' more frequently than auqa' in 
the 1st pers. sing, of the aorist; tuqa', yuqa', &c, in the other 
persons, and occasionally tiqa', yiqa', &c. 

§ 193. The following verbs take a in addition to thoie whose 
medial radical is h, h, or ', or whose final radical is h } A, ', q, 
or kh : — 



wagab arrive (time or wirim 

occasion) wisil 

wagad find 

and occasionally 7 wiris inherit. 2 



swell 
arrive 



§ 194. Wasaf describe takes i irregulaily for u, and the 
following i hTegularly for a : — 



wahag 


con/use 


wahash 


make desolate 


wahar 


frighten 


wa'ad 


promise 


waham 


frighten 


wasaq 


load 


wahab 


give 







Remark. — The aorist of wagad is used both in an active 
and a passive sense. Occasionally yugid is heard (in an active 
sense only) for yiigad. 3 Wagab makes yugib, when meaning 
be incumbent upon.* 

In the eighth form the w is assimilated to tin- /. as in verba 



But tiqaf is scarcely pure Cairene. 
Yflris is the common form in the spoken language. 
But hardly from the lipa of a true Cairene. 
But it is rarely used colloquially in this sens*'. 



THE WEAK VERBS 



167 



whose first radical is qat'a, as ittasal reach, from wisil (for 
iwtasal). 

§ 195. The following are examples of the derived forms : — 



I. Wahhash???«/te wild 
waggih turn, direct 
II. warib slant 

wafiq agree with 

III. augab approach (of a 

time, season) 

IV. itwagad, he found 

atwigid, 
Arc. 
V. itwahhal besmeared with 

mini 

itwaggih be turned, di- 
rected 



VI. itwarib be slanted 
VII. inwaga' smart 
(more 
usually 
itwaga') 
VIII. ittasaJ, nach 
attisil, 
mittisil l 
IX. Not in use. 
X. istauhash become wild 
istaulid beget genera- 
tions of chil- 
dren 2 



Remark a. — The general remarks which have been made 
with regard to the signification and use of the derived forms 
of the perfect verb apply, of course, to those of the weak verb, 
as, for instance, that the particip. pass, of the primitive form 
often replaces that of the third, fourth, and other forms, as 
itwazan be weighed, mauziin weighed. 

Remark b. — Verbs of this class whose medial and final 
radicals art; identical present no irregularity whatever. 



VOCABULARY 



wazan 


weigh 


itwahal 


he confused, stitch 


wilid 


beget, give birth to 


itwazan 


be weighed 


waga* 


hurt, pain 


itwasaq 


be laden 


warraq 


put on leaves 


itwassal 


act as a go- 


wassa' 


make room 




bet ween 


wafiq 


agree with 


wadd 


love 


itwahas 


get entangled, 


wazz 


incite 




etude, stranded 


kashaf 


uncover, per- 


itwahhash 


be turned into a 




ceive 




savage 


bahri 


north 



1 Nahwy muttasil. 

2 Intensive. 



>8 


THE SPOKEN 


ARABIC OF EGYPT 


qibli 
wahsh 


south 
wild beasts 




maktab il post-ojjice 
busta 


rizq 
wisq 

qars 


sustenance 
load 

stinging, sting, 
bite 


haram wrong, shame 
qol statement, de- 
clan d ion 



EXERCISE 59 

Lanima yugab il waqt neruh 'ala betu. Ma tugadshe Minima 
haga zeye di. Ma twagadtish ana fi rastabl lamina saraqu 1 
khel. Humma kanu mitwaggihin 'ala 1 bahr. II hitta illi tkun 
moiyitha shuwaiya tuqaf fiha 1 merkib we titwihis. Inta rah 
tuhashni lanima tsafir. Huwa ragil niitwahhash zeyi 1 wahsh. 
Wiqif yitwihil ' ti 1 kalam. Hiya rah turis abulia w ummiha li 
wahdiha. Warib' 2 il bab 'ashan ma haddish yikshifna. Yittisilu 
rizqe min 'and Allah. Huwa sakin li masr min zaman u wilid 
wi staulid henak. II gamal da mausilq wisqe 3 gam id 'aleh. Ir 
ragil da stauhash fi 1 gibal. Hiya wildit waladen fibatne wahda. 4 
Is sagara warraqit walla lissa ? Ma kanshe lazim tiwizzu 'aleh 
yidrabha. Uzil li 1 <jawab da min fadlak. 



EXERCISE 60 

Her face was turned (to the) South. My eye pains me. Her 
clothes were smeared with mud. Her foot was swelling from 
the bite of the mosquito. Leave the door a little to. 5 She 
doesn't love him. The letter ought to have been weighed. Stop, 
girl, or you will fall clown d the steps. She will describe the 
house to you. We had arrived (at) the Pyramids before they 
left 7 the hotel. You (plur.) are overloading 8 your donkeys. I 
will act as your go-between 9 in the matter. Make a 1 ttle 
for me, please. Don't stop 10 the carriage in the middle of the 
street. 

1 The aor. is often equivalent to the particip. in English. 

8 I.e. put it t<> a little. I e. with a burden. 

4 I.e. tn-iiis. •'■ Particip, of it warib. 

6 Trans from on ~ tili- min. 

8 Trans, unr 1>\ krtir at end of sent. nice. 

8 Trans. / will act as a go-beticeen for (li) you, 
1,1 First derived form of \\ iqif. 



THE WEAK VERBS 169 

VERBS WHOSE MEDIAL RADICAL IS IF 1 

§ 196. Most of these differ from the strong verbs in the primi- 
tive form and in the fourth, seventh, eighth, and tenth derived 
forms. In the past tense of the primitive verb the w, with its pre- 
ceding and following vowels, contracts into a when the latter of 
these vowels is followed by a single consonant, and into u when it 
is followed by two consonants ; while in the aorist the n; with its 
following short vowel, contracts into the long vowel which is homo- 
geneous to the short one. In the fourth, seventh, eighth, and tenth 
forms the tv, with its vowels, becomes a in the past tense when 
the following vowel precedes a single consonant, and a when it 
precedes a double consonant ; while in the aorist the tv, with its 
following vowel, contracts to d. These forms are, however, 
sometimes conjugated regularly. In the imperative the initial 
vowel falls away, and in the active participle the w is weakened 
to a qat'a or a scarcely audible y. 

§ 197. The following is an example of the conjugation of the 
primitive verb : — 

PAST TENSE 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st. pers. quit (for qawalt) quit I said 

2nd pers. quit (for qawalt) qultl (for qawalti) 

3rd pers. qal (for qawal) qalit (for qawalit) 

Pllral for both Gendeks 
qulna (for qawal na) 
qultu, qultum (for qawaltu-m) 
qalu, qaluni (for qawalu-m) 

AORIST 

Singular 
1st pers. aqiil (for aqwul) aqfil 

2nd pers. tiqul 2 tequl (f or tiqwul) tiqiili, tequli (for 

tiqwuli) 
3rd pers. yiqfll, yequl (for yiqwul) tiqul, tequl 

1 In some of those verbs the middle radical was originally //, 
or some other guttural ; cf. dahas and das, both meaning to 
crush, sh,'. I) be grey and the literary shahiba, Amharic mala 
swear with Ethiop. mahala. 

2 The 1st pers. sing, of the aor. <>\' 'az take refuge is pro 

nounced a'uzu in the expression a'UZU billah, as in tin- literary 



170 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



Plural for both Genders 
niqiil, nequl (for niqwul) 
tiqulu-m, tequlu-m (for tiqwulu-m) 
yiqulu-m, yequlu-m (for yiqwulu-m) 
Imperat. masc. qui, fern. quit. Plur. qillu. 
Particip. act. qayil (q;Vil). Particip. pass, not in use. 1 

Remark a. — The Nahwy passive of this verb, qil (for quwil), 
with its aor. yuqal (for yuqwal), is occasionally used impersonally, 
and consequently only in the 3rd pers. singular. 

Remark b. — A few verbs retain the w in the participle, as 
tawi' obeying (also tayi'). The participle of 'az want is either 
'awiz (in pronunciation almost 'auz) or 'ayiz ('ayz). Yi'iz, ye'iz, 
are sometimes heard for yi'uz, ye'uz. Nam sleep makes nimt, 
nimna, &c, in the past tense, though it is for nawam. 2 

;5 198. Kit' contain, khaf 3 fear, nam, 4 and zal (in the expres- 
sion lam yazal, § 545) take a in the final syllable of the aorist. 5 
All others take u. A few are conjugated like verbs with medial 
y in the primitive form, and in the derived forms like those with 
medial w, as hal refer, hilt / referred, aor. ahil, but hauwil, ithauwil. 
Arc. ; tii 4 obey, yiti', makes tauwa' or taiva' in the first derived 
form; 'an help, lift, 1st pers. 'int, aor. vi'in, but 11. 'awin or 
(contracted) 'aun. 

£ 199. Verbs of this class whose final radical is y (being thus 
doubly imperfect) are not subject to the contractions described 
above, as kawa iron, aor. akwi ; nor are the following : — 



tiwil 5 


grow tall 


dawakh 


make giddy. 


ghawat (and 


dig down da /> 




overpower 


its passive 




da wash 


deafen 


ghuwut) 




ziwir 


choke 


ha was 


talk con- 


'awag 


hem I 




fusedly, 


kawa' 


recline 




drive silly 


khawat 


bother 


hawal 


squint 







language. It. will OOt In' forgotten that the first Syllable is pro 

nounced very short, except when, as occasionally happens, a is 
substituted For i or i . as yumut he dies (for yimut). 

1 Mitqal or tninqal are used instead ; so mindas trodden on, Asc. 

'-' Literary oawima. In the literary language all these have 
I for the second \ owel. 

:l Yukhat' is sometimes heard for yikhaf. 

1 Nam is often used with a passive signification, as il qixas da 
l.'i/.im yenam these bottles must be laid down. 

b Also tiil, especially In the sense of to roa '<, be long enottjh. 



THE WEAK VERBS 



171 



Thus the particip. act. of khawat is khawit, its particip. pass, 
makhwut, its fourth derived form itkhawat. The particip. pass, of 
'awag is ma'ug (for ma'wug) ; the seventh form of dawakh and 
dawash, indawakh and indawash respectively. 

§ 200. Of these verbs, tiwil, ghawat 1 ghuwut, and ziwir take 
a in the aorist, the rest * (dawakh and kawa' irregularly). - 

§ 201. The following are instances of the derived forms of 
those which contract : — 



II. 



III. 



dauwar 3 
tauwib 
gawir 
gawib or (by 

contraction) 

gaub 

aqam 



titrn round (dar) 
eause to repent (tab) 
he neighbour to 
answer 



IV. ithash 



reside 



be kept off 



1st pers. gawibt ; aor. 

agaub ; imperat. 

gaub; particip. me- 

gaub 
1st pers. aqamt; 4 aor. 

aqim ; particip. 

muqim, meqim 5 
1st pers. ithash t ; aor. 

athash ; particip. 

mithash 



VI. 



VII. 



VIII. 



iddauwar 
ishshauwaq 
iggauAviz 
ittuwil («ala) 
ittaub (for 

ittawib) 
inhash 

inhawag (un- 
contracted) 

ihtag or (un- 
contracted) 
ihtawag 



be turned round 

long for 

be mnrried, marry 

assault, abuse 

yawn 



be kppt off, get 
away 

beg 



particip. mittawib, 

mittaub 
1 st pers. inhasht ; aor. 

anhash 
aor. yinhiwig 

1st pers. ihtagt or 
ihtawagt ; aor. 

ahtair or ahtiwig ; 
particip. mill' 
mihtiwig 



1 Ghawat is rarely used, especially in the past tense, the 
second form, ghanwat, generally taking its place. 
- Bee§ 141 (2). » Or dauwar. 

4 Observe that in tin- derived forms the a of the past tens.* 
is maintained throughout. 

5 III. is very rarely used, [stiq&m (istaqam), with same 
meaning, is more common than a j m 



172 



THE SPOKEN AEABIC OF EGYPT 



IX. isvvadd 



turn black 



X. istigab 2 or (un- grant a request 
contracted) 
istagwib interrogate 



1st pers. iswaddet ; 
aor. aswadd ; parti- 
cip. miswidd x 

1st pers. istigabt, is- 
tagwibt ; aor. asti- 
gab, astagwib; par- 
ticip. mistigab, mis- 
tagwib 



istamwit 



XI. Not in use. 



pretend to be 
dead or wretched 



Remark a. — Nam sleep, lie down, has usually naiyim put to 

sleep, lay down, for its first derived form, as though the middle 
radical were y, but nauwim is occasionally heard. Qaiyim raise 
(from qam) 3 is sometimes used for qauwim, but savours of fellah 
idiom. Ttih go astray has tauwih, meaning to lead astray, and 
taiyih to deal haughtily with. 4 

Remark b. — The i of the first and fifth forms sometimes 
becomes u under the influence of the first syllable, as khauwuf 
frighten, itkhauwuf (for khauwif, ic). 

VOCABULARY 



bar 


be left idle, on 


it hamvish 


stir reed to 




one's hands 


in has 


be kissed 


bash 


soak 


istigar 


call to assist- 


tab 


repent 




ance 


tab 'an 


!/ive up 


istatwil nafsi 


hold ones head 


hash 


keep, keep away 




high 


has 


kiss 


rid it 


I consent* d 


fat 


pass, leave 


nmniin 


believer, faith- 


'auwaq 


delay, be lottg 




ful 


laivwit 


let pass 


akhras 


deaf and dumb 


hamvish 


hoard 


qilla 


scarcity 


ha wit 


surround 


hagar 


stone 


qawil 


give contract to, 


buda'a 


goods 




engage 


h.iwa 


atmosphere 



1 Fern, miswidda, bul the form miswadda is used as a sub- 
stantive meaning </ rough copy. 

2 Occasionally pronounced istag&b. 

Note q&m yequm rise, but qfiia yeqtm raise, 
■* No doubt they are in realitj distinct verbs. 



THE WEAK VERES 173 

EXERCISE 61 

h, ] Qm ^i S i Sfiq * ibauw .f il buda< * Lamma baqa 1 'esh nashif 
bu.hnah fi moiya Ummu htawagit li fi i kam qirsh w ana 
ma jrditeh add|hum hha II rnalaka tbauwishit inatrah 'amniiha 
Ikhwani ayzm yitauwibuni 'an shurb id dukhkkan. ' II bihim 

Tt'^Sl, 2 "VU7 ln - Uh ma sti&rM** lamma darabflka? 
It tabbakha, beta'itna miggauwiza wahid akhras. Ana thaahte 
mm id il ball? we nattet fi 1 bahr. Mush lazirn tittawil <ak 
nniL J 1 ^t^ 11 ^- , Hiya betistatwil nafsiba we tiftikh- 

1 iutur? Kunna mnaiyrminu fi 1 ard 'ashan neshufu taivib " " II 
askar hautit il biyut. Hiiwa 'aunni min <andu bi kam nu.s 
11 oda beta'itna miswidda kulliba min id dukbkban beta' furne 

K^V i S .""Sr? min ' ala * shu S hle M II mai-a d! 
tihwrl bi 1 <enen htnen. Qfdi li min dar e abik> Ip * d a ^ 

SirffrS T3 A n 1i • Ma f \ h haga t{khauw uf u abad -- i^ 

shayi it ragil da walla ma ntasb sbayf u I 

EXERCISE 62 
Didn't you see her when she was passing the house- ? Let me 
pass please. We went to bed « yesterday at "half-past ten and < o 
up at a quarter to nine; how many a hours did we sleep? DM 
you kiss the lady's hand? Wliv didn't ^-™, l ., , ^ 

from ns 2 TV oil l L ? V * } ° U kee P the do g s aw « 7 

1,1,1 Ub ' Tbe ladd f r w (too) short ; it won't reach. The lady 
wants yon; go (and) see her. Don't be frightened, Si: he 

™n TtTi ^ J T kind bef ° re y<^onth wfeTyou 
yawn. They were hoarding up their money f or * years This 
stone has been kissed by thousands of * the faithful Th. 
closeness of the atmosphere of the court overpowered Sud' 
She raised her child from* the ground and put him on lc S h 
They were reclining on sofas in the dining-room. Don't be long.' 
§ 202. There are no verbs with w for the final radical. 
VERBS WHOSE INITIAL RADICAL IS 7 

°J%Z'A' (am) > *»»• >*- *■ »S **Wl 



4 



nun. 



kam, with substantive in sine. 

min 'ala. 



t he c^';;/::;i:;:^;' s^^g* of *• -^ ** •-« * 



174 THE SPOKEN AKABIC OF EGYPT 

VERBS WHOSE MEDIAL RADICAL IS Y 

§ 204. In these verbs the following contractions take place: — 
(a) In the past tense of the simple verb the y, with its pre- 
ceding and following vowels, contracts into a when the latter of 
these two vowels is followed by a single consonant, and into i 
when it is followed by two consonants ; while in the aorist the 
y, with its following vowel, contracts into i. The changes which 
take place in the derived forms are identical with those which 
occur in the w verbs. 

§ 205. The following is an example of the conjugation of a 
verb of this class : — 

PAST TENSE 

SINGULAR 
MASC. FESL 

1st pers. bi't (for bay a' t) bi't Isold 

2nd pers. bi't bi'ti 

3rd pers. ba' ba'it (for baya'it) 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. bi'na (for baya'na) 
2nd pers. bi'tu-m (for baya'tii-m) 

Imperat. bi', bi'i, bi'u. 

Aor. abi', tebi', &c. 

Particip. act. bayr 4 (b&'i'). 1 Particip. pass. mebi*. 

Remark — The uncontracted form of the passive participle 
appears in ma'yub dishonoured, insidted, niadyun indebted (from 
disused dan), and a few others; tash be liyht-headed makes 
matwush more often than niatyush. 2 

^ 20G. Ban appear, bat pass the night, and sha 1 (for shaya') 3 
take a in the aorist (making aban, &C.). HUtibfear and mil obtain 
generally make tihib, yinil, but occasionally yuhab, yunal. 4 

Remark. — The verb khayal dazzle does not contract either 
in the simple verb or in anv of the derived forms. 

1 The a of the participle in ayi sometimes sounds nearly as c, 
as biiyi', bevi* (or ba'i, ttc). (See § 3.) Similarly, verbs with a- 
for the middle radical, but some of them often contract to one 
syllable. (See above.) 

'-' The particip. pass, is not much used, that of the fourth or 

i i.th derived form generally taking its place. 

" For the conjugation of aha', see § L91. 

4 a for i in the first syllable, apparently in the belief that it 
hounds educated. 



THE WEAK VERBS 



175 



3 20 7. The derived forms are as follows : — 



I. khaiyat 

'aiyid ('a la) 
seyib (for saiyib) 
II. sayis (generally 
contracted) 
'ivir 

III. a'ash 1 

IV. itba 4 
V. itbeyin (for 

itbaiyin) 
VI. it'ayiq 
iddayin 
VII. inba' 
VIII. ihtar 
IX. ibyadd 
X. istigas'-' 

istatyib (uncon- 
tracted) 
XI. istiraiyah 3 (or 
istireyah) 

Remark. — The first syllable of the first form is sometimes 

very hurriedly pronounced, as though its vowel were t,aa siyibha 
(or isyibha, see § 15), for seyibha let her go. The first and fifth 
forms occasionally take w for y, although the aorist is regular, as 
zad increase, aor. yizid, but zauwid. izzauwid (for zaiyid, &c.). 

VOCABULARY 



veto 

visit on a fete day 

let go 

reproach 
make live 
be sold 
to make char 

think oneself a dandy 

be in debt 

be sold 

be puzzled 

turn whitt 

call for help 

find good, approve 

rest, repose 



aor. a'ish 
atba', mitba' 



anba', ininba' 
yihtai - , mihtar 
abyadd, mibyidd 
astigas, mistigis 



qad 


light 


khaiyish 


put wrapp 


'ash 


live 




(khOsh) on 


bad 


lay eggs 


daiyin 


charge with a 


sal 


flow down 




debt 


qaS 


try on 


beyin 


expo 


shal 


raise, takeanny 


yib 


he let ;/". • - apt 


'allaq 


Jiang, put to 


iddayin mill 


he made a 


haiyar 


perplex 




d>ht or by. 


suiyah 


nc'if (act.) 




owe 



1 But no verbs of this form can be fairly said to exist in the 
colloquial language. 

2 Istaqam i- sometimes used foi istiqam, and some i 
similarly both of the w and y el 

3 This form is in use also in other spuken dialects. 



176 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



ikhtar 


choose 




ras is Sana 


New Year's 


(ikhtar) 








Day 


istad 


fish 




khaiyata 


dressmaker 


inshal 


be carried away 


wadi (pi. 


valley 


inzad 


increase, 


rise 


widyan) 




zalam 


wrong 




ketir ma 


often 


beyin 


evident 




(before 




wasakha 


dirt 




verb) 




fanus 


lantern 




ghasbe l 'an 
ikminn 


in spite of 

because 



EXERCISE 63 

Usbur lamma beyil lak il mas'ala min auwilha li akhirba. 
Ruh rastabl we qui li s sayis 2 yi'allaq il khel bi 1 'arabiya, we 
yegibhum Mian. Humma ma ya'rafush yi'milu 6h ; mihtarin 
khalis. Allah ya'raf il 'ayib min il ma'yub wi z zalim min il 
mazlum. Huwa khtar leinnu yil'ab waiyaya ma yil'abshe waiyah. 
Lazim tikhaiyish is sanadiq bi 1 khesh qabl is safar. II wasakha 
di hatinshal min hina kulliha. lima bitna nbarih akhir marra 
li bitna ; bihnah li garna. Ana ma kuntish 'auz adrabu ; il 
'asaya sseyibit min idi ghasbe 'anni. Beyin 'alek innak ma 
nimtish till il lei. Kanit shayla bintiha 'ala radia. Qid il 
fawanis betu' il 'arabiya. 11 mahkama daiyinitu bi rasm il 
qadiya. Ir ragil da ddayin minni kam qirsh. Huwa tamallt 
mashi mit'ayiq fi nafsu fi s sikak. Kan me'ayru ikminnu ma 
kramnish zey inntis. 

EXERCISE 64 

I told you to bring 8 me two chairs; why didn't you bring 
them to me? I have lived all my life in the same 4 village and 
in the same 4 house. We often pass the night in town. 8 Tie' 
white hen has laid two eggs. The matter puzzles me altogether. 8 
I am not going to increase your pay until " your work i> s better. 
The Nile i.^ i ising every day. A groom who does not know (how) 
to manage 9 a horse is no -room. 11 ' We are going to get up 
early to-morrow morning and fish in the sea. It was New fear's 



1 Sometimee pronounced g?iazh. 
I Tonounce almost jay*. 
Ti.ms. you bring. Trans, in one. 

,; khalis. ' Ula lamina. 



8 Aor. of 



Aor. 



mush ismu s,i_\ is. 



THE WEAK VERBS 177 

Day, and all the inhabitants 1 were paying each other visits 
The sun causes the snow to melt on the mountains and flow 
down into the valleys. My sister is going to - the dressmaker 
to-morrow to try on 3 her new ball 4 dress. 

VERBS WHOSE FINAL RADICAL IS Y 

§ 208. These verbs are of the forms barak and birik, but 
drop the y, leaving the vowel of the final syllable somewhat 
lengthened. It is pronounced fully long when the negative 
suffix -sh or the shortened forms of the personal pronouns are 
attached, or when it is, for any other reason, accented. 

Remark. — A few neuter verbs take the form burik for birik, 5 
but optionally, as 'usi be 'rebellious (for 'isi). 

§ 209. The conjugation of the simple verb is as follows : — 

PAST TENSE 

SlKGDIiAB 

MASC. FEM. 

1st pers. tafet tafet / extinguished 

2nd pers. tafet tafeti 

3rd pers. tafa (for tafay) tafit (for tafayit) 

Plural for both Gexders 
1st pers. tafena 
2nd pers. tafetu (-m) 
3rd pers. tafu (-m) 

A R I S T 

Singular 

1st pers. atfi atfi 

2nd pers. titfi titft 

. 3rd pers. yitfi titft 

Plural for both Gexders 
1st pers. nitfi 
2nd pers. titfii (-m) 
3rd pers. yitfu (-m) 

Irnperat. itfi (m. and f.), pi. itfu. 
Particip. act. \-\V\. Particip. pass, matft 



1 in nas betu' il baht'l. - •and. 

\or. * bt-t.v il ballu, 

5 It will be remembered thai most verba of the form bai-ak 
are transitive, while birik is mostly intransitive. 

u 



178 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



PAST TENSE 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. mishit mishit I walked 

2nd pers. mishit mishiti 

3rd pers. mishi (mishiy) mishyit (mishiyit) 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. mishina 
2nd pers. mishftu (-m) 
3rd pers. mishyu (-m) 

AORIST 

1st pers. amshi amshi 

2nd pers. timshi timsht 

3rd pers. yimshi timshi 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. nimshi 

2nd pers. timshu (-m) 

3rd pers. yimshu (-m) 
Imperat. imshi (m. and f.), pi. imshu. 
Particip. act. mashi. 

§ 210. All verbs of this class of the form barak are conju- 
gated after the first, and all others after the second model. 

Remark a. — Ya'ni that is to say is used for yi'ni, from an 
obsolete 'ana. 

Remark b. — The y or iy of the 3rd pers. sing, of the past 
tense is sometimes dropped, as mishit (for mishyit, mishiyit), 
bikit she icept (for bikyit). Baqa become makes baqat (for baqit) ; 
so tafat optionally for taiit, and a few others similarly ; laqa//W 
occasionally makes liqit (for laqet) in the 1st and 2nd pers. 
sing., as though from liqi. The final syllable of the 2nd pers. 
sing. masc. sometimes sounds as at for H, as ma lqathumsh / 
did not Jim/ tin in. 

Remark c. — Verbs of this class of the form birik are almost 
invariably passive or neuter, ami may rarelj have a passive 
participle. 1 

1 Ghili boil has maghli bailed ; khizi In eclipsed, niakhzi. 



THE WEAK VERBS 

§211. All verbs of this class take i in the 
the aorist except the following, which take a : 



179 



baqa 1 
tiri 

gara 
ghili 
ghishi 3 (or 

ghushi) 

'ala 
hidi 
hifi 
hili 
himi 

diri 

din 

ridi 

ra'a 

sa'a 

sihi 4 

sihi 



remain, become 
get soft, cool 

(weather) 2 
happen 
be dear 
faint 



become docile 
go barefooted 
be sweet 
be hot 
come to life 
know 
get warm 
consent, accept 
see 
help 
forget 
wake 



sifi 
shifi 5 
shiqi 
'i?i (<usi) 

'ill 

'imi 
fidi 

qara 

qisi (or qasa) 

qiwi 

khiri 

laqa 6 

mala 

misi 4 

nisi 

witi 



final syllable of 

be bright, 
limpid 

be healed, get 
well, heal 

overwork one- 
self, weary 

disobey, be 
rebellious 

be high 

be blind 

be at leisure 

read 

be cruel 

be powerful, 
autocratic 

find 
fill 

become evening 
forget 
be low 



and a few passives and neuters, as tin (or tafa^ • be extinguished 
shifi (and shufi) be healed, kkifi (or khufi) be I ^ 2S/ 
mshcuy, klnzi (and khnzi) be ashamed, I ti$*B 

knisni be shy (aor. sometimes yukhsha for yikhsha), nigi (naW 
be saved, escape. ' ^ \ ■ - 

Remake .-The fern, sing, of the imperat. of these verbs ends 
fill f emM 6 ° aSe th(XSL " Wh ° Se a ° riStS take *' aS masc - ^ 



J The final vowel of these verbs is not pronounced sufficiently 
long tor it to be necessary to continue to mark it with a 
circumflex. 

2 Id dinya tarrit is more usual than id dim;, tiryit 

3 Used impersonally. ' 

waqt) 1186 * 1 alS ° ™P er * )nall . v ' sihi (° r suhi ) 'aleh, misi 'aleh (il 

5 Act. shafa heal, yishft 

6 Also yil.p. 

/So that we have tafa yitfi extinguish, tafa yitfa. be esctin- 
gUl>> 8 But naga yingi save. 



180 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



VOCABULARY 



bada 


begin 


lihiq 


reach, overtake 


bara 


sharpen 


shaqi 


unruly 


haka 


relate 


hisab 


account 


ragha 


froth, foam, 


fatla 


piece of string, 




effervesce 




Sfc. 


qala 


fry 


raghwa 


froth, efferves- 


qada 


do, perform 




cence 


tana 


fold- 


hikaya 


tale 


bana 


build 


ibriq 


pot 


khafa 


hide 


shani'a 


candle 


rama 


throw 


sbarr 


wickedness 


rakba 


loosen, let groio 


darb 


striking, blow 


hama 


protect 


ballasi 


pitcher 


giri 


run, flow 


kasarona 


saucepan 


risi 


reach, come to 


bi 1 lei 


at nig) 'it 




agreement 


lagl 


in order that 



EXERCISE 65 

Yibqa lak kam qirsh min il bisab ? Hiya tamalli tibdi bi 1 
kalam qable ma yikkallimu n nas. Ibri li 1 qalam da min fadlak. 
Biktna qawi lamma smi'na 1 khabar. Tanu 1 fatla marraten 
'ashan tibqa gamda we ma tinkisii-sb. II qamar makbzi ; riihi 
shufih qable ma yitla'. II binte tikhza minnina, musb radya 
tiqabilna. Ana grit (girit) 'ala akhir nafasi 1 wi lhiqtu fi 1 
mahatta qabl il babur ma yeqiim. Ihku li 1 bikaya kulliba 
'asban a'raf gara lkum eh. Ana musb 'arif 'asban eh ma yirdash 
yis'a, li fi 1 mas'ala. Sihyu 'ala darb is sa'a tamam. II bira di 
betirghi raghwa kbira 2 we tibqa qayma li fuq. Ihna risina 
w.tiya ba'd 'ala kede. Ma tinsish titfi 3 1 lamda qable ma truhi. 
11 husan bidi ba'de ma kan shaqt; lhni tulak lagle tiqdartefut. 
Mush lazim ti'sa 1 bulls. 



EXERCISE 66 

Where did you find my hat? Say to the girl: Fill your 
pitcher from the river. Were they running when you saw 

them? Don't pour the water in the teapot 4 till 5 it boila 
She refuses (doesn't consent) to come with us. She doesn't let 



1 /.-. till I had no breath Left. - See § L03. 

:i The first derived form taffn is in more common use. 
i li shaj . B illi lamma. 



THE WEAK VERBS 



181 



her hair grow. At what time do you want to wake to-morrow ? 
The boys throw a bucket of water over his head. The men were 
watering their fields from the canal. Why didn't you ( /".) put 
out the candle before you went to bed ? If 1 you read too much 
at night you will grow blind. I want you to do 2 something for 
me. The cook was frying fish in the saucepan. The goods 
are getting dearer 3 every day. Are you going on foot? 4 This 
house was not built 5 when I came here. God protect us from 
the wickedness of our enemies. 

§ 212. The first derived form is constructed regularly, except 
that the vowel of the final syllable is invariably a as well as that 
of the first. Thus from mala is formed malla, from mishi, mashsha. 
The conjugation is as follows : — 





I 


'AST TENSE 








Singular 




1st pers. 
2nd pers. 
3rd pers. 


MASC. 

rabbet 
rabbet 
rabba 


FEM. 

rabbet 

rabbeti 

rabbit 


/ educated 



Plural for both Gexders 

1st pers. rabbena 
2nd pers. rabbetu (-m) 
3rd pers. rabbu (-m) 
Remark b. — Khallat is usually said for khallit. 

A R 1ST 

Singular 

1st pers. arabbi arabbi 

2nd pers. tirabbi 6 tirabbi 

3rd pers. yirabbi tirabbi. 

Imperat. rabbi (m. and f.), rabbu (-m). 

Particip. merabbi (whether in active, passive, or neuter 
sense). 

Remark. — The passive participle is generally supplied by the 
simple verb or one of the other derived forms. Masmi (or, 



1 izakan with aor. 
: ' Trans, getting dear. 

6 Particip. pass. 



2 Trans. / want you do (aor). 

4 Particip. of mishi. 
6 Or terabbi, <tc. 



182 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

is generally pronounced, mesmt) is used as the passive participle 
of samma to name, though the simple verb sama is not in use. 
Idda give has middi for the active participle. 

§ 213. The following are examples of the other derived 
forms : — 

II. laqaym^, aor. alaqi, imperat. laqi, particip. melaqi. 
III. a'ta give, 1st pers. a'tet, &c, aor. a'ti, ti'ti, &C., 1 im- 
perat. i'ti, &c, particip. mu'ti. 



ikhla 


let go 


imsa 


become evening 


ifta 2 


pronounce a 


irma 


throw 




fetica 


isqa 


water 



IV. itbara be sharpened, aor. atbiri, imperat. itbiri, parti- 
cip. mitbiri. 
V. iddaffa warm oneself, aor. addaffa, imperat. iddaffa 
(fern, icldaffi), particip. middaffi. 
VI. iddara hide oneself, aor. addara, imperat. iddara, par- 
ticip. middari. 
it'afa get strong. 
VII. intafa be extinguished, aor. antifi, imperat. intifi, par- 
ticip. mintifi. 
VIII. iltaqa find, meet, aor. altiqi, imperat. iltiqi, particip. 
miltiqi. 3 
IX. Not in use. 

X. istabda begin, aor. astabda, imperat. istabda, particip. 
mistabdf, 
XI. istilaqqa catch, receive f aor.astilaqqa, imperat. istilaqqa, 
particip. mistilaqqi. 
istikhabba hide oneself. 

Remark. — The learner will have no difficulty in completing 
the conjugation of the above verbs after the models.of the simple 
verb and the first derived form. 



1 Ta'tl, etc., is sometimes heard for ti'ti, in the belief, perhaps, 
that it is educated, though the literary form is tu'Hyu. 

2 Also afta. 

3 iSI islitaii buying, customer, is sometimes heard for mishtiri, 
mistaw? cooked, very rarely for mistiwf. Instead of imtala be 
filled, intala is often beard. 

4 Istalqa is also used with the same meaning. 



THE WEAK VERBS 



183 



VOCABULARY 



garra 

ghalla 

salla 

'adda 

'abba 

naqqa 

gaza 

ra'a 



itrama 

itkhafa 

itqala 

idda'a 

idda'a 'ala 

itrabba 

itkhaffa 

itqalla 



make run 
boil (act.) 
say one's 
prayers 
cross 
Jill, load 
choose, select 
punish 
tend sheep, 
watch; chas- 
tise 
be thrown away 
hide 
be fried 
pretend 
accuse 

be brought up 
disguise one- 
self 
be fried, 
scorched 



inhasha 


be stuffed 


inbana 


be built 


irtada 


consent 


istahla 


find siceet 


istasma ('an 


) inquire name of 


ista'ta 


take (drinks, 




drugs, &c.) 


istihamma 


take a bath 


haffad 


make learn by 




heart 


qass 


cut 


'auwar 


ruin 


luqma 


morsel, mouth- 
ful 
champagne 


shambanya 


himu 


heat 


ibh 


board 


'alqa 


a thrashing 


ma'addfya 


ferry 


16z 


almonds 


goz 


walnuts 



EXERCISE 67 

Ish she All ma yinfa'sh yitrimf. Ma tkhallish hadde yekhush- 
she qable is sa'a khamsa. Ba'd il masarwa yitrabbu fi blad barra. 
Kull in nas yistahlu s sukkar il masri 'an beta' barra. Ruh 
istasma 'an sahb il arde di. II haramiya fidlu mistikhabbiyin fi 
waraq is sagara lainma ntafit il lamda. Ilfiwa min muddit talat 
sinin ma stihammash. Ruh itkhifi 'min hina ! Mush 'auz asma' 
il kalam da wala 1 shiif wishshak. Ruh itkhaffa bi libse tan! 
gh8r illl 'alek. Quite li t tabbakha : daff'i li 1 luqma di shuwaiya 
*ala n nar. HAwa rtada lakin ana ma rditsh. Ha trabbi sha'r 
min tain 2 ba'de ma qassotu ? II kh6ga'ra'a 1 walad 'alqa 'ala 
nglSh 'ashan yihaffadu 1 16k Khalli balak lamma tiftah ish 
shambanya hiya tirghi wi tqum minnak. Ha titqalla bi himu 
ish shams iza qa'adte henak. Rah fen? ana mush melaqlyah. 
Ana mush fadi ; ruh inta wi stilaqqahum. Intalat il qizaza wal la 



For wala ashuf . 



2 let groxo again. 



184 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



lissa ? II khariif yinhishi bi 16z u goz u gh£ru. Hiya betiddi'i 
'aleya innt saraqte kls-ha. II walad kan masmf Mahmrtd. 
Allah yigazik ! 

EXERCISE 68 

Go (and) warm yourself a little by 1 the fire. Go (to) the 
market and buy me a little meat and some vegetables. When 
do you want to begin ? He made me run all over 2 the town. 
Boil me a little water in a saucepan. Hide yourself there till 
he comes. He has gone to say his prayers. 3 The house will be 
built on the piece of land in front of your garden. Don't load 
the guns before I tell you. Yon (/*.) mustn't disguise yourself. 
We crossed the river in the ferry. (Those) who take hashish 
repent. Wait a little and I will give you a piastre each. 4 The 
potatoes were frying in the kitchen. We have bought them all ; 
choose one for yourself. When you(/.) take a bath, don't forget 
the soap. 

§ 214. Doubly imperfect or weak verbs are those which have 
w or y for their initial or medial radical, and y for their final 
radical. They thus combine the peculiarities of two classes of 
weak verbs. 

§ 215. The following are examples of the simple verb and 
derived forms. 









Aor. Imper. Particip. 




wafa 


fulfil, complete 


aufi, tufi Mi (act.) waft 
(pass.) mauft. 




wi'i 5 


be aware 


au'a li'a (act.) wal 
(f.)iVi 




rawa 


irrigate 


arwi irwl (act.) rawi 
(pass ) 
marwi. 




'iyi 


be ill 


a'ya, ti'ya, &c 


I. 


warra 


show 


awarrl, &c. 


II. 


dawa 


I medically) 


i adawt, dawi, &e. 


III. 


lira G 


show 


auri, tun, &C. (pass.) 

maiii'i : 




ihya 8 


restore to life 


ahyi 



1 'and. - ii kull. rist. 

* To each one. 6 Wa'a is also used. 

6 For aura, but tlu> u is doI generally pronounced v.-r\ long 
This form is not aearly i a frequenl as warra. 

A a t bough from a simple form, wara. 

\ .1 \ little used. 



DEFECTIVE TRILITERAL VERBS 185 

IV. Itrawa be watered, atriwi, niitriwi. 1 
V. Itwaffa 2 die, atwaff a, mitwaffi. 
Itrauwa be watered, quenched. 
VI. Iddawa be treated, addawa, middawi. 
Issawa agree, conspire. 
VII. Intawa be folded, antiwi, mintiwi. 1 
VIII. Istawa be ripe, cooked, agree, astiwi, mistiwi. 
IX. No example. 

X. Istahwa catch cold, astahwa, mistahwi. 
Istaufa be completed, astaufa, mistaufi. 
XI. No example. 

Remark a. — The verb hiyi has istaha blush as the tenth de- 
rived form (for istahya), 3 aor. astihl (for astahya), particip. mistihi. 
Remark b. — The following verbs take a in the aorist : — 

sawa 4 be worth 'iyi be ill 

hiyi revive wi'i beware 

Wufi be completed (of a term, &c), though a pure passive, 
makes yufi only. 5 



DEFECTIVE AND IRREGULAR TRILITERAL VERBS 

§ 2 1 6. It will not, of course, be supposed that all the parts of 
any particular verb are in use. In some cases the meaning of a 
word will restrict its use to one or two forms, or even to a single 
tense; in others, habit has for one reason or another preferred 
some forms or tenses to others. Thus the imperat. ishmil keep / 
the left, with the aorist ashmil, will frequently be heard, though 
the past tense shamal has fallen into disuse. There are com- 
paratively few verbs possessing more than eight or nine derived 
torn is. 



1 Marwi and matwi are used by preference. 

2 Literally, be fulfilled. The nahwy form tawaffa is some- 
times heard. 

Iiva in the written language means to revive, istaha to 
blush, the simple verb (hayiya)also bearing both these mean i 

4 Sawa is used in the same sense as, and much more Ere 
quently than, the simple vea b. 

6 Or perhaps we should say that it is not used at all in the 
aorist, the active form wal'a, which sometimes has itself a passive 
sense, being used instead ; bnuswafit(orwufyffc)i] mudda the term 
was completed, but tun 1 mudda (only) the term will he complei 



186 THE SPOKEN AKABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 217. The verb ga' (or gih) come, which in classical Arabic is 
written ga'a (for gaya'a), is conjugated as follows in Cairene : — 

PAST TENSE 

Singular 

MASC, FEM. 

1st pers. get, git get, git 

2nd pers. get, git geti, giti 

3rd pers. ga 1 , gih ; negat. gat 
ma gash 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. gena, gina 
2nd pers. getu, gitu (-m) 
3rd pers. gu, gum 

AORIST 

ist pers. agi agi 

2nd pers. tigi, tigi tigi, tigi 

3rd pers. yigi, yigi tigi, tigi 

Plural for both Genders 
1st pers. nigi, nigi 
2nd pers. tigu, tigu (-m) 
3rd pers. yigu, yigu (-m) 

Imperat. masc. ta'ala, ta'a, ; fern. ta'ali, ta'i ; plur. ta'alu, 
ta'a. 1 

Particip. act. masc. gay, gay, ge ; fern, gaya, gay a; plur. 
gayin, gayin. 2 

Remark. — The a of ga' is lengthened (the qat'a disappearing), 
not only with the negative sign, but whenever it is accented, as 
gani, ga lak he came to me, to you, Arc. 

§ 218. The word tann, or its lengthened form iannit. with the 
shortened forms of the pronouns, is used either by itself or with 
the present participle and occasionally the aorist to express a 
continued action. It may it si If take the ^reformative syllables 
of the aorist in addition to the suffixes, or it' preceded by 
ifivili. rah, or ha, be conjugated either with or without them, 
is follows : — 



1 Ta'u is never heard. With the affirmative particle ma 
(§ 491), tigi, tigu, should be used, but ta'ala-u are sometimes 
rd. 

- The y is only half sounded (^ 20). 



DEFECTIVE TRILITERAL VERBS 187 

PAST TENSE 
Singular 

MASC. FEM. 

1st pers. tanni, tanniti, 1 mashi tanni, tanniti, 1 mashya 1 

continued walking 
2nd pers. tannak, tannitak, mashi tannik, tannitik, mashya 
3rd pers. tannu, tannitu, mashi tanniha, tanrritha, mashya 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. tannina, tannitna, mashyin 
2nd pers. tannuku (-m), tannitku (-m), mashytn 
3rd pers. tannuhum, tannithum, mashyin 

AORIST 

1st pers. atanni, atanniti, mashi atanni, atanniti, mashya 

2nd pers. titannak, titannitak, titannik, titannitik, 

mashi mashya 

3rd pers. yitannu, yitaimitu, titanniha, titannitha, 

mashi mashya 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. nitannina, nitannitna, mashyin 
2nd pers. titannuku (-m), titannitku (-m), mashyin 
3rd pers. yitannuhum, yitannithum, mashyin 

INDEFINITE FUTURE 

Rayih tanni, atanni, tanniti, atanniti, mashi ; rayha tanniha, 
ttanniha, 2 tannitha, ttannitha, 2 mashya, tire. 

Imperat. tannak, tannitak, mashi ; tannik, tannitik, mashya : 
tannuku (-m), tannitku (-m), mashyin. 

Remark a. — The preformatives of the aorist are sometimes 
omitted, as 'ashan yinzilum we tannuhum mashyin 'ala tul that 
they may go down and walk straight on. The negative imperative 
does not necessarily take the preformative t. In the 3rd 
sing, of the past tense tann may be used without the pr 
(as tanne mashi for tannu mashi). 

Remark b. — Dann is sometimes heard throughout for tann, 
but it is in less common use. There is no distinction of gender. 

1 Occasionally also tannitni and tannetni. 
'-' For titanniha, ifcc. 



188 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



§ 219. The conjunction madam seeing that (composed of ma 
and the obsolete verb dam last) sometimes makes madumt, 
madumti, in the 1st and 2nd pers. sing., as madumte get (for 
madam get) seeing that you have come. It remains unchanged 
in the other persons. 

§ 220. The verb gab bring is very rarely used in the impera- 
tive, the verb hat 1 give, bring (fern, hati, pi. hatu), replacing it. 

§ 221. The interjection yalla {i.e. ya Allah) sometimes takes 
the sign of the 2nd pers. of the aorist, as ma tyalla (tivalla) 
come along then ! 



THE QUADRILITERAL VERB 

§ 222. Quadriliteral verbs may be: — 

(a) Reduplicated forms of weak trilateral verbs, or of tri- 
literal verbs whose medial and final radical are identical, the 
second radical in the second case appearing as the final radical 
of the new verb ; e.g. : — 



bashbish 


soak 


bash ' 2 


rakhrakh 


loosen 


rakha 


sausau 


squeak 


sawa 


liaslias 


ogle 


bass 3 


baibil 


wet 


ball 


dashdish 


smash to 'pieces 


dashsh 


sham shim 


miff 


shamm 


qabqab 


rise, swell 


qabb 



Remark. — Dahdah weaken (originally da'da') ' appears to bo 
an intensive form of the perfect verb da'af, the final radical 
being dropped. 

(6) Lengthened forms of the perfect or weak triliteral, 
letto r bi bag added at the beginning, in the middle, or at the 
of the word ; e.g. : — 



1 This word is said to be the imperat. of the third form of 
the obsolete ata came, with prosthetic h after the analogy of the 
Hebrew. It, is not used in any other tor 

i The \>a-l>s in this column are the triliterals in which the 
quadriliterals have their origin. They are given in the form in 
which t he) bear a similar sense. 

■ : ( !f. tin- literary basai 

* hr.ia- ia still heard, though less frequently than dahdah. 



THE QUADRILITERAL VERB 



189 



da'mish 


b° half blind 1 


'iraish 


dahdar 


roll, slope 


indahar 


ghatrash 


turn a deaf ear 


thish 


issarmah 


live fast 


ramah 2 


shaqlib 


upset 


qalab 


aha'laq 


suspend 


'alaq 


shaqdif 3 


throw 


qadaf 


sha'bat 


climb, hold to 


sbibit 


khalbat 


confuse 


khalat 


qarbat 


be stingy 


qarrat 


i-salbat 


be incited 


sallat 


kharbaq 


pierce with many holes 


kharaq, kbarraq 


kharbish 


scratch 


kharash 4 


kharwish 


scratch (as a mouse) 


kharash 4 


qarqash 


munch 


qarash 


idda'bil 


fade 


dibil 


lahlib 


blaze 


labab 


sha'lil 


burst out in flames 


sha'al 


zaghlil 


be dazed 


zaghal 5 


halwifi 


talk inanely 


hawas 


sharmat 


tear to pieces 


sharat 


qarmish 


munch 


qarash 


farsbin 


spread out 


fa rash 


itfaltin 


I ice fast, become arogue 


itf alat 4 


it'afwin 


grow strong 


it'afa 


itma'yaq 


play the fop 


if ayiq 


ma'yar 


re rile 


f ayir 


ma'gin 


make putty 


'agan 


itma\shaq 


become enamoured 


-hiq 


matwih 


lead astray 


taiyih 


itmakhtar 


swagger 


kbatar 6 


inga'mas 


n dine 


inga'as 



1 As in tbe expression 'enu mida'misha. 

2 We say yisgarmah (or yirmah) wara n niswan. For th>' 
initial sibilants, compare the ist of the tenth derived form ami 
the Bister languages Aramaic and Ethiopic. 

Shaqdif has recently fallen into disuse. 
4 Not in use; falat means to get /<><■,■ . 

'i in vn.'li zaghit. Many truiterals are them- 
selves only lengthened forms of weak verbs, or veil'- with a 
doubled radical, as ahaqqar from Bhaqq ('ala) I bo basar, 

(above). See below, Rem. b. 

Lshshakhtar to bluff (a word, however, not in common 
use). 



190 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



revive 


na'ash 1 


goad 

flog 

lick clean 


lahag 2 

lasa' 

lahas 


behace lasciviously 

impale 

cut off 

insult 

smear with soot 


'alaq 
khazaq l 
qarat x 
naqar 

shahhar 


get disgusted 
place in middle 


qirif 

wassat 



itna'nis 

lahwig 

laswa' 

lahwis 

it'olaq 

kkozaq 

qarwat 3 

naqwar 

shahwar 

itqaryif 

wastan 

it'alqan ( = it'olaq, 

from 'alaq) 
itrahbin become a monk itrahhib 

(c) Original forms, or forms derived from triliteral verba 
obsolete in both the literary and spoken dialects ; e.g. : — 

batbat splash 

tashtash fizz 

dahdar roll 

dardish (fi 1 get confused {in 
kalam) speaking) 

Remark. — Many of these, like batbat, rasras, are reduplicated, 
or at least the third radical is identical with the first. In others 
all four radicals are different. Some, like tashtash ami 
washwish, are no doubt onomatopoetic. 

(d) Purely denominative, many of them from foreign nouns, 
ami all from nouns containing more than three consonants.' 
except where a w is inserted, as ishsharwid to blow th> hot wind, 
called shard ; e.g. : — 



rasras 


tremble (from 




cold, &c.) 


ra'ra' 


be fresh and green 


karkib 


put in disorder 


washwish 


wh i\<per 



bandaq 
itbai 


shoot 

put mi a veil 






bunduq 
burqu' 


garnal 
itrasmil 


write din nd one in a 
/"• a. capitalist 


n> n:<, , 


gonial 
rismal 




insure 






Kiikii. 


kartin 

ina/.rat 
itnamrad 


pit! into quarantine 

bluster 

hi- Wee Nimrod, i.e. 


act 


karantina 
mi. . 

tyrannically 



1 These verbs are not in use in the Cairene dialect. 

be primil i\ <■ \ erb generally means /" cheat in ( iairene. 

8 Of. also 'I'n M.. i log, stump. 

4 Unless sahlun /" soap ami Dammar to numl I ) be 

regarded as quadriliterals instead of tin- first derived form of 
imaginary triUterals 



THE QUADRILITERAL VERB 191 

Remark a. — It will be observed that n is the only letter 
added at the end of a triliteral to convert it into a quadriliteral, 
and that m and w are more frequently added than any other 
letter. Those which insert r and I correspond to the Syriac par' el 
and pa'lel, regarded in that language as forms of the triliteral 
verb. 

Remark b. — Sometimes both the quadriliteral and perfect 
triliteral from which it is immediately formed owe their origin 
to a weak triliteral, or a triliteral with a doubled radical (the 
latter in many cases being no longer in use), as zagh, zaghil, 
zaghlil ; shat scorch, sha'at, sha'wat. 

§ 223. Quadrilaterals, and in particular the duplicated forms. 
generally intensify the meaning of the triliteral verb, and herein 
increase the resemblance which they already bear in structure 
to the first derived form of the triliteral 

§ 224. The vowel of the first syllable of the quadriliteral 
is always a ; that of the final syllable is a or i, in accordance 
with the rule laid down in £ 161. There are, however, a few 
exceptions, as garnal, which is also at times pronounced garnil, 
shankal (or shankil) 1 hook, trip up, karkib upset, qashqish glean. 
Those verbs whose second vowel is i are usually active in 
signification. 

". The conjugation offers no difficulties, as will be seen 
from the following examples : — 

PAST TENSE 

Singular 
masc. FEM. 

1st pers. dahdart, karkibt dahdart, karkibt 

2nd pers. dahdart, karkibt dahdart!, karkibt! 

3rd pers. dahdar, karkib dahdarit, karkibit 

Plural for both Genders 
1 -• pers. ilalnlarna, karkibna 
2nd pers. dahdartu (-m), kmkibtn (-m) 
3rd pers. dahdarfl (-m), karkibu (-m) 

A O R I S T 

Sim, i LAB 

1st pers. adahdar, akarkib adahdar, akarkib 

2nd pera tidahdar, 3 tikarkib tidahdart, tikarkibl 

pera yidahdar, yikarkib tidahdar, tikarkib 



1 Botli t, ; rds, - Or tedahd 



192 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Plural for both Genders 

1st pers. nidahdar, <s:c. 
2nd pers. tidahdaru, <fcc. 
3rd pers. yidahdaru, <fcc. 

Imperat. masc. dahdar, karkib ; fern, dahdari, kaikibi ; pi. dah- 
darii, karkibii (neg. ma tdahdarsh, 1 <kc). 

Particip. midahdar, mikarkib (or medahtar, etc.). 

Remark. — Tbe verb tata- bend down, though in reality a 
quadrilateral, is treated in its conjugation as a trilateral of the 
second derived form, and makes atati in the aorist, metati in 
the participle. 

| 226. There is only one derived form, and this we construct 
i ly ailixing it to the simple verb, as itlakhbat be confused, iddahdar 
be rolled, roll oneself, ikkarkib (itkarkib) be thrown into disorder. 

Remark a. — -A second form, ilkhabitt, 3 occurs in the word 
itma'inn (simple verb tam'an) be easy in one'* mind, confi 
aor. atma'inn ; particip. mitma'inn. This verb, however, is not 
in common use, like its kindred triliteral ittammin. 

Remark b. — The derived form of the quadrilateral answers 
to the fifth derived form of the triliteral. 

,.' 227. From " stop 'er " is derived the verb istabbar stop,* 
aor. astabbar, particip. mistibbar, used in a neuter as well as 
an active sense, and often with no reference to machinery. 

VOCABULARY 



bargim 


talk con- 


bartal 


bribe 




fusedly, 


barwiz 


fra 




mutti r 


bahtar 


spiJl, scatter 


tanbil 


b> lazy 


izzahlaq 


sfi/i 


khansar 


clench 


itrahwin 


am 


gim 


translate, in- 


'anwin 






terpret 


gharbil 


rift 



1 ( >r ma ddahdarsh. 

- Ta'ta- in the written dialect. 
Oorresponding to the literary ilkhabatt (if'alalla), 

1 Of. the Alexandrian ma stabbanlsh from 
T-tal»l> is also used as an Imperative, bu1 somewhat jocularly. 
lvhil'kii La do1 to be confused with the eighth form of 

t he verb sabar. 



THE QUADRILITERAL VERB 



193 



kartiii 'ala put into qua- 
rantine 

qarbas tie to the pom- 

mel of the 
saddle 1 

igga'mas be puffed up 

with pride 

issattit ('alu) play the grand 
lady 
.an 'ala lord it over 

if afrat become like one 

possessed^ 
beha 
naughtily 

iddarwish become a der- 
vish 



tabbaq 


fold 


gkanna 




raqaa 


dance 


wiqif 


stand 


tawa 


fold 


tawa 


hide 


if ata 


be given 


dar 


ivalk about 


lawa 


twist 


gisr 


embankment 


sura 


picture 


sharumam 


water-melons 


fruta 


fruit 


ruzz 


rice 


mafrash 


table-cloth 


sabat 


basket 



EXERCISE 69 

Inti ddawett 'ande min ? Istawena sawa 'ala kede. Ir 
riggala ddl issau 2 'ala bni yidrabuh. II bed yithatte fi 1 
kasarona wi yinsiwi. Ma taknlah ish shammama di ; mush 
mistiwiya. Ma titwiah dira'i, 'auz tikassaru ( II 'agaya kanit 
mittawlya wara dahru. Hatf, ya bitte, kursi aq'ud 'al.'h. Ta'a 
ya wa'l, warrl li Hi ti idak. Agi ana 'andak walla ha tigi inta 
'audi? Ga 8 lakshe khabar 'an abuk, ya'ni ylgj walla la - ? Ma 
hyash gaya llela i La', ihna Hi gayln. II binte tanniha taht is 
Bagara lamina gib abulia. Tannuhum mashytn huninia wi r 
la 'ala biyuthum. Tannitik tal'a waiyahum 'ala ffiq. Tan- 
nina hna 1 kull nierauwalnn sawa. Tanniha 1 ma/./.ika tduqqe 
quddam il 'arabiyat. In niswan tannuhum lamina hassalu 1 bet. 
Inti l«jb tamalli titannik fi matrah wahid t Ma tannakshi tqul 
haga zeye di. Tamalli biyebargim bi 1 kalam; mush 'arif biqul 
rii. II arde mibaabbiaha bi 1 moiya, ma tdghdarshe tdl'ab. 
Rayhln nigarnal il mas'ala li 1 garanin (garantl). Da ragil 
metanbil u kamau migga'mae G nafau, biyiftdkir ma fish hadde 
gheru. Kunna mdahdarin il kura ti 1 ard bidal ma uihdif ha 'alt. 

1 From qarbus (qarabus). The verb is used of forcing up 
the bead of a donkey, <fec., by tying tin- reins to a ring in the 
Baddle. 

atracted from is&iwtL The accent is on the final 
syllable. 

is pronounced somewhat Bhortlj 3 13.) 

M 



194 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Akhuya ddarwish, ya'nf baqa darwish min id darawish. Ikhraq 
li kaman kharqe hina 'ashan tibqa 1 khashaba kulliha mikhar- 
baqa. In nar sha'lilit fi 1 bet. It'afrat il husan lamma wiq'it 
il 'agala tahte riglu. Hiya khansarit il fulus fi idha, ya'ni 
tabbaqit idha 'aleiram. II marad da'da'u ktir. Nazaru medah- 
dah. II bersim lamma yikbar fi 1 ard we yikhdarr, yequm ! 
yera'ra*. Ma tqarbassi hmartak kede ; haram 'alek ! 

EXERCISE 70 

The papers are all in confusion ; 2 why didn't you number 
them i 3 Come (and) read me this letter, please, Don't (/.) keep 
on walking about all night. They continued playing and singing 
and dancing until the sun rose. 4 Nobody was ever bribed by 
him, nor has he ever bribed anybody. You ought to frame one 
of these two pictures. She was carrying the basket on her arm 
when the rice was spilt on the ground. We both slipped and 
went 6 rolling down the bank till we fell into the canal. I saw 
you standing there shivering 6 with 7 cold. The horse was going 
at an amble. She always plays the grand lady with me. You 
had better 8 register 9 your letters, seeing that there are cheques 
in them. They have returned the paper all torn. You haven't 
addressed your letter. The barley has to be sifted before it is 
given to the horse. He wants to lord it over everybody. Will 
they put us into quarantine at Port Said? Please loosen this 
cord a little. Take the tablecloth in 10 the middle and fold it (in 
two). What n was she whispering in his ear ? Why didn't you 
come when I called to you ? You will get ill if l2 you eat unripe ls 
fruit. The fields will be irrigated 14 to-morrow afternoon. 

VERBAL NOUNS 

§ 228. Verbal nouns, adjectives, and substantives are those 
which are derived directly from verbs. They may be expressive : — 

(r/) Of the agent or person who acts, as katib he that writes, a 
<-IpvJ,-, kannas a sweeper (from kanas sweep). 

1 ^ 11 (2), 559. 2 Parbicip. fem. 

3 3rd pers, -sing. fern. 4 Verb before subst. 

5 tann. 6 Continued present. 

7 min. N ahsanj at beginning of sentence. 

■' Bdgar. "' min. 

11 After the verb. ia i/.a, with past tense. 

18 Trans, which is nut (mush) ripe, 
li Fem. sing. 



VERBAL XOUXS 195 

(b) Of the p jrson or thing on whom the act is performed (the 
patient), or of the thing created by its action, as maktub a thing 
written, a letter. * 

(c) Of the action of the verb in an abstract form, or of the 
becoming what it denotes, as darb striking, sugr a being small, 
childhood. 

(d) Of the doing of that action once, as darba a striking one . 
a sine lie blow. 

(e) Of the time or the place at which it is performed, as 
maghrib sunst t (from gkarab, gharrab) go west, maktab study, school. 

(/) Of the instrument with which it is performed, as muf tali 
key (from fatah to open). 

(g) Of the vessel containing that which is produced by the 
action of the verb, as mihlab a rnilkpail (from halab to milk). 

§ 229. Classes a and b include not only the active and passive 
participles, but all adjectives derived from verbs, many of which 
are used only as substantives. The following are the principal 
forms which they take : — 

FORM EXAMPLE 

1. bark sa'b hard, sahl easy 

2. barak gada' brave, Hasan, pr. n. {beautiful) 

3. burk murr bitter 

4. birik khishin rough, in lumps, tikhit thickset 

5. barak khalas finished, haram forbidden, disgraceful 
fi J barik adib veil-bred, da'if iceak, haliq shaved 

I birik y bikhil stingy, tiqil heavy, gidid new 2 

7. baruk hasud ear ions, 'aguz aged 

8. barik katib. tani, talit, sahil easy. 

9. barrak battal bad, bagsas spy, khaiyat tailor 
10. barrik 3 akkil glutton, qassis p?v'e&^, saiyit singer 

,, j barkan sakran drunk, 'atshan thirsty, kharban spoilt 

( birkan 'iryan naked * 
12. abrak ahmar, abyad, ahwal, &c. 

REMARK a. — The participles of the simple and derived forms 
are excluded (with the exception of barik) from the above list, 
as they have been already noticed under the verbs. 

1 Birik is a weakened form of barik. The a is always main- 
tained when the enclosing consonants are strong. 

2 Notice wilif companion (■■-• literary alif). 
8 Intensive of barik. 

4 Ga'ao (and occasionally gi"au) is for gaw'an (from ga'). tii.t 
v having fallen out 



196 THE SPOKEN ■ ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark b. — A few quadriliterals have an adjective of the 
form lakhbut, as khalbus deceiving, a rogue. 

Remark c. — Barik is confined to the participle and the 
ordinal numbers. Barrak and barrik are generally intensive in 
meaning. 1 The former is used mostly of trades or professions. 
The word gallal scavenger is a denominative from gilla ; so tauwab 
oHckmaker from tub, sabban from sabun, shaddaf from shaduf. 
Barik, baruk, and barkan are often identical in meaning with 
the passive participle of the active verb (whether in the simple 
or first derived form), 2 as qatil slain ( = maqtul), rasu.1 one sent, a 
messenger ( = marsul), 3 kharban spoilt ( = makhrub). 

Remark d . — Barik and birik are frequently used in the 
feminine to denote the thing on which the action of the verb has 
been performed, as dafina a thing buried, sariqa a thing stolen, 
booty, liqiya a find ; madiya, from the intransitive mada pass (of 
time), is used of a previous lesson (in school). From nafa exile 
are formed the nouns nifaya and nifawa one spurned, an outcast. 

Remark e. — Abrak (weakened to ibrik in iswid) is confined 
to the comparatives and adjectives denoting personal defects (§61). 

Remark /. — A few adjectives, derived from verbs whose 
middle radical is w or y, take the form baiyik (or beyik), as 
maiyit (meyit) dead (from mat), taiyib good (tab, yetib). 

§ 230. Class c comprises the so-called infinitives used sub- 
stantively. The principal forms of those derived from the 
primitive verb are as follows : — 

form examples 

1. bark katm concealing, 'add biting, akl eating, qol (for 

qawl) saying, word, sit walking, proceeding. 
mashy walking, gait 

2. barak 'amal doing, deed, talab demanding, demand, 

marad being ill, illness, 'ama /" ing blind. 
blindness 

3. baruk kalam speaking, speech, sawad 4 a being black. 

black 

4. baruk qabul accepting 



1 Kaddab IS used of one who lias just told a lie, though it 
properly signifies one addicted fco lying, a professional liar. 

• B'rlk is the pass, particip. of the primitive Syriac verb, 
is barfik is of the I [ebrew. 

Used as the |>:is->. particip. of irsal(ar8al)Mnd > whioh i 
however, in colloquial use. 

4 All the colours have this form. 



VERBAL XOUXS 



197 



5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 



FORM EXAMPLES 

birk 'ilm knowing, knowledge, kidb lying, lie 

birak gilas sitting, rida consenting, consent, 
(burak) (ghuna) a being independent, riches 



ghina 



birak 
birik 
burk 

burak 

( buruk I 
[ biriik i 

barka 



kitab writing, Look, 1 qiyani rising, starting 

nibiq braying 2 

sukr a getting drunk, shurb drinking, tul (for 
tuwl) being long, length 

au'al questioning, question 

dukhul entering, entry, luzum being necessary, 
necessity, surur being glad, gladness, wisul ar- 
riving, arrival, ghiliiw being dear 



20. barakan 



rahma pitying, compassion, da'wa pretending, 
pretension 

baraka nadafa cleaning, 'amaya blindness 

baruka marii'a manliness (verb not in use) 

birka sirqa thieving, theft 

biraka tigara trading, trade, shiyala carrying, khiyata 
sewing, tailor's profession 

birika migiba bringing, migiya coming 

buraka ghufara watching, guarding 

biu-uka su'uba being difficult, difficulty, suhula being easy, 
facility 
dawaran turning, shawafan seeing, dawakhaa 
getting giddy, tawahan (or tayahan) going as- 
tray, icool gathering, khararan leaking 

21. barkana saghrana bnng childish, farsana I >eing courageous, 

intrepidity 

22. birkan bunyan building, nisyan (nusyan) forgetting 

(burkan) 

23. birkiya shiddiya 3 strength 

24. burukiya sukhuniya being hot, gumudiya being hard 

25. mabrak mashal (for mashyal) i carrying 

26. mabrik raibi' (mebi'), for mibyi', selling, migi 1 coming 

(mibrik) 

27. mibrak mirwah going 

28. mabraka maqdara&''/«7^w?#er/u/,mashvakl]a being a 

29. mabrika ma'rifa knowing, knowledge, ma'isha (fur ma'- 

yi.-ha) living 

30. mi (mo) mehabba loving, affection 

barka 

1 In a passive ><'nse. 

• verb Lb only used in the first derived form (tiahhaq). 
8 A lengthened form of shidda. 
* Just as yeh&b is tor yihyab (i 204 seq.). 



198 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark a. — Of these forms, 1, 2, 5, 12, 16, and 23 are mostly 
in use, while many of the others are of very rare occurrence. 
Bark is generally the abstract noun of transitive verbs ; barak 
of intransitive as often as transitives ; birk is confined to 
intransitives ; biraka is mostly used of trades or professions ; 
buraktya and buruka are derived entirely from neuters usually 
admitting both the forms birik and buruk, and expressing 
abstract qualities. 

Remark h. — Many of these nouns are used in a concrete as 
well as an abstract sense, as ma'rifa knotting, an acquaintance, 
and some of them only in a concrete sense, as 'esh bread 
(originally living). Some of them have both an active and a 
passive signification, as darbu his striking or his being struck, 
su'alu his questioning, his question, or his being questioned, his 
examination. 

Remark c. — The letter w preceded by the vowel i and followed 
by a, i.e. in the forms biiuk, biraka, buraka, is changed to y, as 
qiyam (for qiwam), si vain fatting (for siwam), ziyara (or zuwara) 
visiting, ziyada (or zuwada). 

Remark d. — The noun of the form bark derived from verbs 
whose last two radicals are the same is necessarily identical 
with the 3rd pers. sing, of the past tense, and barak ia identical 
with the 3rd pers. sing, of the past tense of the perfect verb. 

Remark e. — Nouns derived from verbs whose middle radical 
is w or y are in general subject to the changes to which the verbs 
themselves are liable. Those derived from verbs whose first 
radical is w sometimes drop that letter, as sifa quality (from 
wasaf), giha direction (from wagah). 1 

Remark /. — A form baraka appears in the words sala pray r, 
and haya life (contracted from sa,' iwa and havawa). and in a few 
other words not in general use. 

15 231. The abstract nouns of the derived forms of the tri- 
literal verb are as follows : — 

I. 

1. tabrlk as fcafttsh searching (fattish), tadwlr turning. 

2. tabraka as tazkara reminding, ticket (aakkar). 

3. tabrika as tagriba trying, experience (garrab). 

4. tabrika as tasllya amusing, amut -.ilia). 

tahliya sweetening (halla). 

Remark. — The firsl and fourth of these forms are by far th>> 
most common, the latter being confined exclusively to verbs ^ , - 



1 Wagah is not itself in use. 



VERBAL NOUNS 199 

final radical is y. A fifth form, tabrak, occurs in the word takrar 
repeating (karrar), and a sixth in tilqa' a bringing face to face with 
(laqqa) ; but the former is scarcely colloquial, 1 and the latter is 
used only in the expression min tilqa' - nafsu, nafsak, &c., of his, 
your, fyc, own accord. 

II. 

1. mi (me, mu), barika 3 

as mekhalfa contradicting, a contravention (kkalif), 
mi'akhiza blaming (akiz), muwafqa agreeing 
with (wafiq), migauba answering (gawib), 
mi'ayra reproaching ('ayir). 

2. birak as hisab taking account, bill (hasib). 
III. 

1. ibrak as i'lan publishing. 

2. abraka 4 as agaza permitting, bare of absence, holiday. 

Remark. — The second of these forms is confined to verbs 
whose middle radical is w or y. 
IY. Not in use. 
V. tabarrik, tibarrak, tibarrik, as takallim speaking, tiharrak 
being moved, tiqaddim being advanced, tahairi inves- 
tigating, investigation. 

VI. tabarik, tibarik, as tahaniil bearing malice. 

Remark. — Forms V. and VI. do not belong to the colloquial 
language, but are sometimes used in imitation of the literary 
tabarruk and tabaruk. 

VII. inbirak, as inkisar being broken, humiliating oneself 

(inkasar). 

Remark. — This form likewise is very rarely heard. 
VIII. ibtirak as istilam receiving (istalam). 
ishtiyaq yearning (ishtaq). 
IX. ibrikak as ilunirar getting red. 
X. and XI. istibrak as istifhiim getting information. 
2. istibraka, as istiqama rectitude, istighasa ratling far aid, 
istiraha reposing. 



1 Takrir is the form in use. 

- Tilqa' is corrupted colloquially to tilka. 

3 The first syllable is occasionally u, especially before w. 
The i usually falls out (§ 33). 

4 Literary ibraka. Note that the spoken language has in 
this instance t ht* stronger vowel. 



200 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark a. — Only verbs whose middle radical is w or y have 
the second form, and of these only those which contract in the 
past tense. From istagwib interrogate is formed istigwab, after 
istibrak. 

Remark b. — In some cases the noun is in use, though the 
verb has become obsolete. 1 The verbal substantive of the 
derived forms is not infrequently supplied by the primitive 
verb. 

§ 232. The abstract noun of the simple quadriliteral verb 
takes the form lakhbata ; 2 that of the derived verb ti(te)lahkbit, 
as dahdara rolling, kharbasha scratching, ti(te)bartil a being 
bribed. 

§ 233. Class d is formed by the addition of the feminine 
termination a to the abstract noun, the forms bark and tabrik 
being used exclusively for this purpose in the case of the primi- 
tive and first derived trilateral verb, as darb striking, darba a 
striking one, a blow; 'add biting, 'adda a bife ; tafriq making a 
distinction, tafrtqa a making a distinction in a particular ease. 

Remark a. — Nouns derived from verbs whose final radical is 
y sometimes change the y into w, as sharwa (for sh&rya) ./ pur- 
chase (from shara buy). A few nouns of this elas< take either 
w or y, as ghalwa (or ghalya) a boiling. 9 

Remark //. — With the exception of barrak, the derived forms 
very rarely, if ever, admit of a noun of this class. The word 
mutatiya a bending is an irregular formation, being the feminine 
of the participle of tata treated as the form of a triliteral instead 
of a quadriliteral, as it is in reality. 

Remark c. — In the quadriliterals the derived form tilakhhit 
becomes tilakhbata, 4 as ti(te)makhmada a /'ring upset by shaking, 
i)-<-., nausi ousness. 

ElEHABE </. — When the abstract noun already ends in *'. as 
in the case of the simple quadriliteral verb, no distinction, of 
course, caii he made, and the adjective wahda must he added if 
the idea of unity is to be emphasized. 

I. Nouns of time and place derived from the simple 



1 Or exists only in the literary dialect. The colloquial 

sometimes ho now, one part of speech, while it rejects others 
belonging to the Bame root. 

I.akhhita. as well as tilakhhita (see below), U sometimes 

used by the higher claa 

J The plur. ghalwal is preferred to gha! 
4 The [earned say tilakhbl 



VERBAL NOUNS 201 

trilateral verb take the forms mabrak and mahrtt +i, Q t 
when the vowel of the final syllable ifie J" £ a tnerX 
also when it la u, and in a few cases where it is i ; ■ "^??_ > 



maghtas 
matbakh 

maktab 
rnaglis 

maghrib 



a large basin for plunging 

kitchen 

school 

place or time of sitting, as- 
sembly 
time of going west, sunset 



(from ghutus, yightas) 
(from tabakh, vitbukh) 
(from katab, yiktib) 
(from galas, yiglis) 

(from gharab, yighrib) 
Remark a— The noun of time and place of verbs whose 

s ^^r^;^r omes iM > as ma * tm -«ss*^s 

radical is ,? ™St ( ^ m .S a,n ' ^ im )' and those whose media] 

Remark 6 -Several of these nouns take the feminine termi- 
nation, as madrasa school (from daras vidri^ ? f , . *' 



mabrad 
maq 

misann 

mamsaha 

masyada 

inin.ishsha 
muftah 
minshar 
minqar 
iiii.j\ 

mlzao (for 
miwzan) 



a fie 

scissors 

a steel for sharpening 

a doth for wiping 

a trap 

a fly whisk 

a key 

a saw 

a chisel 

a gauge 

a balance 



barad 

qass 

sann 

masah 

sad 

nashsh 

fatah 

na«bar 

naqar 

qas 

wazan 



yaktub!' lh " S " ( ' aS " S * " " in th " "rfttn dialect, as fa 
L ' The meaning dignity, position, is not wnerallv h„,,„ 

tt. t,;;z:r' *** ^ » fS&« ££ 

More commonly ma'ad. 



202 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark a. — The verb from which the instrument is derived 
is not always in use, as in the case of misalla packing-needle (from 
the obsolete sail). 

Remark b. — From nakhal sift is formed mankhul a sieve, 
from ra'a see miraya looking-glass, the qat'a falling away. 

§ 236. Verbal nouns denoting a vessel take the same forms 
as those of class /, as mihlab a milk-pail (halab), mibzaqa a 
spittoon. 

Remark. — From kahal to paint the eyes ivith kuhl is derived 
mukhila the vessel in which the paint is kepA. 

§ 237. The above classes, though they comprise a vast number 
of words, do not include all the nouns derived directly from verbs. 
Of others, the following are most worthy of notice : — 

(a) Nouns denoting a part or small quantity. These take 
the form birka or burka, as : — 

hitta a hit luqma a mouthful 

hissa a portion, share 

(b) Garments, coverings, &c, many of which take the form 
birak, as : — 

libas drawers girab sheath, bag 

hiram cover let, woollen 

over-garment 

(c) The place where a thing is constantly produced or found, 
or that by means of which the action of the verb is constantly 
performed, is represented in a few instances by the feminine 
form of the intensive adjective bai-rak, as : — 



mallaha a salt-mine, 

salt-cellar 



tarraha a mattress 

'assara an ml press 

Barradiya is the vessel where water is kept cool. 
Remark. — A few intensive adjectives take the forms mibrak, 
mibrik, as mis'ad 1 fortunate, and mibkhit very lucky and mityi/. 
mth large thighs, formed from the nouns bakht and tiz. 

§ 238. The remaining forms are nut easily classified, as they 
are applied almost indiscriminately to different orders of nouns, 
as : — 

slnbbak a window tiffah aj \ 

diblian flies 

i 239. It should be noted also thai a particular form is not 
necessarily confined entirely to a class. Thus shammam wctfer- 
melons has the form of nouns denoting trades; ifcc. 

1 Unless it represents the passive participle of the verb as'ad. 
(See g 167.) 



VEEBAL NOUNS 



203 



VOCABULARY 



khatt 


handwriting 


'oza 


need, want 


sharba 


draught 


taswiya 


cooking 


dukhul 


entry 


sugr 


childhood 


niyaba 


procuration 


dabh 


slaughtering 


nashr 


sawing 


libs* 


clothing 


qiraya 


reading 


titakhbit 


being knocked, 


firar 


fleeing 




knocking 


meqauma 


resistance 


rubat 


tying 


surur 


joy 


wasl 


receipt 


inshirah 


gaiety 


fakk 


untying 


wisiya 


order 


kuhha 


coughing, cough 


qu'ad 


sitting 


ghuna 


singing 


tazylr 


putting on, in- 


sukat 


being silent, 




teresting one- 




silence 




self with 


hafa 


going bare- 


hashwa 


stuffing 




footed 


hazz 


enjoyment 


mauqaf 


place of stand- 


inbisat, 


contentment, 




ing, stand 


inbisat 


pleasure 


mahmal 


holy carpet 


hana 


happiness 




(See Lane, 


hinniya 


kind ups*, com- 




Mod.Egypf., 




passion 




ch. xxiv.) 


radawa 


depravity 


taman 


price 


ghiyar 


changing 


'amaliya 


doing, deed 


madad 


stretching, 


fut 


a passing, 




scope 




going through 


shof 


seeing, view, 


dikka 


bench 




vision 


fitir 


pastry 


dashsh 


crushing 


sham'idan 


candlestick 


tuhl< 


rising, depart- 


'ankabut 


spider 




ing 


habara 


kind of cloak 


hadad 


demolishing 


halla 


pot 


ihtiram 


respecting, re- 


l'iq 


saliva 




spect 


furn 


own 


mushtara 


Inlying 


kanun 


oven (Aral)) 


(mishtara) 




nagaf 


chandeliers 


hit/ 


preserving, 


fak-ha 


fruit 




protecting 


gidri 


Kill all jinx 


kubr 


being big, man- 


na'iui 


soft 




hood 


gahil 


ignorant 


du'f 


weakness 


nadir 


rare, scarce 


diyana 


religion 


hadiq 


salt (adj.) 



204 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



simih 


bright, smiling 


qarrab 


approach 


wakil 


agent, repre- 


amar 


order, give 




sentative 




orders 


khafif 


slight 


Irif 


know, recognise 


tabb 


stumble, come 


darr 


injure, do liar in 




suddenly 




to 


sharraf 


honour 


wassa 


charge, enjoin, 


qawil 


engage, give 




order 




contract to 


taqtaq 


explode 


'allaq 


attach, hang 


ghala, ghili 


boil 


daq 


be pressed, 


al'an 


more accursed 




squeezed 




(mal'un), 


qala* 


take off, extract 




worse 


mala 


Jill _ 


ba'de ma 


after that 


ta"am 


vaccinate 


ke'innuhum. 


as though they 


'azzib 


torture, punish 


(keyinnu- 




gahhiz 


prepare 


hum) 




rabba 


bring up, 


'ala ha sab 


according to 




educate 


lagl, li agl 


for, in case of 



EXERCISE 71 



II fahme da kullu na'im ; khallih yegfb lina khishin. II 
khatte beta'ak ea'be qawi; min yiqrahl II qassis da ragi] 
akkil ; bidal ma yakul luqmiten khad il kull. Ana 'at&h&na 
qawi ; iddint shurbit moiya. 'Add il 'ankabut al'an min qara 
in namus. Kalamak kullu kidb min il auwul li 1 akhir. Id 
■ 1 ukhul sa'be 'an il khurug. Migibt il 'afshe kan qable mirwah- 
hum. Taman ish shi'ir bi 1 mashal tis'tn sagh. Mush gahbl 
huwa, basse nia'rit'ti. Iza sbafak il bulis yiktibak fi 1 mekhalfat. 
Iktib li waal 'an istilam il fulus. Waqt il maghrib kanit qa'da 
fi maktab abulia. Huwa wakil 
Shugbl il minshar li oashr il 
ya'rafah il kitaba walal qir&ya. 
il firai alisan min il meqauma. 
■and ish Bhuhnad. I'lt'a- 'ala hasab maqdartak. Simi'te tituqtiq 

il barud lamina miskit till in liar. Mutatiyit^k dl li s galfi mush 
tamaiii ; tati knnan shuwaiya. W'ishshu simih W6 beyin 'aKh 

Leinnu ragi] taiyil). Ghal6t il moiya ghalwitdn walla ghalya 
walida bawl II h u~."i i i (abbe (abba gamda. [tgauwizte hittit 
bint, lakin liqtya 'al. Ana. ma flab luxum agt. La 1 , tdgl; 
migtyak yinfa'. II • i liasa ma khulusae min tali lit- il 'arabiyal 
-l...i i .it't iiia we anistina we haaa] Lina g sunn- wi 1 in&bii 



il Khalifa bi n niyfiba 'annu. 
khashab. Da ragi! gahil ma 
'Ande wiaul il haramlya j 

Katin il baqtqa mush nadir 



VERBAL XOUXS 205 

wugudak 'andina. Zeye ma wassetuni adini 'amalte bi 1 wi*ty i 
lukum. Huwa qal lak kede qol sahih ? Lazim neqawil wahid 
'ala ta'liq in nagaf wi sh sham'idanat luzum il farah we 'ala 
tahdir is sagagid luzum id dikak liagle qu'ad in nas 'aleha. 
Guzha shtara lha habara lagli t tazyir biha. Qaddimu 1 farkba 
bi hashwitu. Tannubum fi hazz wi mbisat we fi bana we fi 
srur lamma yedurum we yirga'um 'ala bethum. Ana ra'aftu 
inin hinniyit qalbi 'aleh. Min radawit qalbiha 'ah'na qamit 
darabitna wi khanaqitna, we baqat 1 nafasi middayiq min maskitha 
fi raqabti, u baqet a'aiyat min khanqiha fiya u min darbika fi\ a. 
Akl il fawakih yinfa' li ghiyar ir riq. Fi nas yehibbu t tabikh 
hadiq shuwaiya zeye nusse huduqiya. Shuf 'ala madad shofak.'-' 
Ma titla'sh il khamsa min gebu ilia bi qal' id dirs. Khalli 
balak maly ik kubbaya yekun khafif lahsan yitkabb in nibit 
'as sufra. Kutr il kalam yidurr. II walad min gumudiyitu u 
min shiddiyitn rah dughri misik ir ragil u raniah 'ala dahru. 
Qaulu 1 minaggid 'ala tangid il maratib. Khallib 'an nar 
lamma yistiwi u tibqa taswiyitu zi'v iz zibda. Min ba'de ma 
yikhlasu min dashsh il ful yigharbiluh, u ba'd it tigharbil 
yihuttuh fi 1 halla. Ana ahayif leinn il masiira di fiba khararan. 
Betu fi ani sikka ? Auwil tahwidak 'ala 1 yimin. 



EXERCISE 72 

As soon as I bad finished cleaning 3 the house. It waa 
broken by a stone falling on it when the wall was being pulled 
down. 4 From her limited knowledge of Arabic. 5 When he had 
got down from 8 the horse. He showed 7 them great honour-, 
as though they were big people Choose me a good can 
from the stand. You must make a contract with him for* the 
girl. (It is) she who brought me up from my childhood to my 
manhood. I have not yet finished buying what La accessary 
for the table. Children are vaccinated to protect them from 



3ee§ 560. 
2 < tr 'ala maddit sh&fak (or ish Bhdf). 
8 Tra.ua. from the cleaning of. 

4 Trans, the descent of a ntune on il at tlt>/ Him oftht pulling 
down of the wall. 

5 Trans, tht emallness of her h < the Arabic. 

6 Trans, after hie descent from on. 

7 'amal 1. » 'ala. 



206 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

smallpox. 1 A European oven is better for cooking pastry than 
an Arab oven. God will punish them according to the weak- 
ness of then- religion. The pilgrims spend 2 two or three days 
in the preparation of their food, 3 until the time for 4 the de- 
parture of the maltmal approaches. 5 The meat is only half- 
cooked. 6 Leave it there in case of need. "We arrived before 
sunset and left before sunrise. 7 The price for slaughtering 8 a 
lamb is five piastres tariff. We are not satisfied with 9 our food 
and clothing. I heard a knocking at 10 the door. Why didn't 
you prevent him from striking her? 11 Tying 12 is easier than 
untying. 12 They do all these things 13 to make fun of people. 14 
When it first came down, 15 the rain was slight. She has a 
violent cough. Give me a little drinking-water, 16 please. The 
king gave orders for his head to be cut off. 17 I recognised him 
by 18 his 19 gait. They were busy with 20 their drinking and 
singing. If speech is silver, silence is gold. 21 He is ever wool 
gathering. 22 Going bare-footed 23 is harmful to the health in 
winter. 24 I saw him as I was passing through 25 Cairo. 



1 The vaccination of the children is for the preservation from 
the . . . 

2 fidil. 3 il akl wi sh shurb. 4 Of. 
6 Verb before the subject. 

6 Trans, cooked half a cooking. 

7 Trans, before Hie setting (nuztil) of the sun . . . before its 
rising. 

« Genitive. 9 fi. w Of, genitive. 

11 Trans, his striking at (fi) her, 

12 Trans, th* tying, the untying, 

13 Trans, doings. 

14 'ashan id dihk 'ala n nas. 

1 5 Trans, in its fust descent. 
M Trans, water (of) drinJcing. 

17 Trans, for (bi) the cutting off (of) his head. 

is „,-,,,. i9 beta'u. 20 fi. 

n Trans, if speech is of .... silence trill /» of . . . 

--' Trans, he has ever (tamalll) wool gathering. 

"'•' Trans. ///' going, &c. 

24 Trans, in the winter, 

-'•' Trans, in my pa sing through ('ala). 



THE PREPOSITIONS 
THE PREPOSITIONS 



207 



S 2 t0. The prepositions may be divided into two classes : 

(I) Inseparable, 1 or those which in pronunciation regularly 
form one word with the noun or pronoun which they precede and 
govern ; and 

(_') Separable. 

§ 241. The former consists of the following : 

Bi, be, bu at, by, in, <fcc., li, le, In/or, to, dec., and wa, wi. we 
by (in swearing), as w Allah, w Allahi by God, wi J, vat rasak by 
{the life of) your head, wi n nabl by the Prophet. 

Remark.— The particle ka like, as, partakes of the nature of 
a preposition, and may also be regarded as inseparable, but it is 
scarcely heard in the spoken language, except in the expression 
xahir ka sh shams as clear as the sun, and in the conjunction 
keinn (or keyinn). 

§ 24l\ Separable prepositions are. for the most part, derived 
from verbs, and a great number of them are verbal nouns used 
as substantives. The following is a list of those in common 
use: — 

in 

above 

before 

up to 

in front of 

opposite 

behind 

till, a ji to 

up to, as far as, 

until 
with 
like 

with 

behi nil 
amid 



barra 


outside 


fi, fi 


ba'd 


after 


f6q 


ben 


between 


qabl 


bidal 


instead of 


qadd 


taht 


under 


quddani 


tui 


during,, 


qusad 




throughout 


khalf 


guwa 


in, inside 


lamma 


ganb 


beside 


li hadd, li 


ghe* 


without, except 


ghayit 


haw&len 


around 


ma', mi 1 


didd 


wjaii/yt 


mitl* 


dimn 


among 


nun 


zey 


a*-, lilce 


waiya, wlya 


'ala 2 


on, against 


wara 


'an 


from 


WUst 


'and 


by, with, n<-. 





1 They are written as separate words in this work, to prevent 
confusion, 

2 'Ala represents in sense the literary ila, which is only 
heard, perhaps, in the phrases rah ila bes or ila ma sha Uah. i.i. 
go to perdition. 

8 Mitl(literarymithl)does not seem fcobeknowntomoal of the 
lower orders— (8.). It is usually pronounced mial by the educated. 



208 



THE SPOKEN AEABIC OF EGYPT 



Remark. — The changes which some of the prepositions 
undergo in conjunction with the pronouns and the sign of the 
negative have already been noticed (§ 117). 

§ 243. As in other languages, two prepositions may occur 
together, as min f6q from above, off, min wara from behind. Min 
is sometimes used with another to give greater precision, or 
pleonastically, as ba'de minnu, tahte minnak, min gher haga. 
Others form a new preposition in conjunction with another word, 
as 'ala shan (or 'ashan)/or the sake of, on account of, li hadd up to, 
until, bi dim, min dim without, ghasbe (or ghasbin) 'an in spite of. 

Remark. — In bala, balash toithout ; never mind I the i of bi is 
strengthened to a. 

THE ADVERBS 

§ 244. Many of these are adjectives used adverbially, or sub- 
stantives in the accusative case (see § 63), or with the pronominal 
suffix of the 3rd pers. ; several are a combination of two or 
more words, especially of a preposition with a substantive; and 
a few, lastly, are verbs in the 3rd pers. of the past or aorist 
tense. Some are used also as prepositions. The following are 
frequently heard :- 



(1) Adverbs 


of time : — 






abadan 


never 


zaman, zeye 


formerly 


aslu 


originally 


zaman 




auwilan, fi 1 


firstly 


sa'a, sa'at 


sometimes 


auwil 




dilwaqt, dil- 


at present 


emta? 


lohen ? 


waqti ' 2 




imbarih 


yesterday 


halan 


at once 


in nahar da 


to-day 


summa 3 


then, next 


badri 


early 


'amnauwil 


last year 


ba'd, ba'diha 


afterwards 


qabla, qabliha 


before 


ba'den 


afterwards 


lissa 


not yet, still 


bukra 


to-morrow 


nihavtu, in 


Jin ally 


tamalU 


always 


ninaya 




tani ' 


again 


wakhi'i 


late 


dawaman, 


always 






il.i \ man 








(da'iman) 









1 The Nahwy form Baniyan is sometimes heard. 

2 Fur- <li il waql (§ 416). The I seems to emphasise (she 
word. Oi.d&iltJtesi h re, kamanl (f or kaman) ; similarly, perhaps, 
thr final ale in ya d6bak, <fec. (See | B70, note.) 

B Borrowed from the Literary language. 



THE ADVERBS 



209 



(2) Adverbs of place : — 






barra 


out 


fen? 


where? 


taht 


under 


foq 


above 


guwa 


inside 


quddam 


in front 


henak 


there 


qusad 


opposite 


hina 


here 


wara 


behind 


(3) Adverbs of manner and degree : — 




atabt, atari 


now, assuredly 


halbatt, il- 


certainly, no 


izzey ? 


how ? 


batt 2 


doubt, pro- 


bardu, bardu 


also, all the 




bably 




same 


dughri l 


straight 


balash 


no need of, 


dobak, ya d61 


) scarcely, 




gratis 




hardly 


bass 


only 


rubbama, li 


perhaps 


baqa, baqat 


however, still 


rubbama 




beyin 


apparently 


zeye bardu 


all the same 


belki, 1 belkin 


perhaps 


ziyada 


more 


bi hsab 


cautiously 


sabiq 


formerly 


bi zyada 


too much, 


sawa, sawiya 


together 




enough 


sirqa 


stealth ily 


bishwGsL 


gently 


sirr 


si cretly 


bi 1 aqall 


at least 


shawahid, 


evidently 


bi t takhmln. 


approximately 


ish shahid 




takkmin 




shuwaiya 


a little 


" tamam, bi t 


completely 


'asalla 


!>• rliaj>-< 


tamam 




'ala 1 mabl • 


slowly, gently 


taqriban 


about 


faqat 


only 


tes, bakre tcs 


very much 


qawi 


strongly \ very 


ghaliban, 


probably, 


qawam 


quickly 


ghalib 


mostly, gene- 


qalle ma 


seldom 




rally 


kaza, 4 kede 


so, thus 


ghershe 


only 


kef 


how 


hantara, ya 


I wonder if 


ket we ket 


so and so 


bantara, 




kitir (kettr) 


7n uch 


ya tara 




kaman, ke- 


a/so, again 


hatta 


even 


man, ke- 




haqqa 


truly 


niaiii 





1 Turkish. 

il batt the conclusion. The // is frequently dropped. 

1 also with the pronominal suffixes. 
4 Not in general use. 

o 



210 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



keinn, ke- 


apparently 


ma'naha kan 


liowever it be 


yinn x 




mot 


exceedingly 


khalis 


entirely 


mush, mush, 


not 


la', la 


no, not 


mish 




la budd 


of necessity 


nar 


exceedingly 


leh? 


why ? 


na'am 


yes 


ma 


but 


wasil 


at all 


masal, masa- 


for example 


wi s salam 


once for all 


lan 




ya'ni 


that is to say 


mahsan, ya 


apparently 


yitla' 


about 


mahsanak 




yigi 


about 


ma'naha 


that is, namely 







CONJUNCTIONS 



§ 245. The 


'ollowing are of everyday occurrence : — 


au 


or 


ham . . . 


both . . . and 


amma 2 


but, when 


ham 4 




agrann 


since, seeing that 


hatta 


until 


auwil ma 


directly that 


hal in 


directly that 


azinn 


inasmuch as 


hes (le) inn 


inasmuch as 


atabi, atari 


assuredly 


hakim 


inasmuch as, in 


iza, izakan 


if 




fact 


in 


if 


sa'it ma 


at the time that 


inn, ilia 


that 


'ala shan, 


in order thai, 


ilia inn 


except that 


'asban (ma) because of 


ikminn 


seeing that, be- 


'ala inn 


that 




cause 


'ala bal ma, 


until 


innama 


only that, ex- 


'abal ma 






cept that 3 


fa, fi, fe 


and, so 


'iwad, 'uwad 


instead of 


qable ma 


before that 


ma 




kulle ma. 


whenever 


ba'de ma 


after that 


kullf ma 




bidal ma 


instead of 


keinn, keyinn as if 


tauw, tauwe 


as soon as, no 


le inn 


because, that 


ma 


sooner 


lag] (li agl) 


in order that 


tul ma 


as long 08 


Lagle inn. 


in order that 


ghOr inn 


exccjit that 


lagle ma 





1 With tlir pronominal Buffixea. 
s As in amma nshuf let me see. 
6 FY. seuh meat. 
4 Turkish, from Persian. 



INTERJECTIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS 211 



lahsan 


lest 




madam 


inasmuch as 


li hin, li hin 


until 




ma'inn 


although, 


ma 








whereas 


lakin. we 


but 




(wa),wi,we,u 


and 


lakin 






walla 


or 


lau. welau 


if, although 


wala . . . wala 


neither . . . nor 


161a 


if not, 


but for 


waqte ma 


at the time that 


lamma 


when 




ya . . . ya 


or . . . or 


mata l (only 


when 




ya imma . . . 


or . . . or 


with past 






ya imma 2 




tense) 











INTERJECTIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS 

246. The following are in frequent use : — 



Allah, Alia 

(God) 
allahumma 



dear me 



in truth, 
deed 
ah, ah-h 3 ait, alas, oh 
akh, akh min fie on 
ikhkhi, pugh, ugh 

ukhkh, iffi, 
uff. uffen 



ikhs ('ala) 

iyak 

iyah, ivaha 
t-i-yih 

inzil, shinzil ; 
oh, o, oh 
uinmal 



fie, for shame 

mind 

beware, see that 

you 
tliere he, she, is 
ugh, not really 



bi llahi 
bis bis bis 



oh, oho 
rather, I should 

think so, 

pray 
by God 
to call a cat 



tay tay 
ta-a-ta 



trrrr 

gay gay gay 

hus 

ho, he (hoh, 

heh) 5 
hay hay hay 

hay 
ha-ah, harga' 

hiss 

sik sik sik 

sik 
shl-ih 

she ghartb 



to call a goat 
when teaching 

a child to 

walk 
to make a 

camel kneel 
help 
to quiet a 

dog, c\rc. 
here 

to call goats 

to urge a 

donkey 
to quiet a 

donkey 
to call oroats 

to urge a beast 

of burden 
how stran 



1 Mata is rarely heard. 

so ya immatan, .savouring of Nahwy. 
3 Express,- mostly distress and admiration, and sometimes 
an emphatic assent. 

Jed especially to a horse. Shinzil is intensive, and is 
used when the first cry (inzil !) has ii,, effect. 
6 Mostly with a and kede prefixed (§ 124). 



212 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



kis kis kis 


to make a 


la' 


to express sur- 




horse go 




prise 




back 


ma 


but 


kh-h-h-h 


to make a 


ya ma 


how much, how 




camel kneel 




very 


khat 


to make a 


ya ma hsan 


surely 




camel step 


yalla 


come on 




cautiously 


ya ret 


would that 


khatt, khatti 


to a donkey for 


ya salam, ya 


fancy, dear me 




the same 


satir 






purpose 


yiss, yisse - 


to make a 


khud 


to call a per- 


baqa 


horse stop 




son's atten- 


yu-uh (ya 


oh 




tion, hey I 


salim) 






VOCABULARY 




fagr 


dawn 


istafhim 


inquire 


ku< 


elbow 


darab bulta 


take a stroll 


shanab 


moustache 


khalat 


mix 


karsha 


hurrying 


waqqa' 


let fall, drop 


fusha 


recreation 


bi kh(i)laf 


contrary to 


khidma 


service 


bi 1 marra 


once for all, 


kinisa 


church 




not at all 


ista'gil 


haste 


istihbab 


chumming to- 


'am 


sioim, float 




gether 


sah.li 


be correct, pro- 


mandil 


handkerchief 




2)er 


mallin 


mil Heme 


sakk 


to lock 


tul 


length 


fitir 


to breakfast 


lis&n 


tongue 


sihir (sihir) 


to sit up, watch 


kalun 


lock 


iftakar 


think 


quwwa 


stn ngth, power 


birid 


catch cold, a 


(quwa) 






ch ill 


'ada 


custom 


shad d 


pull 


sahih 


tno 


nawil 


hand, reach 


saliilia 


truth 


Lstad 


shoot 


kidb 


falsehood, fat *>' 


samak 


fish 


bulla 


<!.!■■ 



EXERCISE 7:; 
Inta i-avili 'ala Fen? Flh mandil&n f udti F6q it tarab&xa; 
liat li wahid minhum. Ma mi'ish fuluswala malHm; t'ih 'andak 



1 La is followed l>\ the personal pronouns, huwa, hiya, and 
humma, being appended to it in their shortened forms, as lahu 



-ill ! la.hr gal ! laluilii 

2nd pers. (la nta). 



i but rarely used with th<> 
Tlic y is bare!} pronounced. 



INTERJECTIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS 213 

inta? Itla' 'ala foq we shuf iza kan huwa rayih yinzil wala la - . 
Khali: s6tak qadde tulak. Beyin innl sakket bab 'ala 1 fadi, 
ya'ni 'ala 1 hawa, bidal ma (a) dakhkhal lisan il kalun fi 1 hadid. 
Beyishtaghal 'ala qadde quwwitu. Shiddi nna 1 garaz. Ana 
gay 'andak taht is sagara. Intu msallatin in nas del 'aleya leh? 
Humma til'um min hina ya tara wala lissa ? Lazim nequm 
bukra badri lahsan ma nilhaqsh babur. La ; , ma darabtush 
qadde kede gamid : khafif. 1 Humma mashyin - ala mahluhum 
ketir ; khallihum yista'gilu sbuwaiya fi 1 mashy. Li hadde 
dilwaqti ma sbuftisb wala wahid minbum. Balash kalam bina ; 
iskut ! Rah tigi emta ? Ba'de sa'a u nusse agt. Ibna lissa ya 
dob kunna fitirna lamma tabb ir ragil. Kan 2 il qizaza ya dob 
'ayma fdq wishsb il moiya. Ihna kunna 'andu ruin yigi sa'ten. 
Lshtaghalna tul il lei lamma li ghayit tulfi' il fagr. 'asban eh 
'amalte kede bi kblaf 'adtak 1 Sitritak mashriita min 'and il ku'. 
Ragil mitlak mush lazim tikbaf min walad sughaiyar. .Sihirna 
lamma s sa'a talata min il lei. Tiftikir leinnu yigi ? Ma 'rafsh, 
ya yigi ya ma yigish. Uq'ud henak inta lamma (a)ruh ana 
agibha. H husan khadu bard ikminnu waqif min gher ish shull. 
Ish shah'd nihaytu zeye ma quit ana. Illi yibeyil li sbawahid 
sahihit qulak buwa kalam akhuk w ukhtak. Atabi r ragil da 
kalamu sahib, we lakin 'ammu atabih ragil kaddab. 'Iwad ma 
tibqa hina min gher shughl ahsan bi 1 marra tigi tishtighil 'andi 
fi 1 ghet- Litn<'n saknin sawa istilibab. Wi hyat shanabak, ya 
kalami mush kidb ; ana ragil faqir. ma yisahhish inni akdib 
•al.'-k. Yehibbiha mot. II kalam da na ma smihtiish ilia dil- 
waqti. Yazauwidni 3 ya balash shughl. Nihaytu qui li eyuha 
wahda minhum wi s salam illi tkun nizlit. Huwa qal li 'ala 
innu ha yigi bukra s subh. Rasu kbira khalis mush kebira 
Humma qalu li a'mil ish shughle dih ana b nafsi. Iyak tefut 
'aleya u ma tinsash. Ihna kunna min dirnnuhum. Hiya 
tewila? la', basse ganbik tawila. Yc 4 ulu "imshi" keinniha 4 
karsha, we " mashshi " keinniha 4 fusha. Ya mahsan yekun gara, 
lu baga; ummiil 'auwaq leh? Abuya ma mat min zaman. M 
tiiri titfaddaJ tuq'ud 'andina shuwaiya. Ya ma nta wisikh ya 
walad ! Ikkhi 'alCh, da ragil mal'un. Akh minnak illi 'amalt 
il 'amaliya di. Ma niqdarshe nitlub minnu shughle ketir hakim 
buwa ragil 'agiiz. Mahma kanit il haga teqila tinshal. Lahna 
kunna hina ! ma kunnash. Lahu ana darabtu t 

1 Adjectives used adverbially. (See Syntax, £ 33C.) 

2 For kanit (§ 458, </). 
8 I.e. //>// /""/. 

* Syntax, § 387. 



214 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

EXERCISE 74 

I took cold yesterday from not wearing l an 2 overcoat. 
Since when have you been in Cairo ? 3 Please reach me that 4 
pencil from the top of the cupboard. I wonder who has torn 
these leaves out of my book ? If you go to bed 5 early, you must 
not get up late. He fell off 6 the bank into the water, and 
they were only just able to pull him out before he was drowned. 
You were making fun of me behind my back. We returned 
without anything 7 after two days' shooting. 8 "What is the 
distance from Cairo to the Pyramids ? About two hours and 
a quarter walking. 9 He said that he will do 10 it for your sake 
only. We ran after him till we overtook him outside the town. 
Haven't you asked him yet why he didn't look for u my watch, 
or make inquiries about 12 it ? The water flows round the village, 
and the inhabitants fish in 13 it. He is always trying 14 to talk 
JSakwy, and says, for example: " ir ragul allazi ga 1 'indi ams " 
for " ir ragil illi gih 'andi imbarih." Tell me approximately 
how long you have been in the Government service. 15 At what 
time do they ring 1,; the bell for dinner ? The telegram didn't 
come till two in the afternoon. Is his house next-door-to 17 
the post-office or opposite to it ? When our work i.s finished 1S 
we will take a stroll as far as the market. Why did you mix 
the good with the bad ? It would-have-been 19 better if you 
had taken the eggs out of the basket before you dropped it on M 
the floor. I wish (I had) ! Go straight on 21 and turn to : - the 
left after the English church. You will find it right at the 
top. 23 Even 24 if she comes now she won't catch 25 the train. 
She says she met him yesterday, whereas he doesn't arrive in 
Cairo till the day after to-morrow. I can give it you as soon a> 
you come, only -' you must let me know before, 27 so that I may 
get it ready for 28 you. Is the lady in or out? 

1 Trans, because I (ikminni) did not wear. - Trans, the. 

3 Trans, you since when in Cairo? * da. 

5 Past tense with iza. 6 From off. " haga. 

8 We had shot. ° Trans, to the walker. 

io Aori u 'ala. u 'an. 

13 niin. 14 'an/, with aor. 

1 5 Trans, the service of Hue Government. '" darab. 

1 7 ganb. 18 Aor. The verb to precede its Bubject. 

w Uan. 20 fi. -' Trans, in front of you. « 'ala. 

23 Trans, above, entirely. '-' 4 hatta. 25 lihiq, aor. 

-''' bass. 2: niin qabl. ^ li. 



APPENDIX A 

NAHWY PRONUNCIATION AND FORMS 



For <? we hear ay (as in English aisle), as 'ayn eye ; for 6, 
au (as in German), as khauf fear. 

8 and z take the place of t and d where these letters corre- 
spond to the literary th and dh. 1 

g is pronounced soft like the English J, as rajul ( = rSgil.) 
'• retains its full value. (See § 21.) 
For the pronunciation of y, see § 20. 

Elision of the vowels, in such instances as are given in §29, 
is to a great extent avoided. 

The words cited in ^ 17 and 18 are, for the most part, 
sounded as they are written in the dictionaries. 

The definite article, which is pronounced «/ or el, is assimilated 
only to t, t, d t (I, r, z, z, s, s. sh, and n. 

Words aie frequently used in their uncontracted forms (§ 33). 
a replaces the colloquial i in a large number of words, 2 as 
wa and, gadd grandfather, shagaratuhu (or shagaratu) his tree. 

Nouns, when undefined, are declined after one or other of the 
following models : — 

Singular 

fem. 
katibatun 
katibatin 
katibatan 





MASC. 


N. 


katibun 


G. 


katibin 


Ac. 


katiban 


N. 


katibani 


G.A. 


katibaini 


N. 


katibuna 


G.A. 


katibina 



Dual 



Plural 



katibalani 
katibataini 

katibatun 
katibatin 



1 In Hebrew also and other Semitic languages s and z answer 
to tlir Koranic /// and <lh in a large number of words. 

- Or, in the words of the grammarians, imala does not take 
place; but occasionally we have i for a, as in 'ind=colloq. 'and. 



216 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



Broken Plural 

MASC. 

N. rigalun 
G. rigaliri 
A. rigalan 

N. 'usmanu 

G. A. 'usmana 

Dual and Perfect Plural as above. 
Broken Plural 
N. dirahimu 
G. A. dirahima l 
Undefined nouns, i.e. nouns preceded by the definite article, 
or followed by another noun in the genitive, or having a pro- 
nominal suffix, are declined according to the first paradigm, but 
without the final -tm, as al baytu the limine, G. al bayti, A. al 
bayta ; kitabu 'llahi the book of God, kitabuhu his book. 

Abim father and akhun brother are, under these circumstances, 
declined as follows : — N. abfi, akh.fl ; G. abf, akhi ; A. aba. akha ; 
while the dual loses the termination ???', and the perfect plural 
the termination na, and i is substituted for <i, as mustakhdamih 
his employes. 

Remark b. — The final vowels and the " tanwin " (un, in, an) 
are more often omitted than not. 

The cardinal numerals which differ from those in common use 
are as follows : — 



MASC. 

ahad(un) 
wahid(un) 

2. isnan(i) 

3. salas(un) 
8. sanian 

10. 'ashr(un) 

11. ahada 'ashara 

12. isna 'ashara, &C. 

18. samaniva 'ashara, <fcc. 

20. 'ishrrin(a). for both genders 

30. salasfin, salaatn, Arc. 

80. 3am Lnun, Bamfinln 

100. mi'atun, mi'ah 

200. mi'atan(i) 

aaI&8U nii'a(lin), &C, 



REM. 

ihda 
wahida(tun) 

salasa(tun) 

sam&niya 

'ashiira(tun) 
ihda 'ashrata 



1 The studenl must consult the grammars of the literan 





APPENDIX 




ordinals are : — 






MASC. 

1st. auwal(un) 
2nd. sani 
3rd. salis(un) 

8th. samin(un) 




FEM. 

flla 

saniya(tun) 
salisa(tun), &c 
samina(tun) 



217 



11th. hadi 'ashara, <fec. 

The pronouns which must he regarded as Nahwy are : 
haza this, f. hazihi, pi. comm. ha'ula* ; zalik this, thai ; allazi who, 
which, f. allatt, du. allazan, f. allatan, pi. allazin ; and the 
personals nahn(u) we, hum they. f. hunna. 

The verbal suffixes which express the accusative differ from 
those in general use in the 2nd pers. sing., the masc. taking the 
form Tea and the fern. M, and in the 3rd pers. sing, masc, which 
appears as hu. The dual huma them both and kuma you both, 
and the fem. plurs. hunna them and kunna you, will be sometimes 
heard. Thus we have nazartuhu I saw him, qataltahuma thou 
didst slay them both. 

Remark. — The u of hu, huma, hum, and hunna is in certain 
cases changed to i. 

The same forms are appended to nouns and prepositions, as 
akhaztu saifahu minka / took his sword from thee. 

The perfect trilateral verb in its ground form has a invariably 
after the first radical, in both the preterite and aorist, and a, i, 
or u after the second radical. 

The following is an example of its conjugation : — 



Singular 



masc. 



FEM. 



1. qataltu qataltu 

2. qatalta qatalti 

3. qatala qatalat 



PRETERITE 
Dual 



Plural 



masc. 



FEM. 



MASC. 



FEM. 



qatalnd qatalnl 

qataltuma qataltuma qataltum qataltunna 
qatalfi qetalatd qatalu qatalnfi 



AORIST 

1. aqtulu aqtulu naqtuhi naqtulu 

2. taqtulu taqtulina taqtul&ni taqtul&ni taqtuluna taqtulna 

3. yaqtulu taqtula vaqtulani taqtulani yaqtuluna yaqtulna 

language as to what nouns are " triptotes " and what " diptc 
and m to the circumstances in which the genitive and accusative 

are employed. 



218 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark. — The final short vowels are sounded or not according 
fco the will of the speaker. 1 

Similarly are conjugated sami'a to hear (aor. yasma'u) and 
saqula he heavy. The passive is without exception burika in the 
preterite and yubraku in the aorist. 

The derived forms are : — 

1. Act. pret. burraka, aor. yubarriku ; pass. pret. burrika, 

aor. yubarriku. 

2. Act. pret. baraka, aor. yubariku ; pass. pret. burika, 

aor. yubarak. 

3. Act. pret. abraka, aor. yubriku ; pass. pret. ubrika, 

aor. yubraku. 

4. Act. pret. tabarraka, aor. yatabarraku; pass. pret. 

tuburrika, aor. yutabarraku. 

5. Act. pret. tabaraka, aor. yatabaraku; pass. pret. tuburika, 

aor. yutabaraku. 

6. Act. pret. inbaraka, aor. yanbariku ; pass. pret. unburika, 

aor. yunbaraka. 

7. Act. pret. ibtaraka, aor. yabtariku ; pass. pret. ubturika, 

aor. yubtaraku. 

8. Act. pret. ibrakka, aor. yabrakku. 

9. Act. pret. istabraka, aor. yastibriku ; pass. pret. 

ustubrika, aor. yustabraku. 

Remark. — The derived verbs are conjugated throughout like 
the simple form. The participles and verbal nouns have already 
been given, for the most part, in the grammar. 

Instances of the other classes of triliteral verbs are : 
zaima to think, zanantu, zaiiaiina. Ac. instead of zanie't, Ac, 
and similarly all verbs with a doubled radic *U said, 

aor. yuqalu ; amata /'"■ put to death, aor. yumltu. 

The quadriliteral is lakhhata, aor. \ulakkbitu in the act., 
and lukhhita, yulakhhatu, in the pass. 

The prefix m, and occasionally sauf, is employed to give the 
aorist a future sense, as in, ,w„ in the colloquial language. 

K.'ii (classic, kaun), the verbal noun of kan to be, is used as 
a conjunction without being preceded l>\ a preposition, aa konu 
rah ."inrr he has ;/"/" or the fact of his hairing .</"//■ . Sometimes 

1 The terminations of the aorist undergo various chang 
the classical language, but as the) are not generally understood, 
and are rarely imitated in conversation, it would be superfluous 
to describe them. 



APPENDIX 219 

it is equivalent to inn, le inn, as iltazam k6nu vigi he was com- 
pelled to come, kallifuni koni aruh they charged me to go. 

The following are instances, in addition to those already given 
of common mistakes made in the attempt to imitate the grammar 
ot the classical dialect : lam is used with the past tense instead of 
the aorist, and even with a substantive, in place of la ; the seventh 
form of the verb often appears as abtarak for ibtarak, as in 
a tabar he esteemed, a'taraf lie confessed ; tawaffa he died is almost 
invariably heard for tuwuffi (classic, tuwuffiva). 

Many of the forms given above are only heard in quotations 
from books or m speeches. The verb, for instance, is conjugated 
in practice as in the grammar (§§ 130-232), and, but for the 
influence of French and of modern teaching, there is very little 
difference between the everyday language of the educated and 
that of the lower classes. The former would say abuya rah 
Amerika, the latter abuya rah Amrika fi blad il malakan. i 



APPENDIX B 
PROVINCIAL PRONUNCIATION 

The following provincial peculiarities should be noted ■— 

In upper Egypt — 

q is pronounced throughout as hard g, z generally as z 
m The fern, termination a usually becomes e, as ginene (for 
ginena) ; so also in ane, inte, ta'ale (for ana, inta, ta'ala) 

In other positions a is liable to be changed to i, as Mehimmid 
C far , M , el ' U - '' I " : " 1 (for Ahmad), so in the aorist of triliteral 

verbs (with tin- exception of those used in a passive or neuter 
sense) which elsewhere take the vowel a, as asriq, adribffor asraq 
adrab),- and in the second syllable of verbs of the first derived 
form, and of quadrilaterals, as khallis (for khallas), fantiz (for 
fantaz). '" • ■ v 



39. It .speaking in public, the educated would say w&lidi 
(or wald!) tawaggah da Amerika, but they generally •• descend " 
from the nahwy to the colloquial as they grow excited, and are 
liable u all rases to mix the forms peculiar to the two dialects 

in the same sentence. 



So in theclassica] language. On the other hand, a is of ten 
tense, as masak, sakat, za'al 
heard for u, as shift for shuft. 



, ": u : 1 [ OT ' . in tn " Pwl tense, as masak, sakat, a"alWfbr 
misik, Ssc) ; i is sometimes heard for u, as shift for shufl 



220 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

The vowel i is inserted between two consonants to facilitate 
the pronunciation, as ma lqetish for ma lqetsh (lqitsh), tibin (for 
tibn). 

The 1st pers. plur. of the aorist is frequently used for the 
singular. 

The accent may fall on the antepenult contrary to the rule 
laid down in § 39 b, as mastaba, yidfinu. 

By the Bedouins — 

e is often used for a, q is pronounced as hard g, or (in some 
parts of the country) as in nahwy, and g as English j. 1 Thus we 
hear jemel for gamal. d and ' are pronounced with considerable 
emphasis. 

In the Fayoum q is sometimes sounded as in nahwy. 

1 Some sound it as s in pleasure. 



SYNTAX 



THE ARTICLE 

§ 247. The indefinite article agrees with its noun in gender, 
as wahid ragil a man, wahda sitt a lady. It is very rarely, if 
ever, expressed with abstract nouns, as zi'iq min gher fa'da 
(fayda) a noise without profit, 1 and should in all cases be omitted 
unless the speaker desires to throw some stress on the noun, or 
generally to ensure the attention of the hearer. The noun 
stands in apposition to the article, and never precedes it. 

Remark a. — Wahid and wahda may be used alone of a man, 
a woman, as shufte wahid / saw a {man), wahda gat li a {woman) 
came to me, miggauwiz wahda 'amya married to a blind woman, 
and may in this case itself take the definite article. It may, of 
course, stand alone, whatever the noun with which it agrees, when 
it still partakes of the nature of a numeral, as 'andak kuwar I 
iddini wahda have you any balls? Give me one. 2 

Remark b. — The quantitative adjective some, when used as 
the plural of the indefinite article, is either unexpressed in 
Arabic or is rendered by the words ba'd, kam, &c., as shufte 
riggala (or ba'de riggala or kam ragil) fi s sikka / saw some men 
in the street? 

§ 248. The definite article is in the following cases used in 
Arabic where not expressed in English : — 

(a) With adjectives, numerals, or adjectival substantives in con- 
cord with, in apposition to, or limiting a substantive, which itself 

I he article or a pronominal suffix, as ir ragil it taiyib t good 
man, ilbintil 'aiyana the sick girl, khaddamtnak il battalin it b 

1 I.e. "Much ado about nothing? Ga'ga'a min gher tahn a 
shouting without any grinding, is used in the same .sense, or as 
equivalent to "empty vessels make the most sound." The word 
ga'ga'a is not, however, understood by all classes. 

2 For further uses of wahid. see under distributive and de- 
finite pronouns. 

• ; See § 451. 

221 



222 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

your three bad servant*, ir ragil in naqqash the painter, lefendi 1 
katib Monsieur le commix, il qalam ir rusas the had- pencil, il 
fingan il qahwa the cup of coffee, it tisht il ghasil the wash basin, il 
gaflabiya latlas the satin goion, il burneta 1 khos the straic hat, il 
biba 1 khashab the wooden pipe, il id il khashab liswid the black 
■wooden handle, is sa'a d dahab the gold watch, is sikka 1 hadid 1 
the railway, il merkib in nar the fire (steam) ship, iz zimla litnen 
(or litnen iz zimla) the two companions. 

Remark a. — Kam/ew precedes its substantive and alone takes 
the article, as il kam qershe dol these few piastres. 

Remark b. — In street cries an epithet is often emphasized by 
being placed before its substantive, and in this case the latter 
alone takes the article, as abyad is sinut ! - 

Remark c. — When the cardinal numeral precedes the sub- 
stantive it is more usual for the former only to have the article, 
unless emphatic, as litnen zimla, it talat banat. 

Remark d. — The adjective does not take the article in a few 
cases where it forms a compound with the substantive, as it 
tamre hindi the tamarind. 

(b) With nouns accompanied by a demonstrative pronoun, as 
ir ragil da this man, il mara duk-haiya that "<< 

(c) With abstract nouns and substantives denoting a class 
or spoken of as a whole, as is surur joy, il 'adl justice, id dii'a 
ahsan min in n6m prayer is better than sleep, sinan il 'aql wisdom 
teeth, 'andu tul il bal lie is long-suffering, abu 1 hoi father of 
terror (the Sphinx), ragil 'andu 1 qabaha an insolent man, tub min 
il harir a robe of silk, shurb id dukkkhan tobacco-smoking, il 
kilab dogs, il lahm meat, il gidri smallpox, bet mabnl min it tub 
a house built of bricks, ibn il 'ainm cousin, kubbayt in nibit 4 
a wine-glass, ikhsilu bi s sabus wash it with soap, Lshtar&tu bi 1 
fulus / bought it with money, li s sa'a khamsa Ut'd id duhr at 
five o'clock in the aft> nn 

Remabk. -In Borne of the above expressions, as in many 
others, the article may be dropped. Thus we ma) Bay ragil 
'andu qabaha, tdb min harir. mabni min m 'alSkum or 

(less usually) Ls salam 'alSkum with you, hail, 'aiyan 

'aiya lnil>l> (or marad il hubb 7.\ *umru fdq il ai 

1 !.■■ ch min ./• h r la voi* 
- ••• further, §285. 

Bui a'uzu bi Hah dih (See syntax of demonstrative 
pronouns.) 

4 Tin wine-glass is usually expressed l>y il kul I iht in 

nibit. 



THE ARTICLE 223 

foq 'an il arbe'in or foq 'an arbe'in) he is more than forty, it talata 
nuss is sitta (or talata nusse sitta) three is half six. We invariably 
say li 1 be* for sale, bi 1 husan, bi 1 humar onhoise, donkey, back, 
bi 1 'arabi in Arabic, and usually bi 1 ugra for hire, bi 1 fulus 
for money, tbough bi ugra and bi fliis are admissible ; while, on 
the other hand, bi zibda with butter, bi siyasa diplomatically, 
moiya bi zet, bi malh water with oil, salt, &c, bi hibr with ink, 
etc. are more common than bi z zibda, &c. We usually say yishrab 
dukhkhan, nibit, &c, he smokes tobacco, drinks wine, Ac, but shurb 
id dukhkhan, in nibit, tobacco-smoking, wine-drinking, &c, abu 1 
hoi, but abu diqiq the father of flour (butterfly), abu 'khangar the 
father of the dagger (nasturtium). 

An abstract noun, or one denoting a class, is sometimes used 
without the article in proverbial expressions. In short, no 
very definite rules can be given as to the use and omission of 
the article in these cases, and the learner cannot expect always 
to make the right choice until he has had some practical 
experience. 

Remark.— When used partitively (the word some being 
understood) or adjectively (see § 296), and in negative sentences* 
these nouns are, of course, without the article, as kan fi nibit fi 
1 kubbaya there was (some) wine in the glass, ma shuftish kilab fi 
betu / did not see any dogs in his house. 

(d) With the names of some countries and towns and 
occasionally with proper names, as il Hind India, is Suez, ish 
sham Damascus, seyidna 1 Hisen our lord Hisen. 

(e) With the names of the seasons, as ish shita winter, fi s 
sef in summer; the days of the week, as litnen Monday, nahar 
fi khamis Tuesday ; the divisions of the day, as fi d duhr at noon, 
fi 1 inaghrib at sunset, bukra s subh to-morrow morning ; so bi n 
nahar by day, bi 1 lei by night. 

Remark.— We say, however, yom itngn min dol a Monday, 
kulle yom talat every Tuesday, nahar hadd of a Sunday, kanit 
maghrib (or il maghrib) it was sunset, sallena subh u duhr, we 
•asr u maghrib we <isha we prayed in the morning, at noun, in the 
afternoon, at sunset, and in the evening. 

(f) Occasionally with nouns wholly or partially indefinite 
in sense, as shufte qutta fuq is 8a gara / saw a cat up a in ■ 
talabu lu 1 qahwa they ordered coffee for him, ma tishtimsh fi 
rfigil db ma ahatamaksh don't insult a man who has not insulted 
you, ilh ma yeahufahe min il ghurbSl a'ma he that cannot 
through a su ve it blind (pruv.). 

§ 249. The definite article is expressed in English, but 
omitted in Arabic: — 



224 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

(a) With a noun followed immediately by another noun or 
a phrase limiting its meaning (unless the second noun is used 
adjectively, expressing a material, &c), as bab il bet the door 
of the hoiise, qalam il walad the hoy's pen, matrah ma truh the 
place where, wherever, you go; but il qalam ir rusas tJie lead- 
pencil. 

Remark. — The first noun sometimes takes the article as well 
as the second when the latter is regarded as being in apposition 
to it, or denotes the object it contains, as il goz il khel the pair, 
the horses, i.e. the pair of horses, il hittiten il bus the two bits of 
reed, is sukkar in nabat the sugar-candy, il farkh il waraq dih 
this sheet of paper, il melahiz il bulls the inspector of police, il 
marad il hubb love-sickness ; but in many cases the article is 
optional. Thus we may say il merkib in nar di (or rnerkib in 
nar dt) this steamboat, il fard iz zanbil ir ruzz (or fard iz zanbtl 
ir ruzz or farde zanbil ir ruzz) this basket office} The first is 
perhaps the most usual. 11 fuhul il gamus means the young 
buffaloes, fuhul il gamus the foals of the buffal 

Remark. — The first noun may also take the article when it 
practically forms a compound with the second. In this case the 
second noun does not assume the article (though it will, of course, 
retain it if it already has it when used indefinitely), as il qershe 
ta'rifa the current piastre, in nusse faddan the half acre, il bani 
adam the sons of men, mortal*, is gaffe zabit the non-commissioned 
officer, il qamar id din five (dish called) qamar id din. 

We may. however, also say. with perhaps a slight nuance of 
meaning, in miss il faddan dih and nuss il faddan dih, and bani 
adam is more usual than il bani adam.- 

(//) With the ordinal numerals and adjectives denoting ex - 

trrim-s. as auwil. lalit. akhir Yoin, the fir St, third, last, day, lmwa 

ti ahsan sihha he is in the best of health. 

(c) Irregularly in a few I'.xpri'ssions, though the nouii is 
definite in sense, as khabar 8h? (or il khabar 6h, but less usually) 
what's the matter? bi qudrit Qadir by tfu might of the Mighty 
(God), qatt&< tariq a highwayman, lissa ma dakhalshe dinya hi 
has not yet come into the world (di one who has qo experience), 
mefattish qibli the inspector of the South (provi 



300. 
1886 kuz il moiya dih this half jug of water is more usual 
: in nusse kuz il moiya dih, and umme khamsa di this 
off. ii in lumme khamsa dl. For omission of the 

article with the demonstrative, si 



THE ARTICLE 225 

Remark. — The article is generally omitted by the lower 
classes with the word afukatu (or abukatu) advocate, lawyer, as 
afukatu Hasan (for Hasan il afukatu), afukatu gih. 1 With the 
name of an office followed by Efendi the article is usually 
omitted, as Mufti Efendi. 

§ L'jiJ. The cases in which Arabic agrees with English in 
suppressing the definite article may be studied from the follow- 
ing examples: ya'raf 'arabi he knows Arabic, fi shahre ramadan 
in the mouth of Ramadan, gahannam hell (but il ganna heaven)? 
min yom li yomfrom day to day, min id li id from hand to hand, 
dahr fi dahr back to back, 'ala ghafla of a sudden, unawares, huruar 
sikka a street donkey, 'arabiyit ugra a hackney carriage, husan 
rukuh a hack, lei ma - nakar day and night, nazir mahatta a station- 
master, sa'i busta a postman, 'askari bulis 3 a policeman, ibn« 
haram a child of sin, bahri, qibll, Sec., North, South, &c. 4 

§ 251. It will be observed that in many instances the second 
noun is used as an adjective, or the two together form a com- 
pound. When the first is definite, the word beta' (see § 69) is 
inserted between them, as il humar beta' is sikka the street 
donkey, is sfri beta' d busta the postman : or in some cases the 
second retains its character as an adjective, and takes the article 
as well as the first, as il wilad d haram the children of sin. 

§ 252. The definite article has the force of a demonstrative 
pronoun in the expressions in noba this time, d yOm to-day, 
d lela to-night, ish snitwiya this winter, and in a few others; 
of a personal pronoun in such phrases asbidd akhsd liden 5 / want 
to wash my ham?*, huwa khusara fi 1 mi">t it would be a pity to kill it, 
Zituwid lu 1 'ali<i increase his forage, khassarti nna 1 akl you 
have spoilt our food, khataf minni 1 burneta he snatched my hat 
from me : of a relative when used with a predicate adjective (or 
participle) preceding its substantive, a.- d bet d inuqi.ni fih abuya 
the house in which my father liv 



1 Comp. the use of Matter in older English and Maitre in 
French, especially as a legal title. 

2 Literally the garden, paradise. 

3 The plural, however, is usually 'asakir d buli§. 

4 See also above, § 248, c, Rem. 

5 Comp. me laver les mains, die Hdnde wascJien, &c. 

6 Not in common use. 



226 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 

THE CASES 

§ 253. It has been already pointed out (§ G3) that in the 
language of Cairo the cases are rarely distinguished by inflections. 
Their place is supplied by prepositions which stand before the 
noun without the latter (with the exceptions hereafter noted) 
undergoing any change. 

§ 254. A noun in the genitive may express : — 

(a) Possession, whether it denote the possessor or the thing 
possessed, or whether it be material or denote a quality or 
attribute, as bet abuya my father's house, imrat akhiik your 
brother * wife, Malik id dinya Lord of the world, shatart in 
naggar the carpenter's skill. 

REMARK. — The idea of close attachment or relation of one 
tiling to another, as illustrated by the following examples, is 
included under this head: shabah ummu the image of his mother, 
shiddit il musadina the violence of the shock, khalawit il mishwar 
tin- gratuity paid fur the errand, naharak (or naharna) sa'id may 
your day be propitious, good-morning to you, mis Lundura the 
people of London, marad il hubb love-sickness, yum is safar the day 
of departure, dakhil fi sinn il 'ishrin getting on for twenty, yutama 
1 abb, 1 umm children who have lost their fattier, their motlier, 
beh ummu, i.e. a bey by courtesy only, sirqit il farkha the theft of 
the fowl, ishab is siriqa, is sirqa the victim* of a theft, sirqit il 
haramiva the theft committed by the robbers, sahb il gitta the oumt r 
uj the eur/ixe, i.e. the dead man, haddutit is sultan the story about 
the sultan, mashy il hata a walking bare/noted. 

(A) Fulness, as kubbayit nibit a gtass of wine, qizazit btra a 
bottle of bet r. 

(r) A pari of a whole or the whole of a part, as hittit Lahm a 
of meat, rag is sana the beginning, first da . 
auwil, talit, akhir ish shahr th* first, third, end "/ the month, 
shuwaiyil malh a tittle salt, gimlit naa a number of i>*d ir 

riggala some oj the men, kull ish shugbJ the wliole q 
tul il lei thr tn.nl, of the night, gamih (garni*) in naa all t 

(</) Qausi ■ •/, origin, as waldi my father (literally my 

begetter), Basao 'all ffasan, son of Aly, k&bib il gaw&bf/u urta 
thr letter, kai l . il gawab ///< writing of the letter, mir il (jam.-u- (lie 
light of the ///<<"/<, simm U far ratsbane. 

i ) Material, as gallabiyil eihfLah a muslin gown, gahni nh&B a 
copper dish, sikkil il hadid the railway. 

(/) Measuxi if time, space, value, as mesafil ydm, a 



THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 227 

distance, qimit sa'a u nuss a matter of an hour and a half, 
mesafit, waqte, shurbe sigara, 'fid, mesafit sigara the time it takes 
to smoke a cigarette, a pipe, 1 qimit tahdir il husan the time required 
for getting the horse ready, fi muddit A'rabi in the days qfAraby. 

(g) Use, often expressed by a compound in English, as 
kubbayit in nibit a glass for wine, wine-glass, 2 'arabiyit ugra a 
carriage for hire, husan rukuba a hack, 'alit khiyata a sewing 
machine, odit sufra dining-room, gallablyit harim a lady's gown, 
futit wishsh, iden, sufra a towel for the face, the Jiands, a table- 
napkin . 

§ 255. The second noun may in a general way limit the first, 
as ma'rifit wishsh, suq a person one- knows only by sight, a market 
acquaintance. 

i. 256. When the first of the two nouns is a verbal substantive 
the second naturally stands with regard to it in the relation of 
a subject when the verb itself is intransitive, of a subject or 
object where the verb is intransitive, as wuqiV il walad the boy's 
falling, darb il walad kan shidid the striking of the boy was severe, 
Le. the boy was struck hard or the boy struck hard, fikri, takhmini 
leinnu yigi it is my notion, conjecture, that he xcill come, amar bi 
hdaru he ordered him to appear, but amar bi tahdiru, bi mgibtu 
he ordered him to be brought, nuzul il husan min il gabal laziin 
yekun bi mnazrit is says the descent of the horse from the lull must 
be under the groom's superintendence, istilahna ahsan min khinaqna 
waiya ba'd better that we ski mid be reconciled titan quarrel with one 
another. 

§ 257. The word beta' is very frequently placed between the 
two nouns, standing, as it were, in apposition to the first, but 
agreeing with it in number and gender, as has been seen in 
the accidence. 3 It is mostly used to express the genitive of 
possession, and very rarely, if ever, to express the genitive of 
measure. When speaking of near family relations we must not, 
as a rule, use beta.'. Thus we should not say il akhkhe beta'i, 
il umme betahtu for akhuva, ummu, unless we wish to speak 
disrespectfully. An exception, however, is made in favour of 
mara and sitt in the sense of wife, the former being occasionally 



1 A period of time is often measured by the time it takes to 
perform a particular act, especially the smoking a cigarette 
ljie.s.'itit lail'e(<y/- malwe) sigara we shin biha tin time it takes tn roll 

d emoke it. A fellah will say, ba'd il inaghrib hi 
nufse *alqit shaduf . . . half a turn at tin <iiaduf. 

2 Or kubbava li n nibit or beta' in nibit. 
8 §69. 



228 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

followed by betaYa and tbe latter always. 1 No bard and fast 
rules can be laid down in other cases for the use of beta', but 
it may be remarked that it is best omitted when no particular 
stress is laid upon the second noun, and when clearness or 
elegance of expression would not be gained by its insertion. - 
When it is used as an adjective signifying proper or peculiar to, 
it cannot bo omitted, as it tiffah beta' il aid eating apples. 

§ 258. Bet,?, whether in the sense of possessed or possessing, 
may stand by itself, agreeing with a substantive understood, as 
mush 'auz betu'i, 'auz betu' akhuya / don't want mine, I want 
my broiler'*, beta' il 'esh, il 'ads, il hamam, il hammam, il 
mantalon, il burneta, <fcc, a seller of bread, lentils, doves, a bath- 
keeper, nite who wears trousers, a hat, <(■'■., betu' il mazzika lissa 
ma gush the musician* have not come yet. In il beta' dih this 
thing, article, it retains its character as a substantive. With 
eh? what? it serves as an interrogative particle implying sur- 
prise or annoyance on the part of the speaker, as beta* eh ti'mil 
kede, aruh waiyak ? What are you doing that for ! Wlty should 
I go with you? Lastly, it may be used, with or without the 
third pronominal suffix, in the sense of ■! cetera, as biyizra' 
batatis, ful, gazar beta' (or beta'u) he grows potatoes, bean*, 
carrots, &c. 

$ 259. When the first noun is indefinite and the second a 
possessive or causal genitive ami definite, either beta' or the 
preposition li must be inserted between the two. as bet beta' 
abtlya (or 1 abHya) a house of my father's, binte Uya it dau jhter 
of' mine. Where, on the other hand, the second noun is in- 
definite (in which case it can often be rendered in English by 
an adjective), no word need intervene, as bfit, binte, muluk a 
kingly house, a princess. 

260. The adjective taba' is used much in the same n 
though Less frequently than, beta', but remains unchanged with 
feminine and plural nouns, as d bdt da, La giiraya dt, taba' mln I 
to whom does this house, tin* palace, belong? 

L. The substantives abfL,' umm, il>n, bint, ahl, sahib 
have in certain expressions the sense ol 



1 sitti means my lady or my grandmother. Sitl Lb not used 
l>v the lower classes and seldom by the higher in the sense of 
wife A Bervanl may saj La sitte beta'itna when speaking to 
bis master "t his (the latter's) wife. 

Thus we should say ndt Lf lufra L> I ./ •lining-room, 

not ... 1 it lufritak. 

3 Th>' u is practically pronounced Bhort. 



THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 229 

with, as ragil abu fultis a man of money, abu daqn, shanab 
'imma, fcc, a rutin with a beard, a moustache, wearing a turban, <kc, 
waraq beta' il busta min umme qirshe sagh postage stamps worth 
a piastre tan if, umme quweq tlie screedv-owl, baruda umme shutfa, 
kabsul, a gun with a flint-, a percussion-lock, ragil ibne talatin 
sana a man of thirty, bint arbe'in sana a woman of forty, ragil 
able kbibra a respectable man, on* who knows, cm expert, ana 
mush min able zalik / am not that sort of man, able zimma a 
man of Tumour, ragil sahib mal a man of wealth. 

Remark a. — The noun is sometimes understood, as abu 'ishrin 
containing twenty (piastres), i.e. a dollar, ragil abu mlten (or 
mltSn gineh) a man who has £200 a month, 1 umme arba'a w 
arbe'in possessed of forty-four (feet), i.e. a centipede. 

Remark &.- — A fire piastre piece may be expressed by umme 
khamsa or hitta min umme khamsa or hitta bi khamsa, fine 
piastre pieces by hitat min umme khamsa or hitat min umme 
khamsat or hitat bi khamsa or hitat bi khamsat.- Similarly, 
a ten piastre piece is umme 'ashara. &c. Umm may take the 
plural form ummat, as umniat qershenat two piastre pieces, but 
hitat min umme (or abu) qershenat is more usual. Neither ahl 
nor abu are used in the plural in this connection. 

§ 262. The partitive genitive may sometimes be expressed 
by the prepositions min and ft, as fth nas in niswan minhirm 
yitbarqa'u there are people, t/te women of them (i.e. whose women) 
the w il, shuwaiya minnu a little of if. auwil y6m min ish 
shahr the first day of the month, il mitre ftha yisawi qirshen a 
metre of it is worth two piastres, 

§ 263. Under the partitive genitive may be classed the us.' 
of the constructive form before the interrogative Ih? as shuft 
il haga di ? hagit eh ? (or hagt eh <) l)i<i you see tins thing ! What 
thing? 

§ 2C,-i. The noun following the indefinite pronoun fey is 
placed in the genitive, and generally takes the case ending in 
unless it is followed by a relative pronoun, as feye dukkanin 
whichever, any. shop, bi feye tariqtin by any means, but bi eye 
tartqa illi 'andak by any means you have. When the noun is 
followed by the substantive verb it retains the cas i ending, 
although the verb usually agrees with it, as eye wahdin kan, 

1 One may hear the following: min da? Da abu mit gin.'h 
Who is that.' That's a (or the) man who has £100 a month. 
A man is estimated in Egypt, as in other countries, by Lis 
income. 

• We ma\ also say simply khains.it, 'asharat, <fec. 



230 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

min i'}T gihitin kanit. 1 Sometimes the verb is placed between 
ey and its noun, and causes the case ending to be shifted to the 
pronoun itself, as eyin kan wahid whichevt r one it be. The 
lengthened form eyiha is not followed by a noun with the case 
ending, as eyiha garni' whichever mosque. 

§ 265. The genitive of use may also be expressed for the 
sake of clearness by means of beta' or the preposition li, as 
kubbaya betaht in nibit (or li n nibit). 

§ 266. When the second substantive denotes the material it 
is very frequently regarded as an adjective, or stands in appo- 
sition to the first, which then undergoes do change. Thus we 
may say gallablya shash instead of gallabiyit shash ; similarly, 
ibra badtd a steel needle, nishara khashab sawdust, shavings, 
sikka hadid a railway, hitta dahab a piece of gold, a'tS lu waztfa 
nazir he gave him the functions of a minister, tazkara rayih gay 
a return-ticket. To emphasize the material we may employ the 
preposition min, as suhiin min oahas (or min in oahas). 

Remark. — We may also say nisharit khashab, hittit dahab; 
and wazifit nazir is more usual than wazifa nazir. The piece of 
gold is hittit id dahab (or il hitta d dahab), a railway train babur 
sikka hadid, the railway train babur is sikka 1 hadid (or babur 
sikkit il hadid). 

§ 267. On the other hand, a noun limiting or explicative of 
another may stand to it in the relation of a genitive, as 'arabiyit 
karru (or 'arablya karru) a cart. When an object is introduced 
by its generic term the latter, if ending in a, will of necessity 
bake the constructive form, as midinit Masr the city of Cairo, 
sagarit labakh an acacia tree, gagart il lillil the p pper tn e, oimrrl 
wahid, itneii No. /, .'. qolit bint the word bint. Sana >/ year also 
takes the constructive form when followed by its d;itc, as li 
sanal tultemiya in the year S00. 

Remark. — The two constructions are xcvx frequently con- 
fused, and such expressions as the following will he heard every 
day: il hittit id dahab the piece of gold, il 'ilbU id dukhkhan 
the tobacco box, is sikkit il hadid, 8 il kell il qamha di this mea 
f com, il gliet il bersim the field of clover, waraq is sagarit il 
iji'ita the leaves of Hue tomato /'/mil, ik kubar Lsh shuqny // 

of SCOUndrele, il bizr il kit tan ///'■ I nil .<■></, the firsl and second 

noun with its article being regarded as our word. 

-. A definite noun which limits a superlative of degree 



1 But see g 63. 

Badtd is not here aged as an adjective, For we say sikkit il 
badid as well as is sikka 1 lia 



THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 231 

may be regarded as a genitive of relation, as in ahsan in nas 
t/ie best of people. 

§ 269. The genitive of possession is sometimes employed in 
Arabic where we would use a preposition, as moiyit libriq inkabbit 
the water in the jug was spilt. 

§ 270. The insertion of an adverb or other word between the 
two nouns does not prevent the first from taking the t, as mesafit 
taqriban yomen a distance of about two 'lays, mesafit yigi khamas 
daqayiq an interval of almost five minutes, muddit baqa sanaten a 
period then of two years, qimit qui talatin gineh a value of say 
£30. 

§ 271. A whole sentence often stands in the relation of a 
genitive to a preceding noun, as li fikrit innu rah yigi in the 
belief that he was coming, muddit il khidewi kan fi Lundura at 
the time the Khedive wax in London, sa'it ma kunna barra at the 
time we were out, li ghayit lamma yigi till the moment he comes, 
qolit ma ruhtish, the statement that you didn't go, 'ibarit qable 
ma yshiifu di this expression, " before they see," sikkit illi yeruh 
ma yirga'sh the road by which he who takes it never returns, bi 
sabab kunte qayil lu for the reason that I had told him. 

Remark. — The construct form is not always used with ma ; 
thus we may say auwil lela ma yebat fi 1 bet as well as auwil 
lelit, (fee, the first night /o j sleeps in the house. 

j5 272. The construct form is sometimes assumed by sa'a and 
sana ami a few others without reason, when used adverbially, as 
sanat yigi, sanat ma yiqish some years he conies, some he doesn't, 
sa'it yishrab, sa'it ma yishrabsh sometimes he drinks, sometimes 
he doesn't (or sana yigi, etc.). 1 

§ L'7.'>. When two or more nouns are determined by a 
genitive, the first precedes it, while the others follow ami 
indicate their relation to it by means of the pronominal suffixes, 
as abu r ldgil we bintu the man's father ami /n's daughter, i.e. the 
mints father and daughter, 'aql il quda wi stiqfunithum, ///<' 
wisdom and integrity of tin' judge*, till il 'ilba we 'ardiha we 
tuklmiha the length, breadth, iir/'t thickness of the box. should. 
however, beta' be employed, the order will be the same as 
in English, as it tul wi 1 'ard wi t tukhne betiV il 'ilba. 

§ 274. Where two or more objects of a class are determined 
by more than one genitive they should be repeated before each, 
as kit&b abuk wi kt&b akhuya your father's and my brother's 
booh, sitriti wh sideriva we sitiit, 'fdi we siderih Alifs and my 
root and waistcoat. We may, however, often shorten i}\*-^- 



Perhaps for sanati, sa'ata, accusative forms used as adverbs. 



232 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

sentences with the help of beta', as sitriti we siderlya wi btu' 
'all (or wi Hi btu' 'all). When the object determined is one and 
the same in each, the English construction will be used, as bet 
Hasan we 'ali Hawaii and Aly's house ; but the full form of the 
personal pronoun must be added after the suffix, as qolak enta 
wi 1 hurma di this lady's and your assertion. 

§ 275. The ideas peculiar to the dative are mostly expressed 
in Arabic by means of the preposition li. 1 

§ 276. It has been seen that the objective or accusative case 
has rarely a distinctive sign except sometimes when used as an 
adverb. 2 Motion, too, one of its chief characteristics, is usually 
expressed by the prepositions li, 'ala, <te. ; 3 but, as will be seen 
hereafter, the preposition not infrequently falls out after a 
verb or verbal noun of motion. 

§ 277. A noun immediately following a predicate, and 
limiting or specifying its application, may be regarded as an 
accusative of extent, 4 as ragil kebir is sinn a man old {advanced) 
in years ; ketir, qalil, il kalam loquacious, taciturn; mekhattata 
'aneha with pencilled eyes ; riglu min'asa tin his fool besmeared 
with mud; arde mazru'a dura /aw/ sown with maize; tarde 
khalis il ugra a prepaid, parrel ; khnmm in nom lethanjir : 
tawil il id long-fingered (of a thief) ; 5 tawil il lisan long-tongued 
(of a great talker). The feminine adjective is generally in the 
construct form, especially when the noun is closely connected 
with the subject, as maridt il gism ill in body : gamilt is sura, 
il wishsh beautiful of countenance ; but kbalsa 1 ugra, 8 malyana 
moiya. 

§ 278. This locution is not very common, and even in cases 
where it is admissible the preposition fi (or In) may generally be 
inserted, as kebir fi s sinn; mis naytn fi 1 kalam crude, ram o) 
speech; mardan bi gismu. It is more colloquial to say ana 
na/.ari da' If / lmr> a weak sight than ana da'if in nazar; afoot 
broad, long, &c, can only be expressed by 'ardu, tulu qadam, a. . 

§ 27'.'. Not only verbs with their participles, but adjectives 
having the force of a participle, may take a direct object, as 
sharrib dukhkhfm one who is constantly smoking. 

§ 280. The sign of the vocative ease is the interjection yal 
It is occasionally omitted, especially before proper names and a 



1 Bee § 570. 9< 63, d. » See § 570. 

4 As in Greek and Latin. The noun sometimes Like- the 
sign of the accusative in post-classica] Arabic. 
Bng. light fingt 
6 Khahit il ugra is hardly admie ible, 



THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 233 

few words in common use, as bauwfib ! porter / Mehammad ! amma, 
amm ! mother ! walad ! bint ! &c. It is also omitted with 
efendim sir (but not with sitt). 

§ 281. "When a person is addressed by both his names the 
interjection is repeated before the second, as ya Mhammad ! ya 
Salim ! This is also generally the case when he is called by his 
name preceded or followed by his trade or profession, or is 
designated by two or more qualities, as ya Hasan, ya hammar ! 
donkey-boy Hasan/ ya wad, ya Mhammad! boy/ Mohammed/ 
ya ragil ya saqqa, beya', naggar ! you fellow, water-carrier \ vendor. 
carpenter / ya Bkhita, ya bint, yakhti ! girl, sister Bikh da 1 ya 
ragil ya tani you, the newt man I 

Remark. — The interjection is not always repeated where the 
quality, title, or profession is almost inseparably attached to the 
name. Thus a man habitually called 'amme J Mehammad Uncle 
Mohammed, or Me'allim 'alt foreman Aly, might be addressed by 
ya 'ammi Mhammad, ya m'allim 'ali ; but if there is the least 
pause between the two words, ya will be repeated. The word 
ragil sometimes forms a compound in sense with a noun ex- 
pressing a profession, and alone takes the sign of the vocative, 
as ya ragil saqqa, ! water-carrier / 

§ 282. Lastly, the second noun, especially if denoting a high 
office, may take the definite article instead of the interjection 
being repeated, as ya sidna 1 qfuli our lord the Kadi. 

§ 283. The interjection may, of course, be placed before 
adjectives and participles used substantively, and will be 
repeated with them when they are in concord with a sub- 
stantive expressed, as ya 'aguz ! old man / ya 'atshan ! 2 oh thirsty 
one / ya ragil ya atrash ! you, you deaf man I ya 'auza 1 qiita oh 
lady who /rant tomatoes / 

§ 284. It may be placed before personal and, elliptically, 
before relative pronouns, as ya inta ! you there ! u'a ya Hi shayil il 
mishanna, ya Hi mashi min gher ma tiftah 'enak look out youwho are 
carrying the bread basket, you who are walking with your eyes shut .' 
ya bitte ya Hi 'auza 1 hummus ! ladies who want chick-peas / 2 

Remark a. — When the subject addressed is named or other- 
wise indicated after the personal pronoun, ya will either be 
repeated or stand before the noun only, as ya inta ya Mhammad, 
ya inta ya ragil (or inta ya Mhammad, inta ya ragil). 



1 'anmi is applied as a title of respect to an elderly man or 
one older than the speaker. 

2 Street cries. The water-seller sometimes says 'atshau 
without ya. 



234 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark h. — In the expression ya ismak eh ! (for ya inta Hi 
ismak eh !) both the personal and relative pronouns have dis- 
appeared. 

§ 285. The sign of the vocative is used in street cries with 
the object for sale, to call the attention of the passers to it, ami 
in this case the epithet qualifying or p uffing it is often placed 
with or without ya first in the sentence a in I in the masculine 
singular, whatever the gender and number of the substantive, as 
ya tinnis ! lupines ! ya subun ya \d ! best soap .' 'arid ya kurrat ! 
broad leeks I baladi ya banzaher \fine native {lemons) ! qadlm ya 
lumad ! old lamps! ahla min il 'asal ya basal! onions siveeter 
than honey ! ya rum! ya 'asal ya gazar ! carrot* sweet as G 
honey I At the end of the sentence the adjective maybe re- 
peated (generally without ya), as baladi ya krumbe baladi! 
native cabbages, native cabbages! akhdar ya kurrat akhdar ! 

§ 286. Somewhat similar to the above is the use of ya as a 
cry of distress or surprise, as ya rasi ! ya vni ! oh my head! oh 
m u eye! ya lela soda! oh unlucky night! ya ana maskin! 1 oh 
wretched me! ya bakhtak ! what luck is yours! ya, ritna ! "h I 
would we ! ya ma nta wisikh ! oJt, how dirty you an 1 .' ya ma uluf ! 
nli J/, nr many thousands .' 

§ 287. In scolding, the interjection is rarely omitted, and it 
is usually repeated with every term of abuse, numerous as they 
often are. It will be best translated in this case by the personal 
pronoun you. 

$ 288. A noun maybe used absolutely without being pre- 
ceded 1 iv a preposition ox dependent on any other "word in the 
sentence. This use corresponds in some instances to the dative 
of other languages, with or without a preposition, in others to 

the SO-Called areusat ive absolute or the accusative of extent 

t ii:i s s;?a khamsa you must come at five o'clock, in nahar da /<<- 
day, illeladi this night, fcani y6m another day, il gum's 1 gaya 
next week, kulle ydm is Bubh every day in the morning, id dul 
noon, il maghrib at sunset, sitttn sana we sab'Sn you, i.e, tir' 
devil I cart , ruhna msafa kbira we n-, nt a great dista 

Rem irk. In such expressions as shufte wahid diraHi mak 
wishshu mkashshar / saw a man with a broken arm, a wry 
we have two separate sentence--, the latter containing a subject 
ami predicate with an ellipse of the substantive verb. 

^ 289. A noun following another noun or a personal pronoun, 



1 More c monly used by Fellaheen. 

' l Man) of them may he regarde 1 as adverbial ezpresa 



THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 235 

and explicative of it, is said to be in apposition to it, as Moham- 
mad il farran M. the baker ; is sultan 'abd il Hamid ; i guz khel 
batati a pair of horses, barrels (i.e. as round as barrels) ; in nas il 
bashawat wi 1 bahawat ; fih gama'a diyiif 'andina ice have some 
guests in our house; ragil khaddam, beya', khaiyat, &c; qususa 
banat priestesses ; in nas gamihhum the people, all of them; il 
gibna kidliha the whole oftht cheese; huwa sh Shekh he the Sheikh ; 
liiya rukhra she the other (i.e. she too) ; intu litnen you both ; 
iddetu lu hidiya / gave it to him (as) a present ; gabiih 'aiyina they 
brought it as a sample. 

§ 290. The word luziim necessity is very commonly used after 
another noun in the sense of needed for, for the use of, as khashab 
luziim il furn wood for the stove, farsha luziim il husan bedding 
for the horse. 

§ 291. The second noun is sometimes annexed in apposition, 
though it is really of the nature of a genitive, as tazkara ida, 
tanya, talta daraga a first , second, third class, ticket; il goz il khel 
the pair (of) horses.* 

§ 292. The noun in apposition may be separated from the 
other by several words, as hiya kharagit min il oda 1 liurma she 
/■ ut out of the morn, the woman (I mean). 

§ 293. For the sake of clearness the relative pronoun followed 
by the personal pronoun maybe inserted between the two nouns, 
so that the second becomes the predicate of the first, as Moham- 
mad illi huwa 1 farran, il qususa illi huninia banat. 

§ 294. The nouns nafs, shakhs, zat, 'en, tfil self, kull, garni' 
all, and wahd a being alone, with the pronominal suffixes, stand 
similarly in apposition to another noun or pronoun introducing 
them, as ish shekb shakhsu ; il hurma nafsiha; il khidewi zatu ; 
il 'asakir 'gnhum the sheikh himself ; the lady herself, &c. ; ana get 
tfdi I came by myself; il wilad kulluhum; qar^t il kitab kullu / 
have read the boot:, the whole of it; in nas gum gamihhum the 
people all came; il ingltz wahduhum the English by themselves, 
alone. 

Remark. — The preposition bi and (with wahd) li often inter- 
vene, as il bint bi /.at ha; ta'ftlfi intu bi 'enku come yourselves ; 
ana bi tuli / by myself ; humma li wahduhum. 

$ 295. A whole sentence or substantive clause amy stand in 
apposition to a noun, as il kalani da 'ala inn ir r;igil da ahsan 
min kull in nas gln'r s.ihih this statement, namely, that this man 



1 The order is sometimes inverted, as il Khidewi 'abb.is for 
•abbas il Khidewt. 
8 § 249, a, Hem. 



236 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

is superior to everybody (else), is untrue. (Here the words from 
'ala inn to in nas are in apposition to il kalam da.) II khabar 
le innu inqatal the news thai tie has been killed. 

§ 296. Substantives are sometimes used as adjectives, especi- 
ally when they denote a material 1 or a condition (as the state 
of the weather); e.g. gallabiya sh&sh, a muslin robe; mandil 
harir a silk handkerchief; burneta khos a straw hat; kitab 
gild a bound book : biba khashab a wooden /<>/» j ; sikka hadld an 
iron {rail) way; sa\'a dahab a gold watch; Buhun nahas copper 
dishes ; il kalbe 'anduhum nagasa the dog with them is an unclean 
thing ; id dinya bard, harr, nar the weather is cold, hot, hot as fin . 
id dinya 'alma, dalnia, shard, wahla, zahma, ramadan it is dark, 
blowing a sirocco, muddy, crowded, Ramadan ; kalamak nafla u 
kidb your statement is foolish and false ; matrah dalma. 'at ma a 
dark place ; haga 'eb a disgraceful thing : 6da katma a close room .•*-' 
qumash alwan a stuff of (many) colours, i.e. variegated; samak, 
baskot ignas various fish, mixed biscuits ; 'ishrtn muft&h ishkal 
twenty diffi rent keys ; kalam ztir false statement ; r&gil kuhna a rag 
of a man (i.e. worn-out); walad lakhma a muddle-headed boy; 
nrara, zabun tarab a charming woman, a splendid customer; kitab 
khara a worthless book; qdl sharaf word of honour ; da shughla 
karbe qawi that is a very fatiguing business; il bahre'dmiAe river 
is deep enough to swim in (not fordable)', zahma mot '/ "'■ 
crush : tdu shalal his hand is witliered ; 'iy&r nar a shot from a 
nun : ishun luzfim is sufra, khud&raM luzum il akl, it tabikh, itc. 

§ 297. Verbal substantives will sometimes be followed by a 
substantive clause as their object, as t.iklmiinl leinntl yigl it is 
mi/ conjecture Hod Jo- will come; biddu yeruh il balad it is his 
want, i.e. he waul* to go to town ; haqquhum kan yidrabuh it 
their right to strike him. i.e. they ought to have struck iiim ; or 
the object may be another substantive, as haqquhum ish shanq 
they oug/tt to be hanged, 

NUMBER 

§ 20S. As lias been seen in tin- accidence, when a no 

presses a whole class, the individual of thai class may be denoted 
o\ adding the termination " .• and even where the same noun 
expresses both the class and the individual, as often happens 
when it has a broken plural, the termination maj be added t'"i 
clearness if il ltj to make a distinction, as ti'ban i 



1 As is the caM in English. 

s -6da khabla (g 62). 



NUMBER 237 

or makes (pi. ta'abin), ti'bana (or ti'bana wahda) a single snake. 
The same termination will sometimes be added to an abstract 
noun to give it greater vividness, as kunna fi 'izz in noma 1 
hilwa we icere in the middle of a sweet deep. Muta is a fatality, 
a case of death, akla one eating, a meal. 

§ 299. Wahid, with its fern, wahda, as a substantive corre- 
sponds to one in English, and may be used in the dual and 
plural, as addi lu kummitra ? Ewa, iddi lu wahda wahditen shall 
I (jive him a year ? Yes, give him one or tiro. 

§ 300. The word fard or farda (pi. fardat) is used as the 
singular of nouns denoting objects that go in pairs, the latter 
form generally taking the t when followed by the noun, as 
though it were a partitive genitive, as fardit gazma, 1 shurab, 
guwanti an odd shoe, stocking, glove ; fard (or fardit) haniam one of 
a pair of pigeons ; fardit tabanga a pistol. Sometimes it follows 
the noun, as 'arabiya bi hsan fard a single-horse carriage ; or the 
noun may be understood, as talatt igwaz u fard three pairs and 
a single one ; farda a pistol ; farden balah two paniers of dates ; 
fardit husan an odd, a tingle horse-shoe ; farde ruzz a single basket 
made of rice-straw, or a sack of rice; bunduqiya bi farda a 
single-barrel led gun ; ragil bi farda, abu farda 2 a one-eyed man. 

REMARK. — The plural is fardat, but the broken form ifrad 
is used in the expression ifrad in nas individuals, without re- 
ference to couples. 

§ 301. 'nil stick and zirr are similarly used of plants and a 
few objects made of wood, as 'ud mantur, basal, ward apiece of 
stock, a bulb, 'i rose-cutting', 'ud halfa ( = halfaya) a blade of half a 
grass . 4 A<1 kabrit or simply 'ud ( = kabrita)« match, as 'andak 'ud 
awalla' buh Bigartt? have you a match with which I can light my 
cigarette? zirre kniyar, shammam a cucumber, a im'lon. 

REMARK. — 'ud kabrit sham' a wax match is also said. 

§ 302. The word kam, whether meaning how many ' or 
is always followed by a noun in the singular number, 3 though 
the adjective or pronoun qualifying it will be in the plural, as 
kam qiz&za? how many bottles? nazzd il kam kubbaya dol il 
kuwaiyisin bring down these few pretty glasses. 

§ 303. When the plural pronominal suffixes arc appended to 
the word ism name, <>r words denoting self 4 or part* oftlie body 
or the body itself, the nouns often remain in the singular, and 



1 Note that although gazma means apair of boots, and con- 
sequently gizam pairs of boots, we may say guz gizam for a single 
pair. ' J Or t'anla k( i)i ima. 

3 Oomp. Italian, qualche bottiglia. 4 Bee § L22. 



238 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

in this case the qualifying adjective will also remain unchanged, 
.is ismuhum eh? what are their names'} nafsuhum tJu 
laqnuhum tawila their beards are long; simi'na kalamhum hi 
widnina we heard thevt statement with our ears : gismuku (or 
gittitku) kullu (kulliha) min'as (min'asa) wahl yo 
all besmearx d with mud. 

§ 304. The same is the case with titles of respect, but here 
both adjective and verb will be in the plural, as hadritku 1 
mabsfitin? are your Honour* satisfied 1 sa'aditkfi shuftuhum? did 
■/our Excellencies see them ? 

Remark. — 'en is more frequently used in the plural in this 
connection. In such an expression as talfu sh sham'at bi hniki- 
thum they put out the candles with their mouths (i.e. they 
them "it/), the plural is used by preference, as a separ 
performed by each person. 

§ 305. It will have been noticed that nouns of unity refer to 
an indefinite class. To express that an object is one of a number 
of others of a definite class, whether in reality or ouh 

1 so by being preceded by the definite article, we 
employ the numeral wahid or, when persons are spoken i>i. 
< i mara or the singular of the noun itself, followed by the pre- 
position min, as wahid min il khaddamtn; wahda min is s-ilalim 
one of the ttteps . r.'igil, mara, min il 'urban 8 one of the Arab 
women; sallima min is salalim; ghanama min ghanamak i 
your sheep ; y6sa min il iyam one day. 8 

. The plural demonstrative ddl is often used instead of 
the class being named, as ydm min dfil one of tliese days. 
noun iii the singular may be preceded by wahid, as wahid y6m 
min /.at il iyam, or l>e made definite fox emphasis, as il i. 
min ddl. 

the dual 

7. Nouns will not access ii ily or generally be use 1 in the 
dual cumber, although two abj spoken of, un) 

sought to emphasize the fact of their bei id two only. 

In other cae a they will be spoken of in the plural. Thus 

■ i two boys, as of a larger auruber, il wilud dol gum min 
i. i darabukleh? so d&l kitabiil t ana (though only two) ; ir rag 
ti buyuthum (not bOtenhum), intuafhabl are you { 



1 Thenar Located sometimes saj hadratkum, 

- \\ i in i j :i !. in. n. i min betu' il 'ui 

s ( >i mm sit d iyam. 



THE DUAL 239 

Remark. — It cannot, however, be denied that the dual is 
frequently used where in English we would not consider it 
necessary to describe the objects spoken of as two or both. 
For instance, we might say hat il kitaben illi fi s sut'ra give mt 
tlie (ftco) books ichic/i are on the table, when it is as obvious to the 
person addressed as to the speaker that there are two oni 
the table ; so litnen shitmiten both are insults (referring to in- 
sulting expressions), though shitina would be more logical. 

g 3< »s. The adjectives have no dual form, even when us 
aubstantrt 

§ 309. The plural is used in place of the dual in the voca- 
tive, but it may be followed for tin- sake of emphasis by itnen, 
:.- ya wilad litnen you two boys. 

g 310. The numeral itnen is often added pleonastically after 
a noun in the dual, to insure the hearer's intention, as hat li 
kursiyen itnen bring me two chain, il kitabSn litnen (!>• 
books — both of them ; or it may precede a noun in the plural, as 
itnen beb " is; itnen Mehammadat ; litnen khcl we litnen 

siyas ; litnen riggala, ikhwa, dec. In both cases the second 
word is in apposition to the first — a fact which becomes particu- 
larly clear when both of them take the definite article, or the 
first a pronominal suffix ami the second the article, as Litnen il 
haramiya ddl, kitabati ddl Litnen. 

I. Similarly, raglen, skaklw'n, t -.and 

similar words, may precede a plural noun limiting their - 

li shakhsen 'umad two persott A 

here laid on the fact that they were omdas, which 
would not be the case if we said ;_ r a li 'umditen. 

312. The following words are used in the singular preceded 

by itm'-u : — 

te which have no dual or plural Forms, as itnen 
kanu ' two carts; itnen riglu two kicks (at a game resembling 
rounders); itnen daqqu, ainnu, kahku (other terms used at that 
game); itnen bulls two \ ■>.'• 

Mi -• foreign pieces of money and a few other foreign 
words, as itnen malln, ifrank, rival, gineh, tu\ 
dollars, pounds; itneu malyun two millions. 

Kk.makk. — Malinen, riyalen, and malyunen are also in use, 
and qersh bakes the dual form. 



1 '.'' i karru is also in common use. 

- [tnen nib t, btra, Lilian. ,vr., will be beard I rants. 

Itnen bulls, is elliptic for raglen (or oafaren) betu' il bulls, 



240 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

(c) Proper names occasionally, as fill itnen 'abdurrahman 
t/iere are two Abdurrahmans. 

Remark a. — The nuances resulting from the various con- 
structions ma)' be illustrated by the following examples : — 

Fih Mehanimaden there are two M.'s; fill Mehammaden itn§n 
there are two M.s; fih itnen Mekammad there are two men of 
the name of M. : fih itnen Mehammaden there are two men both 
Mohammeds ; fih itnen Mehammadat there are two — more than 
one M.; fih Mehammadat itnen there is mure than one M., there 
are two. 

Remark b. — The singular- is very rarely used with itnen m 
other than the above cases. 1 

Remark c. — Hasanen is used Eor Hasan and Hisen, the two 
sons of Ali, cousin of the Prophet. Among the fellaheen indi- 
viduals are often named by the dual, as Mehammaden, 'auwaden, 
itc. (§ 75, note). 

§ 313. Twice is expressed by the word tai| with the definite 
article followed by itnen, as huwa tawil 'annak it taq itnen ' 
twice your size ; both by litnen or da wi da (or da w dih, often pro- 
nounced daudih), fern, di wi di (or di u di) ; double by the indeclin- 
able - adjective migwiz ; a pair by the word g6z, which, like fard, 
is sometimes used alone, the objects to which it refers being 
understood, as g6z kind a pair of horses : kan ti Mu gos, i.e. a 
brace of pistols ; d husan da yidrab bi 1 guz kicks with both it.< 
legs, bucks. 

§ 311. The idea of two easily passes into that of a small 
number, and such expressions as the following are of common 
occurrence : ana 'auzak ti kilmit6n / haw a word or two to toy 
to you .- iildi lu qershen, nussen, give htm a piastre or tw<>, - 
email money; il qersh€n betu'l my little fortune ; isbur ahuwaiyiten 
wait a couple of seconds; 'add! khatwit' u min hina wi Uaqi 1 l» t. 
quddamak you have only to go two steps from, lure and you'll find 
tlie house in front of you. 



1 M.i'hii itnen (tor ma'niten) two mea ii sometimi • L 

The expression kurbag bi itnen lisftn, quoted bj Bpitta, might be 
used carelessly even b) a native, but a should not be imitated* 

J But Bee 3 o'_' , i, note. 



THE ADJECTIVE 241 



THE ADJECTIVE 



§ 315. It has been seen in the accidence that attributive 
adjectives are regularly placed after their substantives, the 
article being repeated when the latter are definite, as naggar 
shatir a clecer carpenter, in naggar ish shatir the clever carpenter, 
but in naggar shatir the carpenter (is) clever. 

§ 316. The adjective, whether attributive or predicate, agrees 
as a general rule in gender and number with its substantive, 
as walad taiyib ; ir ragil taiyib ; il mara taiyiba ; ir riggala, in 
niswan, taiyibin. 

§ 317. As adjectives and participles have no dual form, they 
must be placed in the plural when qualifying dual substantives, as 
ir ragKn taiyibin ; il hagten ruafhumin both things are intelligible. 

§ 318. An adjective qualifying a plural substantive is, how- 
ever, very frequently put in the feminine singular, especially 
when the plural is a broken one or ends in at, as il kkcl il battala 
il kibira ; widanu tawila his ears ar<' long; lulus qulaiyila little 
money; il kilab ish sha'rana tJie mad days; nas iktiyariya old 
people ; il kitabat il qadima ; is sagarat 'alya the trt es are high ; ir 
riggala mitrattiba 'ala sfuf the men are arranged in rows; in 
naggarin il mistakhdima 'audi the carpenters employed at my 
house; ish shawishiya il bass&sin is siniysk the secret police con- 
stables, spies : is salatat it talyaniya Italian salads; il mahabis il 1 i 
mahbusa mi'u the prisoners imprisoned with him; in niswan it 
tawila the tall women; il 'askar is sudaniya tfa Soudanese troops; 
dol (referring to a plural substantive) fransawiya tiirse are Fnau'li. 

Remark. — In nearly all of the above examples the adj< 
might also be put in the plural, and we might, say is gagarat 
'alvin, khrl kubar, widanu tuwal, &c, and generally would say 
in naggarin miatakhduntn, il mahabis illi mahbusin mi'ah. The 
only rules that can be laid down for the learner's guidance are 
the following : — 

(a) Perfect plurals, especially those in ///.and plural substan- 
tives denoting human beings, usually have their adjective in the 
plural. 

(/>) Broken plurals, unless they denote human beings, usually 
hat 8 t heir adjective in the feminine singular. 

Adjectives ending in i rarely agree in number with a 
plural substantive, unless it ends in in. 

It follows thai kitabat kubar La more usual than kitab&l 
tu, and kutub kebira more usual than kutufa kubar, and thai 
we should say aiswan kubar gumal (oi gamalat) in preference to 
niswan kibira eamila. 



242 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 319. A noun in the dual occasionally has its adjective in 
the feminine singular, and this even (especially if the adjective 
ends in i) when expressing an animate object, as 'ench sughaiyara, 
humra, mewalla'a his eyes are small, red, darting fire ; binten, 
raglen, talyanfya two Italian girls, men ; ir raglen il mistakhdima 
'andi, il hagten mafhuma (better mestakhdimin, mafhumin). 

§ 320. Although the cardinal numerals above ten are followed 
by a substantive in the singular, yet the adjective qualifying the 
substantive will be in the plural (or feminine singular), as 
arbahtashar ragil taiyibin (or taiyiba) fourteen good men : 'ishrin 
'ilba BUghaiyara (or sughaiyarln) twenty small boxes ; mit maqtaf 
malyana (or malyanin) a hundred full baskets. Similarly with 
the word kam, as kan fih kam darwish rnaqtulin (or maqtula)? 
//'///• man y dervishes were there killed? il kam darwtsh il harbin 
the few dervishes that got away. But where the substantive is 
(or might be) in the singular in any case, the adjective may agree 
with it, as itnashar gineh masri mitqaddim twelve Egyptian 
pounds paid in advance, for we might also say 'ashara gini h. 

§321. Nouns of multitude are generally qualified by adjectives 
in the plural, as il gama'a del za'lamn minni t! Ifl are 

angry with me; giritna 1 (for giranna) wiskhin (or wiskha) u* have 
dirty neighbours. So also are the words shuwaiya and habba a 
small quantity (lit. a grain), as ish shuwaiyit it tibne d&l lazmin? 
are these few bits of si ran- wanted I il habbit ir radda il 1 i maugudtn 
'andak the little bran you have in your house; but the adjective 
sometimes agrees, as hat shuwaiyit, habbit, moiya ndlfa bring a 
drop of clean water. 

§ 322. Collective nouns, on the contrary, are used with a 

singular adjective, except in some cases when they denote a 

number of human beings, as il ghanam, il baqar, il kuwaiyisa ; 

il waraq il abyad ; il ghafar (but better il ghufara) il battalia ddl 

• /■/ watchnu a. 

Remabk.— Adjectives ending in i very frequently remain 
unchanged whether the substantive be in the fenunine singular 
or in the plural. This lb particularly the case: — 

(a) When the adjective is so closely connected with its sub- 
stantive 1 1 1 .- 1 1 the stress is laid on one as much as on I 
the two almosl forming one word. 

(A) Where the adjective ■ •• the material of which the 

subject is made, or tie- country of its origin, or a class of | 
or t bines to which it belongs. 



1 Ti r - ntouragx T I jeotive is In sonoord 

th" idea. 



THE ADJECTIVE 243 

('•) When the adjective is a foreign word. 

('/) When it may be translated by an adverb. 

(e) When the substantive is indefinite. 

E.g. battikha sefi (rarely sefiya) a summer melon (i.e. one of a 
summer crop); sikka 'umfinri a public road, thoroughfare; 'asakir, 
gazma, sawari car airy, riding boots; il badla 1 mulki the civil 
costume; aide sharaqi (rarely sharaqi ya) dried (unflooded) land ; 
lii.tsamir qabaqibi tin tacks, small nails ; qahawi sahhari coffee- 
houses, taverns, kept open all night ; is sikka t tauwali the straight 
road ; sikka sultani high-road ; 'atf a naffadi a lane with an out- 
let ; 'arabiya mallaki private carriage ; binaya bughdadli l lath 
and plaster building ; 'umla barrani (occasionally barraniya) bad 
y ; lahma dani, baqari mutton, beef ; saniya stambuli 
(istambuli) a tray from Constantinople ; ishun, itbaq, sini china 
dishes, plates ; fulu.s 'arabi Arab money ; arghifa baladi, 'arabi 
native, Arab, loaves ; dura shami Syrian maize; itnen gineh masri 
L. E. 2 ; natiga 'arabi, an Arab almanack ; il hinna 1 wahhabi 
Wahhaby henna ; kilma si'idi a, word used in Upper Egypt ; iz zawat 
il 'usmalli Turkish grandees; riggala hindi Indians ; bunduqiya 
fall ah i a gun such as the peasants use; gazma, qumsan, harimi 
teamen's shoes, shifts; bidum riggali men's clothes ; gallairtya hariri, 
ghazli a si//;, spun silk, gown; hagat, isnaf, werdinaii ordinary, 
second-class articles ; bunduqiya miri 2 gun supplied by the Govern- 
ment; sakran sakra inglizi ; laqet il Gda foqani tahtani I found the 
room upside down; kilma sirri a secret, private, word; it It 
bi h&ga khafifi / felt a slight sensation ; ban! Adam khiyali, ma 
yighlibush* ilia 1 mot 4 the sons of Adam are inventive, nothing but 
death overcomes them. 

IiEMahk. — The adjective remains unchanged even when the 
substantive is not expressed, as ir rumi ddl malu 1 balad kulliha 
these foreign {dogs, just spoken of) have filed ll'- whole town. 

§ 323. When the adjective does not fall under one of the 

above heads it will generally agree with tin- substantive, ami 

this may also happen, when, although it belongs to one of the 

• ■ heads, great stress is laid on it, or, at least, greater stress 

1 Bat mare bughdadliya a woman from Bagdad. 

- From Arabic amir, borrowed by the Turks and returned to 
the language in its truncated form. 

»te thai the singular verbal suffix is h< re used, bani Adam 
being regarded as a collective BaaoJ is used in a fe* expres- 
sions for banu, the Literary construe! plur. of ibn. 

4 The last three examples do not fall under any of the above 
heads. 



244 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

than on the substantive, and consequently when it is a predicate. 
Further, adjectives ending in dnl and those which are derived 
from adverbs or prepositions, as quddami front, invariably 
agree ; and lastly, adjectives denoting nationalities agree with 
a feminine substantive denoting an animate object. 1 E.g. ir 
ragil kan sakran sakra ingliziya kttr qawi ; il kilma kanit 
sirriya ; is sikka di 'umumiya? is this a thoroughfare ? iftah ish 
shababik il fuqaniya (or il foqaniyin) open the (op windows; il 
husan biya'rag bi riglu 1 quddamiya, 1 waranlya the horse is tan" 
in the fore, hind, leg ; il kilma lakhraniya the last word; in nas il 
fulaniya such and such people; il 'askar is sudaniya the Soudanese 
troops; in nas il fransawtya wi t talyaniya French and Italian 
people; wahda ingliziya an English woman. 

§324. Adjectives denoting nationalitiea always end in i, 
but in place of them the collective noun is used in many cir- 
cumstances. The following examples are gives for the learner's 
guidance, as more depends on custom than logic or anal _ 
hu<;'in turki ; mara, faras, turkiya : ragil turk, turki (or turkawi) ; 
khel turki (or turk) ; nas turk ; bashaw&t turk (or turki) ; ir ragil 
da turk; husan inglizi ; khel inglizi (more rarely kind, hamlr, 
ingliz, and occasionally khel, ifec, ingliziya); khiyul ingliziya; 
mara ingliziya; nas, nisw.m ingliz; ragil ifrang a European; 
miluk ifrang; khel ifrang; mara, faras, ifrangiya ; hus&n 'agami 
a Persian horse; khel 'agami (or 'again); mara 'agamiya, nas 
'agam ; ir ragij da 'agami ; ragil, husan, sharkasi a Oircassi 
Circassian horse; mara, faras, sharkasiya; nas sharaksa; khel 
sharkas (or sharaksa); khiyul sharkasiya (or aharakf 
hind] (rarelj hind) an Indian; riggala, bashawat, hind (rarer 
hindi); marahindlya; nisw.m hindiya (or hind); ragil 'arab (or 
'arabi); Lbne 'arab; mara arabiya : nas, niswan, 'arab (or c url 
kilal) 'arab; ragil badawl a Bedouin; riggala, uisw&n, bidw; 
mara badawiya; huaan magar a Hungarian h 
kind magar; 9 r&gil arna'ut (or aina'iiti) an Albanian; I 

mara. aina-iitiya, kh'd ariai'iit (or arna'ut 1 1 ; khivd aina'.' 

h'is arant.a; ragil uimsawi an Austria mara, 



1 I ; 1 1 t we Baj farkha ruml ,. Where the 

substantive is a broken plural it. will sometimes remain un- 
changed, as in i/. /.aw.'it il 'usinalh aboVi . ' il 'usmalUya 

may also be used, and should be where there La the least 
empl i"i instance, it' a distinction were being made 

between Arabs and Tin ks. 

: The adjective form is rarely used. We might saydawahid 
magart, but magar would be mor< 



THE ADJECTIVE 245 

faras, nimsawiya ; nas nimsawiya ; in nils d61 nimsawi ; naggarin 
nimsawiya ; x ragil, husdn, talyani ; niara talyaniya ; riggala, nas, 
talyaniya; ragil malakan (or malakani) an American : nas malakan 
(or malakaniya); ragil, husan, rumi a Greek, Greek horse : mara 
rumiya ; nas rumiya (or irwam) ; ragil igrigi a Greek; mara 
g _• ya (or grigi) ; nas igrig (or igrtgt) ; shilikht Bohemians; 
ragil shilikht (or shilikhti) ; mara shlikhtiya. 

325. Ketir much is generally unchanged, but the plural 
kutar is sometimes heard, especially when animate objects are 
spoken of, as nas kutar many people, the feminine ketira rarely ; 
we may say kal lu 'iyal ketir, kutar, or ketira, but the fi; 
the most usual. Kutar implies a greater number than ketir. 

§ 32G. The following also usually remain unchanged, especially 
when the substantive is indefinite : — 

ag-har day-blind qahir had, abandoned 



qalil, qulaiyil little 

midrig marriageable 

migwiz double 2 

uiufrid single 



baligh marriageable 

darig current 

ha mil pregnant 

salim sound 

'agfiz old 

E.g. naa qulaiyil (occasionally qulaiyila or qulaiyilin) ; mara 
'aguz, but il mara 1 'agfiza di; binte baligh (rarely balgha); 
tili'na salim (occasionally sulam or salmin) we came out safe and 
neh ag-har (also guhr) ; il haga di qalil this is a little 
thing (more correct than qalila) ; mara qahir (rarely qalira) ; 
kilma darig (less usually darga) a word in common use, but il 
lugha d darga the colloquial language. 

In the expression leltak sa'tda the a is often barely audible. 
7. Wahid may be used in the masculine in the expres- 
sions is sa'a wahid it is one o'clock, nimra wahid number one, 
'ishrin, talatin, <vc. ilia wahid save one, although the objects 
referred to are feminine, as 'umri khamsin ilia wahid / 
thirty savt one. In other cases it should agree with its sub- 
stantive whether used as a numeral or the indefinite article. 8 

-. An adjective or participle often remains unchanged 
when it is used in a neater sense, agreeing rather with the idea 
conveyed by the whole sentence than with the substantive -which 

1 The plurals niins.'iu i\ in, talyaniyin, are not frequently used, 
ingliziyin, rumiyin, 6c., are never heard. 

But binte migwiza a marriageable girl. 

3 Occasionally even a native will say carelessly wahid bint, 
wahid lamda, A*c, but such expressions are not to be imitated. 



246 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

it should qualify, or when it is used adverbially, as talata taiyib 
(or taiyibin) three's all rigid, il balad illi nta rayihha tekun mis- 
tab'ad (or bi'id) 'alek, i.e. it will be too far for you to go to the 
village you are making for (but il masafa bi'ida) ; itfaddali rain 
gher matrud, i.e. make yourself at ease without fear of being sent 
away ; khadte haga mityassar kede / got something which put 
me in easy circumstances, but haga mityassara a comfort- 
able sum ; ruh fil mauqaf we naqqi li 'arabiya ahsan il maugud 
go to the stand and choose me a carriage — the best of everything 
there; 'andak mazbut 1 ( = is sa'a 1 mazbuta) ? have you the right 
time? qal luhum mabruk he congratulated them ; til'u mbahhar (or 
mbahharin) tJiey went away toward* the north ; qulti lha hati li 
kursi ; qalit li taiyib hadir I said to her, Bring me a chair, and she 
replied, All right, lit. (/ am) ready; mishyu mqabbil they went 
south; ishtaruthum rikhta (or rukhas) / bought them chap ; hattiha 
wati (= hatte nafsu watya) he behaved modestly ; misht ma fish 
maugdd wala furash ma fish maugud there is neither a comb nor 
brushes. 

§ 329. Beta' will often be used in the masculine singular 
(with a feminine or plural substantive, a) when it means for tlv 
use 'f, in which case the two substantives which it connects will 
(especially if the second is indefinite) form a compound in English, 
as hat il lamda beta' is gala bring the drawing-room lamp; il haga 
di beta '(or beta'it) hina ; it tahuna beta' bunn " a coffee-mill ; and 
6, occasionally when the first is indefinite, as kitabat beta' abuya 
books of my fatlr r. 

Remark. — The masculine will sometimes be heard irregularly 
in other cases, but this is an error equivalent to the use of the 
masculine of the French past participle with a relative pronoun 
referring in the oblique case to a feminine substantive, which 
may pass in a Frenchman, but in a Foreigner would be attri- 
buted to ignorance. This construction will possibly become more 
Common in a later development of the language. 

330. Lastly, when an adjective precedes its suhstantive, 

whether as an attributive or b predicate, it generally undei 
no change, a - auw il, bant, talit, 1 la ; 3 garni] il lamda I fine la> 
fadil khamastashar y6m there are still remaining fifteen ■■ 
kan maugdd oas ketfr there wen present many p< j '■ ; kettrmam 
many a time : kan marsum 6 'aleh rig] ins&n (hen woe delim 

1 They also saj 'andak /ah' I - < >r beta' il bunn. 

3 S :;;,;; - 4 & -I s - 

(''imp. the uso of indue in Fr. and BUch phi.. 

cetti 



THE ADJECTIVE 247 

thereon a maris foot ; il waraqa di marsum f iha 1 ginena there is a 
plan of the garden on this paper; lazmak haga? do you tcant any- 
thing 1 il marhum * wakliti my departed mother ; iza kan maugud 
'anduhuru haga if they had anything with them; fib naqis wahda, 
but fib wahda naqsa there is one (f.) missing; kan beyin 'alehum 
'alamat there were, marks apparent on them; ya 'aziz rasak (as an im- 
precation) ; mabruk (or mubarak) 'alek il wazifa congratulations 
on your {new) post ; kuwaiyis (or kuwaiyisa) minnu 1 manra di it 
was jine of him to show such humanity (such humanity was fine on 
his part). 

Remark a. — We say lazimni haga i" want something, musb 
lazimbum 'arabiya, >kc. ; but generally lazima haga, musb lazima 
'arabiya, <tc. 

Remark b. — Where the participle precedes its substantive, 
and is accompanied by the definite article, taking the place of 
the relative pronoun, it should be in concord, as il bet illi sakna 
fib ukbti the house in which my sister resides. 

Remark c. — The participle bayin (beyin) is sometimes used 
adverbially and impersonally, and at otbers personally, and is 
in the latter case in concord with the substantive,- as inta beyin 
'aiyan (or inta 'aiyan beyin) you are seemingly ill, you are ill 
apparently ; inti beyin 'aleki khassa (or beyina 'aleki khassa) you 
appear to be getting thin; so beyin 'alehum 'aiyanin (or beyinin 
•aiyanin), d:c. ; is sa'a 'ashara beyin it is ten o'clock, it ■<■ 

Remark </. — The word rakhar, or less frequently lakhar (for 
il akhar), may often be translated by also, but it always a. 
with the noun or pronoun to which it refers, as hiya rukhra she 
also ; intu gayin rukhrin? are you coming too / 3 

§ 331. An adjective or participle may be used as a sub- 
stantive, as it tawd yetul the tall can reach ; il hadrin those who 
art (wert )prt sent ; il maulud gidid the new born ; il miri the gov 
ment ; darab fi 1 'ah lie fired high above; mityassar balah a few 
dates; il kibir betahhum their chief; kubar in nas the gnat (of 
tin ) people, the grandees; il ma'lum the thing known, understood; 
mi'ah maugud, mityassar lie ha* got means; meqauwara a .<>-oop ; 
it tibbiya the doctors (for il hukuma t tibbiya); falatiya badchar- 
aeters ; mashrubat things drunk, beverages; il b;iqi the remain 
maktub a letter; il battal the evil; il wahid the one, Sue. 

332. An adjective is not uncommonly used in this waj 
with the preposition min following and separating it from t In ■ 

1 But also marhuma. 

2 (Jump, the use of 6>/Aos and tftavtpos in ancient Greek. 

3 Comp. vow autri i and vosotros ( = you). 



248 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

substantive, so that we have two substantives, one of them in 
the position of a partitive genitive, instead of the adjective 
in concord with its substantive, as il wiskhin min in nas dirty 
people; ish shuttar min il khaiyatin clever tailors ; ketir min in 
niswan yi'milu kede many women do so. 

§ 333. An adjective qualifying two or more substantives may, 
as in English, be repeated with each or placed in the plural, as 
ir ragil it taiyib wi 1 walad it taiyib gum or ir ragil wi 1 walad 
it taiyibln gum the good man and the good bog, or the yood j/ian and 
boy, have come; ir ragil il battal wi 1 mara 1 battala (or Lp ragil wi 
1 mara 1 battalin) ; similarly, ir ragil taiyib wi 1 walad taiyib (or 
ir ragil wi 1 walad taiyibln) the man is good and the boy if good, or 
the man and boy are good, &c. 

§ 334. When, on the contrary, one substantive is qualified 
by different attributive adjectives, they will be placed after 
it without being connected by the copulative conjunction, and 
both will take the article when the substantive is definite, as 
ragil tawil rufaiya' a tall thin man: hagat ward in. -in rikhisa 
common cheap things; il maratOn dul il fuqaral niasakin these two 
poor wretched women. 

§ 335. The predicate adjective in this case will not I 
sarily be connected by the copulative unless their meanings 
quite distinct, as in niswan dol fuqara masaktn (or fuqara u 
masakin) these women are poor and wretched; il kitabat kil>ira u 
samra the boolcs are large and brown. 

Remark. — It will have been observed that the copula (or 
substantive verb) is not expressed between subject and predi- 
cate, at least in affirmative sentences, when the fa 1 has 
reference to the immediate or continuous present. Ir • 
yekun taiyib means the man will be, or may be, good. 

§336. Adjectives, as we have seen, are very frequently 
used adverbially, or rather they are turned into adverbs, losing 

in most eases their DOWOT of inflection, as huwa "aiyan gidid, 

hlya 'aiyana gidid, htunma 'aiyantn gidid 

maly&n kitir very, too, full; kibtr qawl very big; il 
lius.'in mishi had! the horse went quietly; kan lftbis abyad ht 
white ; taiyib ! well, good I auwil ma gfit dirt ctly It i 
i'mil da auwil do this first ; auwil inbarih (for il b&rih ) y ■-■?• r In 
tanl dovft come again, (fee.; min hina a tali* (or rftyih) ■ 

forth : sa't'ii la} ill u sa't'"n gfty tiro hours I' I 00 hours 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 249 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

§ 337. When the adjective does not take the comparative 
form (see § 47) it of course agrees in gender and number with 
the substantive, as hiya kbira 'anni she is older than I, humma 
shuttar 'annak they are cleverer than you. 

§ 338. There are two cases apart from the above construction 
when the adjective remains in the positive, viz : — 

(a) Where it is used absolutely denoting excess, as fatla 
di qusaiyara walla tamam ? is this piece of string too short or all 
right? mantalonak tawil 'alc'k your trousers are too long for you. 

(h) Where the object with which the comparison is made is 
understood, as huwa kbir walla nta ? is he the taller or you ? (i.e. 
huwa kbir 'annak walla nta kbir 'annu?) : min fiku tawil ? winch of 
you is the taller? (i.e. 'an it tani) ; ana 1 kibir fina / am the oldest 
of us. 

Remark a. — We may also say ana lakbar fina. 

Remark b. — Ketir with the definite article has a superlative 
sense in the expression bi 1 ketir at most ; bi 1 aktar bears the 
same meaning, but may more often be translated generally. 

§ 339. The qualitative adjective is denoted by means of 
adverbs or adverbial expressions, as ahsan shuwaiya, ketir a 
little, much, betti r ; akbar it taq itnen twice as big ; and the quali- 
tative superlative by adverbs, or (but much less commonly) by 
the repetition of the positive adjective, as kebir ketir very big; 
'aiyan qawi very ill; kebir kebir; tikhin tikhin very thick; so 
ketir ketir very very, or very much ; shuwaiya shuwaiya very 
little. 1 In the expressions auwil b auwil, ahsan bi 1 ahsan (or 
il ahsan bi 1 ahsan, or ahsan bi ahsan) first of all, best of all, the 
preposition bi intervenes. 2 The adverb more is expressed by 
ziyada, as beyishrab ziyada minnak (or 'annak) he drinks more 
than you ; kulle yom ziyada more and more every day. He gets 
thinner, fattt r, fyc, every day may be translated by kulle malu 
bikhiss, beyisman, &c. 

§ 340. When an object is represented as being the most 
prominent of a whole class, the noun denoting the class stands 
in the relation of a genitive to the superlative, as huwa ahsan 
in uas he is the best of men ; hiya al'an in niswan she is the must 
accursed of women. 

Hi \!\kk a. — The construction is the same if the class is 

1 We say also shuwaiya sugaiyara, shuwaiya kbfra. 

2 The expression auwil (or biringt) wfthid A 1 may be noted 
here. 



250 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

referred to definitely, as huwa ahsan il wilad dul he is the best of 
these boys. 

Remark b. — The word kebir often remains in the positive 

in this connection, as kebir in mis; kebirit (kebirt) in niswan ; ir 

ragil da min kubar ish shuqily this man is one of the greatest of 

lis. 1 Taiyib has a comparative sense in the expression huwa. 

taiyil) he is better (in health). 3 

!. The same notion may also be expressed by an abso- 
lute superlative followed immediately by the noun it qualifies, 
neither of them taking the article, as atwal walad dih the t 
boy (of them) is litis one; ahsan 'esh ( andak(or ahsan 'esh ill £ 
'andak, or ahsan ma fi 1 '§sh illi 'andak) the best bread you l> 
ma qalshe adna haga he didn't say the least thing : luya fi ahsan 
sihha she is in the best of health. 

§ 342. There is sometimes a confusion between the two 
degrees of comparison, the superlative being employed to com- 
pare an object to a class to which it dors not belong, as huwa 
ahsan ikhwatu, ashqa khwatu he is the best, the most rascally, of 
his brothers, i.e. If is better, more rascally, even titan his bra 

(for ahsan min, shaqi "an, ikhwatu). ; We may also Bay huwa 
ahsan, ashqa ma ii kwatu. 

3. The pronominal suffix ha is sometimes attached to 
the superlative when followed immediately by a substantia 
huwa akbarha rfigil If is tht greatest ofnu n ,■ ad nana, aqalliha kilma 
mill i (julti lak the least word of those whicli la . 

II. Comparison may be denoted by a verb followed by 
the preposition 'an, aa huwa yitkallim 'arabi 'annak 
Arabic UetU r titan you : l>.ol<l:u- 'an il 'fida he was < arW r than hi 
istakhfif nai'su -an wahid he pretended, considered, thai 
more alert than so ' sftd 'annl ii ah shags'a If , ; . 

courage Hunt J. 

1 Huwa min il kubar ish ahuqay ia also said, but ti; 
structioii is a mixed one. Other adjeetu 
in thf same way, as tawil il maugudtn tht 
of a .a, and we may, of oourse, aaj i{ t.r-wl min il 

Borrowed, perhaps, Erom tie- l'urk i-i (nol Jaha 

iyidir). 

I omp. tin- Greek idiom, imitated by Biiltoo in " I 
of ber Daughters, l and Pliny'a (homo) "011111111111 non 

solum bipedum sed etiam quadruped um Bpurcatissimus." 

Che construction is partioularlj common with the rtrbsof 
tie- tenth derii ed form. 



THE NUMERALS 251 

§ 345. Adverbs may be objects of comparison, as hina ahsan 
min-henak it i.< better here than there ; or one of the objects may 
be an idea denoted by a verbal sentence, as huwa ahsan mini ma 
(min ma) kan 'amnauwil (or elliptically nin 'amnauwil) hi ie 
better than he was last year (than last year); hiya rufaiya'a mim 
ma kanit she is thinner than she was ; huwa ahsan mimma kan 
he is bitter than ever he was. 

§ 34G. Better than that (with a verb following) is expressed by 
ahsan min inn (or mim ma) or, with an ellipse of the min, ahsan 
ma, as da ahsan min innina nruh 'andu that is better than that 

hould ;/o to his house; il mot ahsan mimma n'ish kede death 
is better titan that we should live thus ; ahsan ma nmut bi 1 gu' 
■ than that, that we die of hunger. In rendering the ex- 
pression better to — than to we may employ the aorist without a 
conjunction in the first alternative, as ahsan nidrab mim ma 
nindirib (or ahsan il wahid yidrab mim ma yindirib), or, when 
possible, the verbal noun, as is often the case in English. The 
latter construction is the more idiomatic of the two. 

§ 347. Ahsan, or, with the article, il ahsan, is used absolutely 
in the sense of it were better, best, no alternative or alternatives 
being mentioned, as il ahsan tequl lu 1 haqq it were better that 
you tell him the truth ; ahsan tigina inta you hadbettt reome to ue. 
It may also stand alone adverbially, the verb being supplied 
from what has gone before, and may be qualified redundantly 
by ziyada, as ana hatkallim waiyah ahsan, ahsan ziyada / will 
with him, that will be beet- much better. 

§ 348. Akbar stands as an absolute superlative without the 
article in the expression Allah akbar God is greatest, i.e. most 
great. 

THE NUMERALS 

§ 349. It has already been noticed (§ 97, Rem. c) that the 
cardinal numbers above ten tike their substantive in the sin- 
gular. 1 The word nas forms an exception to this rule, as arbe'in 
.ison probably being that it has no sin- 
gular of its own; Lut it is more correct to say arb.'-'in nat'as (or 
i 

i I. The word s&'a in the sense of o'clock precedes the 
numeral, which is always the cardinal) and remains in th>< sin- 
gula!, u tigi b a "a (or ti a B&'a) 'ashara. 

1 Including, of course, collectives, so that we say ihdaahar 

burtuqana, not burtuquu. 



252 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Remark. — Ras, meaning a head of cattle, and foreign pieces of 
money, are generally left in the singular with a cardinal under 
eleven, as arba' (or arba'a) ras (less usually than rus) ghanam 
four head of sheep, talata frank, sitte gineh. Malyiin million is 
used in the same way. 

§ 351. The cardinals retain the forms talata, arba'a, &c, 
when followed by a noun in the singular, as talata gineh, bintu, 
ifcc., as has been said (§ 93), but talata riggala, ginebat, <fcc, will 
sometimes be heard; so also occasionally when the noun is 
definite, as it talata khaddamin, il arba'a ghrush 1 d61 these three 
piastres ; kan fill wahda mi'aha talat banat, wi t talata 1 tanat dol. . . . 

§ 352. The cardinals as a rule precede the noun whether 
definite or indefinite, but frequently follow it when it is definite, 
and occasionally when it is indefinite, for the purpose of em- 
phasis, as it talat kitabat (or il kitabat it talata) ; hat li kitahat 
talata (for talat kitabat) bring me thre-i books. 

§ 353. The ordinal may either precede or follow the noun; 
in the former case neither will take the article, but in the latter 
the article will be placed before both in accordance with the 
rules, as talit n6ba di (or in n6ba t talta dl) this third time. The 
noun will generally be in the plural, when preceding the cardinal, 
though the number be over ten, but with the higher numbers 
the singular is sometimes heard, as iddini kitabat talattashar, 
kitabat (or kitab) miten u wahid give me thirteen, a hundred ami 
one, books. Kitab talattashar would mean book So. 13. 

§ 354. When objects are spoken of as being either of one 
number or another the disjunctive is not usually expressed, 
and if one number is under ten and the other above ten the 
noun is generally mentioned twice, first in the plural and then 
in the singular, as talatt arba* kitabat; 'ashart inf&r, riggala, 
hidashar nafar, three or four books, ten or twelve men, bul 'aahara 
tnashar nafar, ifcc, will also be heard. 

• . We may expres two, tiro or three, by naming 

the object itselt' in the first case in the singular and in the 
second in the dual, and placing the numeral which indicates the 
higher number immediately after it. as ragil itnen ont or tiro 

□ talata lira OT three botth • . OT, in the firsl CaSO, the 

objecf may be named in the singular and repeated in the dual, 

ui'ra Bufritdn a table or two. 

EIehabk. — The insertion of the disjunctive points to the 
existence of s Btrong doubt in the mind of the speaker as t<> 



• Prom sing, ghersh, a duplicate form of qerah. 



THE NUMERALS 253 

which i.s the right number, as talata walla (or au) arba'a three, 
or it may be four, the last number being the extreme limit. 

§ 356. The date of the year and the month is expressed by 
means of the cardinal numbers, as sanat tultemiya w arbe'in the 
year SJfi ; it talata beta' ish shahr the third of the month ; khamsa 
abril 5 April. The word Sana may be omitted, just as nahar or 
yom is in the date of the month. 

Remark. — Observe that in the date of the month the month 
is in apposition to the numeral instead of being a partitive 
genitive. 

§ 357. The words sa'a hour and 'umr age are often unex- 
pressed, as in English, with the numerals, as tigi talata u nuss 
you must come at half -past three; hiya zeye arba'a, foq il arbe'in 
she is about four, above forty. Gineh may also be understood, 
and sagh and ta'rifa may stand tor qershe sagh, qershe ta'rifa, as 
'andu malyunen he ha* two millions ; yesawi tamanya sagh, talata 
ta'rifa it is north eight tariffs three small, piastres. 

§ 358. Twofold, threefold, <.jv., are expressed, as has been seen, 
by the word taq with the definite article followed by the car- 
dinal numeral, and note that taq always remains in the singular 
in this connection. 

§ 359. Occasionally a cardinal expressing a round number 
is used by itself as a multiplicative adverb; e.g. 13a kalbe 
wihish. Wi za kan mrfc wihish, da sabab leinnak tidrabu I Ifs 
a loathsome dog. And if it is a hundred times (i.e. ever so) loath- 
some, is that a reason why you should beat it / ddl 'ishrin kaddabin 
liars ticenty times over ; kattar alfe kherak thank you a thai 
times. 

§ 360. When several objects and a portion of one of them 
are spoken of, the substantive should first be mentioned with the 
numeral qualifying it and the fraction follow coupled with it 
by the conjunction, as talatt irghifa u nuss (not talatt u nuss 
irghifa) three and a half loaves ; knamastashar wiqqa u tilt./, 
and a third okes ; qa'ad ala rukba u nuss to kneel on one knee ; bul 
we Bometimes hear miyten wi ksur qersh for miyten qersh wi 
ksilr, tu-n hundred piastres odd, &c, 

361. It is much more usual in Arabic than in English to 
indicate a figure slightly under a round number by statin-- the 
difference between it and the latter, as 'umri talatin ilia tnen, 
wahid / am thirty less two, save one, year; is sa'a 'ashara u ausg 
ilia khamsa l'j-25. 



254 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



THE PRONOUN 

§ 3G2. The personal pronouns are not usually expressed 
with the verb unless they are emphatic or then- omission would 
cause ambiguity, 1 as gena mbarih tee came yesterday; ihna g@na 
mbarih we humma safru nnaharda we came yesterday and they 
left to-day. 

§ 363. When the pronouns of the first and second or the 
first and thud persons, or the first person and a noun, are 
together the subjects of a verb, the verb will be in the first 
person plural, as in English, as ana wi nta kunna maugudin 
you ami 1 hi* re present : ana we hiya lazim neruh slie and 1 
go ; ana wi 1 walad gena sawa the hoy and. I can"' together. 

Similarly, when the second and third persons or the second 
person and a noun are together the subjects, tin' verb will be in 
the second person plural, as inta we huwa darabtu 1 walad ; inti 
we gartik betitkhanqu tul in nahsr you and your neighbour are 
quarrelling all day louy. 

Remark. — Notice that, contrary to the English custom, it is 
usual to place the first person before the second and the second 
before the third. 

i$ 364. The first person plural is very frequently used instead 
of the singular, as ihna gayin bukra we are coming to-morrow, 
though the speaker alludes to himself only; similarly, when the 
pronoun is not expressed, a plural verb or participle may be 
employed, as 'auztn neshufak I want to see you. Th< 
person plural is also used for politeness, as in many European 
languages, hut rarely even by the educated, [nstead of it the 
words b&dra and gan&b honour^ with the pronominal suffix of the 
second person (making hadritak, ganabak). are often emp] 
when equals or superiors are addressed, with the verb in the 
•1 person singular, while ha.liitu and ganftbu air us • 1 when 

they aii' spoken of.- 

>. \ pasha is addressed as sa'adtak, contracted generally 
•tik your Beatitudt . Excellency, and spoken idui. 

The vocative ya saM il B&sha Lb used by inferiors only. 

1 Sueh as might arise from tin- fart of the Br8l and - I 

singular of the past tense of the verb l 

in form. 

The plural Lb badritkfl (kum), ganabku (kum), 
Comp. vuestra merced in Spanish, vossa merced In r 
guese, ' •■ k. 



THE PRONOUN 205 

§ 366. When, on the other hand, the objects of the verb 
consist of different personal pronouns, or of a personal pro- 
noun and a noun, they will generally be indicated by a plural 
suffix followed by the full pronoun or pronouns and the noun, 
as abuya shafna ana (or shafna na) wi nta my father saw (us) me 
and you ; il walad darabna (a)na we humma the boy struck me and 
thtm ; il 'arbagi illi gabku inta wi 1 efendiyen the driver who 
brought you and the two gentlemen ; il bulls misikhum humma wi 
n niswan the police seized them and the women. 

Remark. — The full form of the pronoun is sometimes 
omitted, especially in phrases of a religious character, as Allah 
yihfazna wi n nils kulliha God preserve us and everybody. 

§ 367. There are two other constructions, however, which 
are not unusual, viz. : — 

(a) Instead of the plural suffix the singular is used, as 
representing the first object, followed by the two full personal 
pronouns or the pronoun and noun, as darabu huwa w ana lie 
struck him — him and me; gabha hiya wi bniha we bintiha Jte 
brought her and her son and daughter. Darabu 1 walad w ana 
should not be said, i.e. the pronoun must precede the noun. 

(b) The verb may be mentioned twice, first with a pro- 
nominal suffix and then with another suffix or a noun, as 
darabak we darabnt, misikna we misikhum. 

Remark. — These constructions are much more common than 
in English, and the latter is often employed where there is no 
need to emphasise either the verb or its objects. 

§ 368. As a noun or a preposition cannot take more than one 
pronominal suffix, they must either be repeated with each, as 
baladi u baladak my village and yours, abuk w abuya your father 
and mine, ganbu we ganbiha by him and Iter, 'aleki we 'ala bnik 
on you (f.) iiml //our sun, katab liya we lik he wrote to you and to 
m<>, or a construction maybe used similar to that of the verb 
with its objects described above, as 'alena na wi nta on tnt 
you, kit&bhum humma we huwa their booh and his, war&ku intu 
we huwa behind you and him. 

Remark. — The noun may, of course, be replaced by the 
live adjective beta* with the suffix, as kitabi wi bta'ak, 
but it is more u>ual to repeat the noun. 

'. It is not uncommon for the personal pronoun, with 
which :i participle or adjective is in concord, to be unexpressed 
when there Ban be no doubt as to the identity of the person or 
thing referred to, as Bhftyif ir rfigi] ill! waqifS do you set the man 
ling (there)t 'auz >\i< what do you want I rayih fen? rayih 
mafr when or- you going ' J em going to Cairo ; gay walla mistannl 



256 THE SPOKEN AEABIC OF EGYPT 

lissa ? are you coming or still xcaiting ? u'a ! mehauwidin look 
out I we are coining round (turning up a street); inta hadir? 
Hadir are you ready ? I am ready ; shuf t innas dol ? Ewa, 
masakin ma lbuni.she bet did you see those people ? Yes, they are 
poor houseless people. 1 Tbe use of tbe adjective hadir in reply 
to a call or an order is an instance of this figure, tbougb in 
sense it can in many instances be hardly distinguished from an 
adverb, as Mehammad ! Hadir! Mohammed J Here I am; 
iqfil il bab. Hadir ! shut the door. Good (lit. / am ready to do 
it). The ellipse takes place with participles much more 
frequently than with adjectives. 

§ 370. The personal pronoun is often placed before or after 
the noun, or other part of speech, to which the corresponding 
possessive suffix is appended, without any particular stress being 
necessarily laid on it, as inta betak fen? (you) where is your 
house ? ana sbughli fi Masr my work is in Cairo ; humma 'adithuni 
innihum yigu s sa'a talata their custom is to come at three ; fi bitna 
hna in our house ; qulti lu leinnl ana gay 'andu fi 1 bet? did you 
tell me that I am coming to him at his house ? 

§ 371. Similarly, the full form of the personal pronoun may 
be added to the suffixes appended to the verb, as ana bakkallimak 
inta / am speaking to you ; ma tidrabnish ana don't etrih 

§ 372. The personal pronouns are very commonly placed 
pleonastically between the relative il I £ and its predicate,- espe- 
cially when there is an ellipse of the copulative verb kai 
ir ragil ill £ huwa hina the man who is here ; il kilab il 1 L humma 
'addu 1 walad the dog* whicli bit the hog; is sa'a il 1 1 hlya "and 
abuya the watch which my father has ; il 'ada illi hiya mauguda 
'and il badawln the custom which exists amongst ■ uns. 

.. 1 1 each of the above examples the personal pronoun 
might be omitted, and would be as often us not ; bul where the 
relative clause is merelj explicative of a definite autre. -dent 
and in apposition to it. the personal pronoun should be inserted, 
aa il wil.nl illi humma shabna the boys who are ovrj 

Remaek. In the latter case, when tin* predicate is a sub- 
stantive, the personal pronoun is sometimes in accord with it 
as being the most important word in the sentence, as il moiya 
illi huwa sh Bhirse beta* il laban the water that is the whey from 
the milk. 

i N,> one bul •> foreigner would say ana *au 
unless the pronoun were emphatic or another might l>r under 
stood it' ii w ei e "inn ted. 

A- in I I'-ln .w . 



THE SUFFIXES 257 

§ 374. Huwa (huwa) and hiya are of course applied to 
inanimate as well as to animate objects, so that they will be 
translated by he, slie, or it, according as the object is masculine, 
feminine, or neuter. The concord of the personal pronouns with 
the nouns which they represent is governed by the same rules 
as that of the adjective with its substantive, but the feminine 
singular hiya can hardly be used with reference to a stron^ 
plural, thus though we may say in naggarin il mistakhdima hina" 
we must refer to the carpenters as humma, not hiya. 

§ 375. Huwa is sometimes used impersonally for the demon- 
strative da, as huwa mush sahih leinnu darabak ? is it not true 
that he struck you ? and may serve as well as its feminine and 
plural to introduce a substantive, which then stands in apposition 
to it, as huwa r ragil mush gay? isn't the man coming? hiya 1 
bint biti'mil eh? what's the girl doing? humma n naggarin 
yishtaghalu tul in nahar the carpenters work all day. The de- 
monstrative may be added (although the personal pronoun itself 
resembles a demonstrative in this usage), as huwa 1 kitab da 
beta' mm? whose book is this? or the personal and demonstrative 
may stand together without a substantive, as bitqul 'ala min? 
Huwa da of whom are you speaking ? 0/ this one ; hiya di illi kanit 
betibki? is this the woman who was weeping? 

Huwa is used interjectionally to introduce another personal 
pronoun, whatever its gender, as huwa ana shuftu? huwa hiya 
1 mahkama rah tihkum 'aU'va ! 



THE SUFFIXES 

§ 37G. Tbe suffixes may be appended, as we have seen, 
to many conjunctions and adverbs as well as to nouns and 
verbs, being nothing but shortened forms of the person., 1 
pronouns. 

§ 377. When, as not infrequently happens, a word which in 
English would take the sign of the genitive is placed before the 
governing word, the Later will pick the former up, as it were. 
by nnans of the suffix, as ir ragil da bOtu ten? where is this 
man'shouse? il wiliya di 1 maaktna shuftekhaJaqitha? this poor 
old woman, did you see her rags? il walad da mln khad gazmitu 
who has taken this boy's shoes? It is tbe same with a relative 
clause when the antecedent is suppressed, as illi kan binabetu 
fen? for ten bet (ir ragil) illi kan bin*? 



258 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 378. Similarly, when the ohject of a verb precedes it the 
suffix must still be appended to the verb, so that the object will 
be mentioned twice over, as abuya shuftu ? have you seen my 
/(ttlier? (not abuya shuft) ; il khamsa iddithum lu (as to) the Jive 
(piastres) I hare given them him. 

Remark. — It must not be supposed that this idiom is unusual, 
and employed only for the sake of emphasizing the object, as in 
English. Jt is on the contrary exceedingly common. 

§ 379. "When a relative pronoun is the object of a verb the 
suffix will refer to its antecedent, as is sanduq illi gabuh the 
box which they brought; il 'arablya illi rikibnaha tlie carriage in 
which we drove; il karasl illi kasartuhum tJie chairs which you 
broke. The antecedent may, of course, be understood, as illi 
'addu t ti'ban yekhaf mint il habl he whom a make has bitten 
starts at a rope. 

Remark a. — This idiom may lead to confusion, as in ir ragil 
illi kan darbu, which may mean the man whom he was striking, ox 
the man who was striking him. 

Remark &.— When ma is used for illi the suffix is not 
sary, and is very rarely employed, as 'ala basab ma qal a 
ing tn wlwi he said, and the same is often the case where the 
relative and antecedent are both omitted, as ma mi'ish add! lak 
/ hare not him/ to give you. 

§ 380. Similarly, a preposition when it refers hack to a noun 
already mentioned will lake the suffix appropriate to that noun, 
as il b§t illi quddamna min sakin fih I who tires in the hous 
front of its ? is sagara di f uqha 'asafir ketlr there an many birds 
on this tree ; in oiswan Luhum wilad the women hat ■ n ; ir 

ragil illi 'andu litis the man who has money. 

§ 381. In the relative clans.- the genitive of the relative 
pronoun (whose) will be translated in Arabic by the nominative 
who, while the noun which in English governs the genitive will 
take the pronominal suffix, as il basha illi beta ganbim the 
se house is mar ours; il maakina di illi flusha naaraqit 
this poor woman whose money has been stolen; il kall> illi 

ini|ata'it nun 'agalt il "aiahiya the dog whttSC cut off by 

il,, wheel of thi carriag< ; il man illi guzha "ahit // 
husband is an idiot ; illi riglen (uwal yimshl qawlm a man with 
long lays walks quickly ; il qazaj i/. illi ghutyanhum flhum the I 
with the corks (or .-■/<'/'/»/■.•.) in them. 

!, Beta* here again tnaj take the place of the suffix, the 
noun being accompanied by the definite artii l( . udijq illi 

1 ghata l.cta'u i.ih tin /»>./• whoSM /"/ '■•>' lost. 

It is not necessary thai in immediate! 3 follow the 



THE SUFFIXES 2.59 

relative ; a verb or other word may intervene, as il bint illi shanaqti 
abuha (or, as in § 37s, illi abuha shanaquh) ; il qalam ir rusas illi 
nkasar tarfu the pencil the point f which is broken ; in naa illi gum 
gamihhum the people all of whom came; il walad illi 1 har&miya 
khatafu tarbushu inin rasu we kisu min genu the hoy whose tar- 
bush the thieves matched from his head, and whose purse they 
snatched from his pocket; il 'aguza illi qata'u subahha bi sikkiii 
we rag guzha bi mus the old woman whose finger they rut off with 
a hufe,and whose husband's head they cut off with a razor, 1 Si bint 
illi kan qa'id abuha ganb ukhtihatoe girl whose father was sitting 
by her sister ; il badawi illi kunti fi 1 khema betahtu the Bedawy in 
whose tent you (f.) were ; il b&sha illi khadt il ward min ginintu' the 
pasha from whose garden you took the flowers; ir ragil illi ma lush 
fulus ma lush ishab he that has no money has no friends; lefendi 
illi 1 guhannamiya bithimme 'ala 1 balakun beta«*betu the gentle- 
man along the balcony of whose house the bougainvUlia climbs. 

§ 3^4. The preposition takes the suffix where in English it 
would govern the relative, and this even when the relative is 
omitted, 2 asil bet illi kunte fih the house in which I was; il 
walad OH khatafu minnu 1 fulus the hoy from whom they snatched 
the money; il ydm illi safirna fih the day on which we started ; il 
hft dli yehimme 'al<!h ish shibrefayit 8 the wall on which theh 
suckle climbs; il 'ibara illi qulti lak 'aleba the matter about which 
J spoke to you ; illi ma lush fulus ma lush ishab ; shufna balad kull 
m nas fiha niswun we saw a cillagein (i.e. of) which all the p 
xcere women. 

I:i:.m akk a.— We cannot say il bet, is sanduq, fen shuftu the 
home, * >"' box, where (for in which) I saw it. 

Remabk b.— The preposition with its suffix will be omitted 
when the relative is ma, and occasionally when no relatii 
expressed, as waddSh matrah ma gibtu take it to the place you 
brought it {from); dabbaru fcadblr yesimmuh they devised a plan 
i ;/ which they might poison him. 

§385. A i.nun precedcl bya numeral may take the suffix, as 
ir lalata. khadd&ninak your three servants; tan! Sdak your other 
hand; but it is more usual in this case to employ beta*, or to 
place the numeral after the substantive. 

% 386, The suffix of the 3rd person feminine maj refer, like 

1 Compare the conciseness of the Arabicwith the clumsii 
oftheEnglirti in these two phrases. The words khatafu and 
' '"' n-prat.-.l i„ the second part of tl, 
- the ease when the nous is indefinite. (See B 130 ) 

3 Chcvrefeutlir. v 5 ' 



260 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

the full form hiya, to a plural object, and even (though un- 
usually) to a perfect plural denoting men, as il ashyat ill! gib- 
tiha the things I brought; in nas kulliha all the people ; il mis- 
bakhdimin kulliha all the employee. It may refer also to a 
number of objects previously mentioned, whether singulars or 
plurals, masculines or feminines, as farragh il barmil \vi s sanduq 
wi 1 kull, u waddiha guwa 1 makhzan empty tlie barrel and tlte 
box and everything (■ he), and take Ho m inside Hie cellar. 

§ 387. It is used in a neuter sense, the reference being to a 
whole sentence or an idea previously expressed or understood. 
It occurs frequently in the expressions ydmha, naharha (or 
nahariha), sa'itha, and is then equivalent to tlie demonstrative 
pronoun thai, i.e. tlie day, lunir, <.»••., of that event, or the day of 
which ice were speaking; e.g. kunna ydmha li 1 haram 
at the Pyramid* mi that day; kunte mashghul sa'itha / was busy 
at the time ; kunna salnanin lelitha m were sitting up that night ; 
waqtiha gih wahid (alabni at that moment tome one camt 
asked for me; asliha kan gamma! he was originally a aamel-drivt r ; 
ma'naha thai is to say; il fallahln ma yi'iddush leinniha 
lainma yiqla'u quddam in nas the fellaheen don't account U at 
improper thing to disrobe in public ; yibqa fiha farag Lamma 
there null be time to think about it before he comes (lit. ///- re is a 
respite, interval, in if); fatihna 'al baharl 1 riding the high i 
hatithii wati lowering one's tone, humbling oneself; Allah gabha 
sallm God ha* made it to tam <>ut well; add Hi oakirha ana U 
just what I d, ny. 

§388. Lastly, ha may Ins appended to the superlative, giving 
it a semi-absolute sense, as akbarha ragil thr greatest of 
kan Labis (pron. kal Labis) andafha qamle he had an th 
of shirts.* 

§ 38'J. Tin- masculine Bollix is used in the same waj 
the prepositions 'ala ami fi in the expressions ma 'alehal 
nothing on it, i.e. it doesn't matter; fib and ma Shah (often >-,>i 
rupted t.i fi .nid ii a i tsh) ti Locidenoe, 

.^ 117, lis); and m a few other words, as aslu originally i li 
waqtu ''/ thai iio>m> nt ; aqallu (or aqalliha) oi least . oinaytu ( 
ya Hi - simply nih&jBk) finally . bardu (or bardih • 
-/.•• '• , ma yigtah minnu no advantage will • 
'alekshe minnu >i" harm nil corns I 
ri'il Id. in in. i rdlsh yiwarrlh he got angry, hut didn'i 
ihow il : ill! aftakaru ana . . . my idea i* that 
■ i, The pronominal Buffixea 



1 Lit ■ i ning it to the math. 



THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 261 

appended to adjectives, and then only of course when they are 
used as substantives, as ya 'aztzi my dear. 

§ 391. The possessive particles must be suffixed to the sub- 
stantive when followed by an adjective or another substantive 
in apposition, not to the adjective, so that we must say kitabak 
il kuwaiyis, not kitab kuwaiyisak. The only exception, perhaps. 
to this rule is the occasional use of the suffix with kull in a few 
expressions, as il 'umre kullak nil your life (for 'urarak kullu). 

§ 392. The possessive is curiously used for the demonstrative 
in the expressions fi yomi, nahari, sanati, etc., as ana fi sanati 
ma ruhtish 1 haven't been this year ; inta fi naharak ma shuftush ? 
htven't you seen him all (your) day ? 

THE POSSESSIVE PPOXOUXS 

§ 393. It has been seen that Arabic h;is no distinct possessive 
pronouns, their place being supplied bv the suffixes or the word 
beta' ($ 121). (See also § 261.) 

§ 394. The secondary possessives mine, his, as well as the double 
possessive forms hers, ours, yours, theirs, are usually expressed 
bv beta' with the suffixes, but sometimes the noun expressing 
tin- object possessed is repeated instead, as il kitab da kitabi 
this book is my book; il fulus d61 fulusak walla flusl?(for betu'ak 
walla betu'i) is fins money yours or mine? A book of trn 

expressed by kitab l£ya, or kitab min kitabati, 
kitdbatak, <fcc, or kitab min betu'i, <fec. (sec also § 438), or, 
idiomatically, wahid min kit&b&ti, &c. 

§ 395. When the noun denotes a living object we may use 
the indefinite article, and merely append the suffix to the noun. 
as wahid sahbi a friend of mine. 

Remark. — When the demonstrative is used with the noun, 
the possessive is expressed by a relative clause, as is sufra dl 
illi (hlya) betahtak this table of yours. 

§ 396. The possessive is sometimes expressed by the definite 
article when the noun is preceded by the preposition li with a 
pronominal Buffix as the indirect, object of a verb, as kassarti li 
I qalam you have broken my pen; khassarti una ( - khassarte Una) 
1 akl you have spoilt our food; or even when there is n<. indirect 
object expressed, the subject of the verb being ,.|„. possessor ol 
the object, as bidd aghsil llden / want in wash my hands? 

1 The possessive pronoun is replaced by the article m a fen 
half adverbial phrases, as ana 'arfak leinnak ma tdkdibshe 'all \a 
aba. Ian il Muur / know you would never in your life tell 
(8ee§252.) 



262 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS 

§ 397. When in an English phrase the action of a verb ia 
understood to have been performed by the subject accidentally 
on some part or property of itself, it is usual to place the verb 
in Arabic in a form that bears a passive signification, as rigli 
hkasarit / have broken my leg; inqata' suba'u lie has cut his 
finger off; ishsharmat bnrqn'ha she has torn her veil. Kasarte 
rigli, qata' suba'u, are sometimes said with the same sense, but 
they might imply 1 that the act had been done on purpose. 

§ 3'J8. The absence of special forms for reflexive and reciprocal 
pronouns is supplied, as we have seen, by means of the substan- 
tives nafs, ba'd, and others, with the help in general of the 
pronominal suffixes. Ba'd is sometimes repeated with the article 
for emphasis, as sa'du ba'duhum il ba'd they h another. 

§ 399. The English word own has no exact equivalent, but 
the emphasis which it conveys can generally be rendered by 
placing the full persona] pronoun after t he suffix, though this does 
not always imply in Arabic any particular stress (§ 'Mo), as kunti 
E l>eti ana / was in my own house ; da shug] ana ( = shugli ana) 
my own affair; da milk abuya, beta'! ana (or il 1 i bta'l ana) 
li giha tanya that's my father's property, my own is in an 
quarter. 

Remark. — In such an expression as wadda 1 walad 'ala bfitu 
(or 'ala betu nafsu) he took the boy to his house, to his own fa 
there exists the same ambiguity as in English, nor would ir be 
any clearer whose house was intended if we were to say 'ala I 
huwa (or huwa nafsu). 

100. In many cases the suffix alone expresses the idea of 
self, as khad ugritha lull he took her wages for himself, Le. he 
appropriated them ; shut' Lak'arabiya we tig! waiyftna get yourt 
carriage and come with lis. 

L. Same may generally be translated by wahid, or by 
ba'd with or without the suffixes, as gena i yom w 
on the eami day ; 'umruhum, (ulhum, wfthid tin y an 
the ' , height; bumma min dor ba'd tl 

another's, Le. and words of similar 

Import, by nafs, or 'ftn, or the particle tya, with the snili x. 
ti I lria nafsiha on the selfsame night . tyahuio humma d61 I 
very ones', biya 'enha she her very «« N fs maj precede the 
noun, when the latter becomes ■ kind of partitive genii 

'• l.,'.. \ja 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 263 

while 'en may be separated from its noun by the preposition bi, 
as nafs il y6m beta' is safar the very day of the departure ; hiya bi 
'enha, fi 1 yum bi 'enu. (See § 122.) 

§ 40l\ Ba'd is equivalent to the English each or one another, 
aa well as to himself, Arc, and undergoes no change of number 
or gender ; thus we say in niswan khadu ba'd, il wilad darabu 
ba'd. Notice the expressions humma ahsan min ba'd, each is 
better than the other, ma beni u ben ba'd between ourselves, z<\v 
ba'du if s all the same. 

i 403. As in English, the repetition of a word will sometimes 
serve to express the notion of rellexiveness, as sot yishbih sot 
ndces resemble one another. This is not an uncommon idiom in 
Arabic. 

§ 404. The pecnliar use of the word bard with the suffixes 
may here be noticed. In general it is equivalent to the English 
still, anyhow, notwithstanding, ail the same, and takes the mas- 
culine, feminine, or plural suffix according to the gender and 
number of the object to which it refers, as kunte baftikir leinnak 
tiddini ziyada, lakin it talatagineh barduhuni kuwaiyistn / thought 
you would give me more, however, the £3 are good (acceptable) ; 
kattar kherkum, bardiya ana mabsuta thank you, and I am satisju d 
(implying that more would have gi\ on greater pleasure) ; bardina 
hna niqbal we nigi neqablak anyhow we accept, and will come I" 
meet yon. 

§ 405. With the suffix of the third person it is often used 
adverbially, as khallasitni bardu 1 ugra di, u bardu kattar khGrak 
this remuneration, however) will satisfy me, imleed I titanic you 
for it ; in kan bi Ih'is walla min gher fulus bardu ya stdl zeye 
ba'du, ya'ni bardu ma fish niani' hardiya * ana khaddamak, i.e. 
whether you pay me or not, it's all the same, if doesn't mutter, I am 
your servant. 

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 

§ 40G. The rules which govern the concord of the adjeoti 
with its substantive apply to t hat of the demonsl ratdve pronouns, 
so that a broken plural is very frequently, and a perfect plural 

occasionally, followed or represented by di and dik haiya, a.s 

kidl il ashya di nil these things, hiya 1 bidum di fcigi 'alfik these 

1 For the form taken by the BuffiX with this word, see ;< 120, 
It i> sometimes pronounced with </, and is said to he derived 
from hi ard. Can it be the Turkish birdeh / 



264 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

clothes fit you, il hagat di x these things, il mistakhdimin di (better 
dol) these employes. 

§ 407. Even when an adjective qualifying a preceding sub- 
stantive is a perfect plural the demonstrative will sometimes be 
in the feminine singular, as ir riggala 1 mistakhdimin di. 

§ 408. A demonstrative as well as a personal pronoun may 
be either in the singular or plural when used with or referring 
to a collective noun, and is more likely to be in the latter 
number when the individuals of the class are separated ; thus, 
although we say generally il namle dih these ants, il ghanam di 
these sheep, rather than il namle dol, il ghanam dol, we might call 
to a drover limm il ghanam dol min sikkitna get these sheep 
together {and take them) out of my way ; so shuf in namle dolilli 
mbahtarin fi kulle matrah look at these ants scattered all over the 
place. 

§ 409. Shuwaiya is almost universally used with a plural 
demonstrative as with a plural adjective, as shil ish shuwaiyit it 
tibne dol take away these few bits of straw. 

§ 410. Although the substantive qualified by the adjective 
kam is in the singular, the demonstrative will be in the plural, 
as il kam kilma dol t/iese few words, kam kitab dol how many 
books are these ? 

§ 411. An invariable adjective, or one used invariably, will be 
followed by a plural demonstrative though the substantive with 
which it agrees is not expressed, as il baladi dol. (See § 322.) 

§ 412. The demonstrative may, of course, stand alone, refer- 
ring to a noun understood, as da ahsan this is better ; dol nas 
taivibin tliese are good people ; 'auz di? do you want this? (refer- 
ring to a feminine object). It will generally agree with the 
noun unexpressed, so that we should not say khud da take this. 
when pointing to a hat (burnita) or other feminine object, but 
it is sometimes used neutrally when the object is not clearly 
referred to, as da (for di) haga kuwaiyisa ; da (but better di) 
fulfisak that's your money. 

§ 413. There is not the same distinction between da and 
dik-lia, <fcc., that there is between this and that in English, da 
being equivalent to that almost as often as it La to this, and 

pointing to a. distant object as well as to a Dear on.';- e.g. 
shut' il binte di beti'mil eh hen&k? see what that girl is doing 

1 II ashvat ddl is more usual, bu1 il b&g&1 di is more common 
than il hagat dol. Experience is the only safe guide, 

- This is the reason why two demonstratives oan be joined 
together. (See § 124.) 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 265 

there ; il kitab da Hi shtaretu lu mbarih yi'gibu ? does he like that 
book which I bought him yesterday? da she we da she this is one 
iking and that is another. 

§ 414. Dik-ha and dik-hauwa necessarily imply the existence 
of another object closer at hand ; thus we say khushshe min il 
bab dih illl 'andak, mush min dik-ha go in by this door near yov, 
not by (hat there ; 'auz il burneta di walla dik-haiya ? do you want 
this hat or the other? If the objects are beside one another, we 
must speak of both as da ; thus, in the last example, if the 
speaker were holding the two hats in his hand, he would say 
'auz il burneta di walla di? 

§ 415. Da occasionally precedes both noun and ai'ticle, as 
da 1 kalam mush kuwaiyis that assertion is not seemly ; so in the 
adverbial expression dilwaqt, and it may be placed both before 
and after a word for the sake of emphasis, as da r ragil da, di 1 
hurma di, deh da! (for da eh da) what's this, what's the meaning 
of this? We may even in the last expression repeat the demon- 
strative twice, and say da deh dih ! deh dih da 1 kalam ! 

§ 416. Both da and di sometimes partake more of the nature 
of demonstrative exclamations than of pronouns. This happens 
in most of the cases where they precede the nouns, and 
they will not necessarily be in concord with them ; e.g. da 
flan gih (or da flan da gih) see! so and so has come ; deh da d 
dawaya di ! what sort of an ink-pot is this ? kebir da eh ? how's it 
large? ho/o can you call it large? da kalamak eh? ichat's tit at 
yrju're saying ? da nnaharda (or di nnaharda) this very day ; x da 
hna fulan here we are, whoever it be; da lei ! bid it was night I da 
nnaharda dunya we bukra akhra, i.e. we live to-day, and to-morrow 
we die ; da 1 arde kulliha '6m min kutr il moiya see the ground is 
all deluged toith water ; da s sana di ma fishe harr why, there's no 
heat at all this year ; }a di 1 lela is suda, ya di n uahar il wisikh 
what a black night, a dirty day, is this/ 2 kulle ma da (or dau = 
da we) yisman he grfs fatter and fatter. 

§ 417. When the substantive is qualified by an adjective th<' 
demonstrative may either be placed between the two or follow 
the adjective, as id dawaya di 1 kebira (or id dawaya 1 kebira di) 
this large ink-horn ; il khaddamin dol il battalin (or il khaddamin 
il battalin dol). It should, however, be always placed after the 
possessive adjective beta' to prevent confusion; thus il khadda- 



1 Comp. the pleonasm in It. quesi'oggi and Fr. ce juurd'hui, 
oggi and hui being from the Lat. hodie ( = /*<»• die). 

2 I.e. what a night of horrors, a terrible dag .' 



266 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

inin betfi'i dol these servants of mine, but il kkaddaniin dol betu'i 
these servants are mine. 

§ 418. Similarly, when two nouns are in apposition, and 
especially when the second is used adjectively, the demonstra- 
tive may intervene or be placed after both, as il walad da it 
talmiz (or il walad it talmiz da) this school-hoy ; il gallabiya di 1 
harir (or il gallabiya 1 harir di) this silk gown : il bab da 1 hadid 
(or il bab il hadid da) this iron gate ; but it usually follows the 
second, whether a pure genitive or not, when the two are closely 
united, as il qalam ir rusas da this lead-pencil; is sikka 1 hadid 
di this railway ; ir riggala 1 giran dol these neighbours; ir ruh in 
nashadir di this ammonia; ish shuwaiyit, il babbit, il moiya dol 
this little, these few drops of, water. 

§ 119. The demonstrative is used without the article with a 
proper name in the singular, but if two or more persons of the 
same name are spoken of it will be accompanied by the article, 
as Mehammad da this (man called) M., but il Mehammaden, il 
Mehammadat dol. 

§ 420. The article is also omitted before the substantive 
fulan such a one (but not with the adjective fulani), and gener- 
ally before a sentence equivalent to a noun, as a'uzu bi llah da 
this man from whom God protect me, 1 but il ismu eh da gih (or 
ismu eh da gih) this Mr. Whafs-his-name lias come. 2 Finally, it 
is often dropped before substantives governed by abb and uinm 
(§ 261), as umme 'ashara di. 

§421. This and that may often be rendered by the adverb 
kede so, as lamma shufte minnu kede kunte rayh adrabu ichen I 
saw that from him (*±him do that), I was about to strike him : so 
ba'de kede after that, &c. Kede is equivalent to the English 
demonstrative so in such a phrase as huwa sakrao 1 Kede it 
drunk? He is so. 3 

§ 422. Aho may, like da, be used adverbially : thus a woman 
may say ah6 gaya ! & e, / am coining ! as well as ahe* gaya ! *<> aho 
gat ahe* ! .-< i , there she's come ! 4 



1 Lit. this I seek refuge with God (from). 

2 Almk.it ii da is used by the uneducated. (See ^ 240.) 

3 So was originally n pronoun only, though now generally 
used as an adverb. 

1 Notice that aho and ahe, though for ahuwa and ahiya, 
may be used with the first person. 



THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 2(57 

THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 

§423. The interrogative min? is placed optionally at the 
beginning or the end of a direct sentence, as min darabak ? (or 
darabak min?) who struck you ? min garak? (or garak min ?) 
is your neighbour ? min gay bukra? (or gay bukra min?). Eh is 
only placed at the beginning when considerable stress is laid on 
it, the relative illi being often inserted between it and a verb 
in this case, as eh qal lak (or eh illi qal lak) ir ragil da ? what 
it that man said to you? Here in ordinary circumstances 
we would say ir ragil da qal lak eh ? (or qal lak eh ir ragil da ?). 
Remark. — It is very unusual in any circumstances for eh t. i 
precede a verb when the latter is not accompanied by any other 
word; for instance we very seldom hear eh qal? for' qal eh? or 
eh 'auz ? for 'auz eh ? It is not infrequently the first word in a 
sentence where the substantive verb is understood, as eh da ? eh 
il haga di? what (is) this thing? 

Leh and its equivalent 'ala shan eh (or 'ashan eh) for what 

«n? wherefore? are put almost indifferently before' or aftei 

the verb. Li eh sabab? bi sabab eh? for what cause? and 

similar expressions generally stand first in the sentence, and 

this is invariably the position of esh ? 

Anhu, &c, as well as anl, must precede the substantive with 
which they are used. (See § 125.) 

In indirect sentences the interrogatives should always follow 
the final verb, as qal lak darabu min ? did he tell you who struck 
him ! 

§ 424. Min? may sometimes be translated by the adjectival 
interrogative which? being practically equivalent to anhu or 
am, as min fihum Mehammad? which of them is M.? When 
repeated with the copulative, it forms a "kind of plural, as min 
u min shafnk? (or shafak ?) who were they who saw you ? kan min 
u min maugudln? (or maugud?) who were present? It may be 
followed by the relative illi, the substantive verb and the third 
personal pronoun being understood, as min illi darab il garaz? 1 
who was d who rang the liell? 

125. Eh, like min, may be used with a plural noun, as eh il 
bagat illi f ggbak \ what are tlie things which are in your pocket ' 
eh il kuwar dfd illi 'auz til'ab buhum ? It occasionally, but 
-mm, .'what incorrectly, asks, like anhu and anl, for one or more 
objects out of a definite number, as ruhte 'ala gh bet min ddl I 
to which of these houses did you qo ' 

1 Huwu may, of course, be expressed as min huwa Hi gih i 



268 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 426. Its use as a genitive in such phrases as hagit eh 
(or hagt eh) ? sittit eh ? how six ? (alluded to in § 64) is very 
common, and, with an adjective, is equivalent to that of the 
adverb izzey ; thus 'aiyanit eh? 1 does not mean of what is she 
ill ? which would be 'aiyana bi eh ? but how can site be ill ? and 
implies a disbelief in the statement. 

Remaek. — We may say with almost identical meaning, eh ! 
'aiyana fen? (or eh illi 'aiyana di !). 

§ 427. Somewhat similar is the use of eh with a verb in such 
an expression as istanna ! Istannaeh? Wait! What do you mean 
by wait ? why should I wait ? 

§ 428. The neuter interrogative ma is used only with the 
preposition li with the pronominal suffixes, as ma lu what has 
he? i.e. what is the matter with him?" ana ma li? what's that 
to me? ma li u ma lak? what have I to do with you? ma lhum 
min il fulus dol ? what share have they in this money ? ma lhum 
fi 1 fulus dol? what hare they to do with this money? What is 
the matter with this man, woman, $c, must be translated by ir 
ragil da ma lu? il mara di ma Ilia? (or ma lu li r ragil da I 
etc.), not by ma li r ragil da, &c. Eh is sometimes added 
pleonastically, as ma lu eh ? 

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 

§ 429. This class of pronouns has been already treated of to 
some extent under the Possessives and Suffixes, so that only a few 
remarks need to be added here, and firstly : — 

§ 430. The relative illi is not expressed when the antecedent 
is indefinite, or the verb in the relative clause, whether expressed 
or understood, has the sense of a pluperfect. In the former 
case the relative clause is often equivalent to a qualitative 
adjective, as liya bet ma fihshe ahsan minnu / have a lumse 
than whtrh there is none better, second to rum . yibqa wahid ma 
khadshe ugritu there remain* one who has >«</ had i< pay . ;l,nwl 
ragil gib abuya the first man to come was my father; Gh bah 
beyikhbal there isadoor banging; fih nas ma yehibbuhsh 
are people who don't Wee him; fi ragil li 1 b&b beyis'al 'alfik 
is a man at the door asking for you; babur quwwitu 'lahrln lmsan 
an engine of twenty horse-power; wabid Umu M. one namol M. ; 
iddini min ahsan 'andak gm meof the bed you hare ; dakhalna 

i Qat'a often falls out, as id dinya dalma, Dalmi tch ! (for 
dalmit 6h !) how <■"" you call it dark .' 

ina-t-il ! 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN" 269 

f bet sahbu mush maugud we went into a house whose owner was 
absent ; qabilna wahid wishshu mekashshar we met a man with a 
sulky face ; huwa ragil ma yi'raf she haga he is a man who knows 
nothing, an ignoramus; da ragil la ba'se ininnu (or 'aleh) an 
unobjectionable man ; kalam ma lush asl an unfounded statement ; 
gabu 1 walad kanu mhammiyinu they brought the boy wham 
they had already bathed, i.e. having previously bathed him ; min 
dimnuhum kan il qadi mesheya'il lu ( = mesheya'in lu) amongst 
them was the kadi, for whom they had sent. ' 

Remark a. — Where the relative is the object of the verb the 
suffix may also be omitted, as ma 'andish addi lak (or addih lak) 
/ hwe none, nothing, to give gnu. 

Remark b. — Notice the expression 'auz sanduq. 'auzu ginsu 
eh ? ( = 'auz illi yekun ginsu eh ?) / want a box. What kind do 
you want ? 

§431. The antecedent may be omitted when there is no 
doubt as to its identity, as illi kan hina rah henak. This is 
often the case where the antecedent to be supplied is in the third 
person, as in proverbs, as illi ma yeshufshe min il ghurbal a'ma 
he who cannot see through a sieve is blind ; illi ma luhshe hadde, 
luh Rabbina 1 he who is without any one, fyc. Illi is equivalent to 
the English what when standing for that which, as illi a'rafu 
aqulu lak id, at I know I will tell you ; illi shuftu ana innu huwa 
Hi darabha what I saw was that ( = asfar as I could see) it was he 
who struck her. 

§ 432. Illi . . . wi Hi has the force of one . . . another, or 
the one . . . the other? as illi yiddi lu qirshen wi Hi yiddi lu 
talat qurush wi Hi yiddi lu arba'a one gives him two piastres, an- 
other three, and another four ; illi yigfl bukra wi Hi vigu ba'de bukra 
some come to-morrow, and others the dag after. 

§ 433. MS (ma) refers almost exclusively to inanimate ante- 
cedents, corresponding to the Latin quod or id quod. It some- 
times contains within itself the force of both antecedent and 
relative, and as the object it does not, like illi, require the verb 
to take the suffix. Except when followed by the preposition 
ben (the copula being understood) its antecedent, when ex- 
pressed, though somewhat definite in sense, is never accom- 
panied by the article. 



1 In the expression illi yiddi lak humar ma tshufshe sinnu 
kam (= don't look a gift horse iri the mouth), illi yiddi lak is 
equivalent to iza ddfi lak wahid. 

"-' As qui . . . qui in Fr. 



270 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

It is mostly used in the three following cases : — 

(a) When it partakes of the nature of an indefinite pronoun. 

(b) Where it is equivalent to the English relative that go- 
verned by a preposition unexpressed, its antecedent being a 
date or period of time, or the relative clause being in the posi- 
tion of a genitive governed by the antecedent. 

(<•) After the prepositions qabl, ba'd, ben, 'ashan ('ala sha.ii), 1 
>vc.,and the substantive kull, forming conjunctions with them ; e.g. 
kaflit ma 'andu min it fultis all the money he has, whatever money 
he has ; kulle ma lu whatever he has ; ahsan ma mi'i the best I hare ; 
giri 'ala akhir ma mi'ah lie ran as fast as he could, all he kneu : 
'ala ma shilf (ma ashuf) ana as far as I can see, judge ; ma ben 
lahmar u ma. ben liswid between red and black ; il masafa ma, ben 
litnen the distance between the two ; ahsan ma, fi 1 ghanam best of 
everything among the sheep, i.e. of all the sheep; ana akbar ma 
fi khwati (ikhwati) / am the oldest of all my brothers, i.e. older 
than any of my brothers, matrah ma truh ruh, i.e. go where 
pott like; 'ala qadde mahum 2 'auzin as much as they want; 
nahar, yom, ma get the day that ( = on which) I came ; fi msafit ma 
tit'ashsha akun hadir I trill be ready as sunn as {by the tin/') 
you have dined ; sabab ma, zi'il ir ragil (or sabab ir ragil ma zi'il) 
the reason that (= for which) the man got angry; min kutre nut 
kan za'htn 2 from the excess of fets anger; qable ma. yigi before lie 
comes : 'ashan ma rah because he has gone, (fee. 

Remark. — In cases b and c ma should immediately precede 
the verb, so that it is incorrect to say sabab ma r ragil zi'il, 
qable ma il walad gih, but see § 579, note. 

§ 434. The word in is often used instead of ma in case ft when 
the antecedent is a period of time, as nahar in satirna the day 
that we started ; tani y6m in get the day after you came ; hal in 
rahum the moment they went. 

$ 435. Ala (or in) is sometimes omitted in ease l. as thai \< 
in English, as a'rafu min yom kunt.e shuftu fi bdt wfthid lahbi 
/ know him since a day I met him at the house of a friend of 

mine : so Babab ir ragil zi'il the reason the man got angry. 

■■ 1-36. When the third personal pronoun is the subject of a 
verb of which ma is the objeot, it may be appended bo ma in its 
shortened form as a suffix, as in -ala qadde mahum 'an/in above. 

1 'aslian ma - Lat. quod, Kfod. Greek 8u$Ti (=Sia 5ti), 

2 When the third persona] pronoun stands for the subject 
of the verh it nia\ be appended in it- shortened fern b 
IJuwa becomes bu, btya, bya, he\ 

1 This is more rivid than min kutre ■a'alu. 



DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS 271 

§ 437. When a statement is made with regard to two or 
more objects, and the speaker proceeds to define its particular 
relation to each one of them, the first may be referred to, 
whether animate or inanimate, by ma followed by the personal 
pronoun, the two together being equivalent to the verb ya'ni in 
its adverbial sense, as ana qaret il kitaben ma huwa ktabak wi 
ktab 'ali ; laqet it talata kulluhum madbuhin, ma huwa Meham- 
mad madrub bi rusasa fi sidru wi Hasan rasu maqtii'a wi 
II s&D madrub bi sikkina fi qalbu I found them all three slaughtered 
— Mohammed shot with a bullet in his chest, Hasan with his head 
severed, and Hisein stabbed to the heart with a knife. 

Remark. — Illi may, of course, be used in the same wav. 

DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS 

S 438. Kull in the sense of every, earJi, always precedes its 
substantive, as kulle ragil every man, kulle haga ewh thing ; but 
when used with a definite noun it is treated as a substantive, 
and is followed by a genitive or is placed after the noun with 
the pronominal suffixes attached to it, as kull ir riggala £Ae whole 
of the men, i.e. all the men, kull il mistakhdimin all the employes, 
kull id dinya the whole of the world(ar ir riggala, il mistakhdimin 
kulluhum, id dinya kulliha). When the noun is understood and 
not represented by a personal pronoun, il kull may be used for 
nil of them, lln' whole of it, as agib lak kam wahid minhum, 
shuwaiya minhum 'i Hatil kull. JShall I briny you a fen- <f them, 
some of it? Bring them all, the whole of it. 

§ 439. Tul expresses the whole in the sense of extension 
over a period, and is, like kull, a substantive, as tul in miliar ///. 
whole of the day. When following its substantive it does not. 
like kull, take the pronominal suffix, but plays the part of an 
adverb, as la shuftuhum il lei till wala n miliar tul. 

§ 440. Every one is expressed by kulle wahid, kulle hay li.e. 
every living soul), kull in mis, kulle niin kan, (fee. ; every one of tin 
men, <>r<>nj one of the books, by kulle wahid niin ir riggala,, kulle 
W&hid niin il kitabat (or kulle ragil niin ir riggala, kulle kitab 
niin il kitabat); every man of them by kulle ragil minhum; so 
kulle kitah, kulle kubbaya, minhuiii, every other by kulle tani, 
or kull followed by a noun in the dual, as kulle yoiuOn every 

other day. 

§441. One by one is expressed by wahid wahid, or by the 
repetition of the noun, as yeruhu 'ala 1 biyut bet bit they go 
round to the h<uis>..< <>u<- by one; two by two by itnen itnen, and so 

forth. 



272 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 442. Either and neither have no exact representatives, and 
must be rendered by periphrases, as krdle wahid min litnen 
yighdar yi'milu either of them can do it; kulle wahid (or dih we 
dih) yi'gibni (or litnen yi'gibuni) either will please me ; musibit 
dih walla dih tigharraq litnen a mishap to either will ruin both ; 
wala yigish wala wahid mil litnen nor null either of them come; 
'auz anhun minhum ? La dih wala dih which of them do you 
want? Neither ; wala wahid mil litnen gih (or litnen ma gush) 
neither of them came; 1 huwa wi sh shekh ma gush neither he nor 
the sheikh came ; la na (la ana) wala nta neither I nor you; la 
Mhammad wala Hsen neither M. nor H. ; fi barren in Nil on 
either side of the Nile; wala fi barre min barren in Nil on neither 
side of the Nile. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

§ 443. These include the numeral and indefinite article wahid, 
which bears most of the senses in which the English one is used, 
as huwa yimkin yigi wahid yom perhaps he will come one day ; - 
gan! wahid one (i.e. a certain man) came to me. One as an in- 
definite substantive may be translated by wahid (or more usually 
il wahid), or linsan (or linsan minna), as kalam zeye dih yiza"al 
il wahid such a remark makes one angry ; ahsan linsan ma yish- 
rabshe ziyada 'an sitte sagayir fi 1 yum it is better that one do not 
smoke (= not to smoke) more than six cigarettes a day; linsan 
minna lazim yi'mil waziftu wala yintibih li fkar in nas one must 
do one's didy without heeding the notions of other peopU , When 
one is equivalent to they used indefinitely, it may be expressed 
by the third person plural of the verb, as yequlu 1 kalaui da one 
uses this expression. 

§ 444. One as a definite substantive qualified by an attribu- 
tive adjective, and referring to an object already mentioned, 

also finds an equivalent in waliiil, as ana gib (agib) lak wahid 

kuwaiyis, wahda kuwaiyisa (according as the noun understood 
is masc. or Eem.) / will bring you a good one; hat U kam wahid 
tnwal bring me a f> w tony ones. 

§445. The unit may bo omitted when the noun has just 
been qualified by an adjective opposed in Bense, as i> gahne dih 

1 Not both oi them didn't COine, which we would translate by 
mush litnen gum. We say k nil it mush li mahillu, meaning 
none of it is in its place. 

'-' But it is more idiomatic bo say yflm min il iyam (or yom 

min Eftt il iyam, or y6m min ddl). 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 273 

wisikh, iddini (wahid) nidif this plate is dirty, give me a 
one. 

§ 446. When one and the other or another are opposed in a 
sentence to each other, their Arabic equivalents may be omitted 
altogether, the repetition of the substantive being sufficient, as 
it sometimes is in English, to indicate the meaning, as ruhna 
min giha li giha, min b§t li bet we went from one place to mother, 
from house to house; rigle li f6q we rigle li taht one leg up and 
the other down; id tid'ak bi s sabiina we id tesubb one hand 
scrubbing with the soap while the other pours {the water) ; iddi lu 
1 gawab mh. id li id, i.e. give him the letter from your hand into 
las; yom fih u y6m ma fish one day there is and another there 
isn't; bitruh tamalli? Yom ewa u yum la' do you always yo? 
due day yes and, another no (i.e. one day I do and another 1 don't) ; 
da gins wi da gins that is one sort and this is another. 

Remark.— The word tani may be added to the noun repeated, 
as ruhna min giha li giha tanya, &c. 

§ 447. One . . . another, as substantives, may be translated 
in this connection by illi . . . illi (§ 432) ; one thing . . . another 
thing, by bashqa . . . bashqa ; l or we may repeat the substantive, 
as da kitab we da kitab, &o. 

§448. Any one, anybody, any person ( = somebody) may be 
rendered by wahid or hadd, as shufte wahid (or hadd) ? did yon 
see anybody! iza gib hadd if any one should come, hadde minkti 
'auz yeruh? does any one of you want to go/ the plural any 
( = some) by nas, haga, Ac min, or simply min. as fih mis minku 
rahu Masr? have any of you been to Cairo? wa!a haga min il 
wuhush nor any wild beasts; fih minhum battalin ?* are any of 
them bad? _ (For the use of the indefinites ey, eviha, see beluu.j 

As an indefinite quantitative adjective (again = some) any is 
not expressed in Arabic, but as a substantive it is general In 
represented by min with a pronominal suffix, though here again 
it may be omitted, as 'auz karasi, laban? do you want am, chairs 
milk ! mush 'auz minhum, minnu (or mush 'auz) I don't want ami 

It i:\iakk. —With the negative signs hadd signifies no on, 
nobody, as ma haddish gih nobody came. Anything, when equi- 
valent to something, is rendered by haga, in other cases by Syiha 
haga or kulle shin (she in) kan, as 'andak haga tiddihfi li? 'bar- 
you anything to give me 1 ma tqul lush haga don't tell him any- 
thing ; a(hh lu eh \ Iddi 1,, ,\\ e haga what shall I give him I Give 

hun anything ; kulle shin kan yiqdl anything will do. 

§ I Hi. Some in the sense of about is best translated bj the 

1 Turkish. 



274 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

verbs yigi, yitla', vised as adverbs, as 'umru yitla' tanianin he is 
some eighty years old, yigi gum'itrn ma shuftush it is some two 
weeks since I saw him ; but true adverbs must be used where a 
future event is spoken of ; thus we should not say haq'ud henak 
yigi (or yitla' sanaten), but taqrlban sanatrn (or zeye sanaten) / 
shall stay there some two years. 

% 450. Somebody can always be expressed by wahid. as wahid 
darab il garaz somebody rang the bell, <fcc. ; yiftikir leinnu wahid 
he thinks he is somebody ; something by haga. Some . . . some is 
rendered, as one . . . another (above), by illi . . . illi, or by the pre- 
position min with the suffixes, as gih talatin nafar minhum 
ri^gala u niinhum nisw&n thirty people hare come, some men and 
some women. 

§451. The quantitative adjective is unexpressed (as any 
above), as hat 'esh u zibda u gibna bring some bread, butter, and 
cheese; shufna klab fi s sikka we saw some dogs in the street; but 
'andak'esh? Ewa. Taiyib, iddini minnu (or iddini) have you 
some bread? Yes. Good, give me some. 

§452. Other as an adjective finds its equivalent m tani or 
in other words already mentioned. The indefinite otttt r th 
expressed by tani gher or by ghgr alone, as wahda tanya gher 
Eikhita another than Bikhita; ma fish hadde gherl. 

Ki-makk. — Ynm min d.M means the other day. some /"fun day, 
according as the verb is past, or future. Every oth- 
rendered by kulle tani ydm, kulle yftmen, or kulh> yfooo we yftm. 

I 453. the indefinite relatives whoever, whichever, who* 
&c, are expressed byfiye (or §yiha, §yuha) wahid and §y fol- 
lowed by a noun with or without the case ending. 
may be by lye wahdin kfin. But as a rule an English indefinite 
relative may be rendered by illi (or mi), accompanied sometimes 
by other words bo make the Berne clear, as illi yidrabnl adrabu 
lohoever strikes me I will strike him ; illi ti'milu a'mila ana what- 
ever ,/,,„ do 1 will do; illi todihnJ bardn akun mal 
contented with whatever you give m . illi yequlu hfiwa I 
kidb whatever he says is " lie; il ydm illi tigi fih bardu y< 
kuwaiyis; illi ma takhddsh inta akhdu ana /'// take >rhi ■■■ 
you don't take ; illi yigra yigra 

i.e. happen what may; waqte ma ti-i tigl at whatever time you 
come, come, i.e. come when you I 

i;i M m,k There is Bometimes a confusion between the In- 
definite relative adverb and the pronoun itself, as in u 
aion yiduqqu 1 mazcfka li kulle ma hadde yekhushBh th- 
strikes up in honour of each as he ■ l 

Culle ma meat a - 



THE VERB: ITS CONCORD WITH SUBJECT 27B 

§ 454. Ey, eyi wahid, and eyiha require the noun to take the 

ending when the substantive verb follows (the verb being 

usually in concord with the noun), as bi eye taiiqtin kanit by 

any means / chat ever ; eye wahid fiqihin kan any schoolmaster, 

rer he be ; min eyuha dukkanin kanit from whatever shop it 
be; but bi eye tariqa ; bi eye tariqa min 'andak (or ill) 'undak) by 
any means ; by any means you hare ; ishtirih min eyuha dukkan 
buy it from any shop. Eye wahid and eyiha wahid become 
lye wahdin and eyiha wahdin when followed by a verb, and 
remain masculine though a feminine object be understood, as 
eye wahdin gat, iddih liha give it to any woman who comes. 

§ 435. Fulan and the adjective fulani are the English such, 
so and so, and may be used together somewhat pleonastic-ally, as 
fulan gih such a one has come; il Beh fulan so and so Bey; il 
inara 1 fulaniya such and such a woman; shufte fulan il fulani. 

§ 456. In dates kaza is generally employed, as lelit kaza min 
ish shahr on swli and such a night of the month. 

Remark. — The definite such is a demonstrative adjective, and 
will be generally rendered by the adverb zey, as / never saw such 
a man as you ma shuftish ahadan ragil zeyak. 

§ 457. Zed, 'anir, ilaghib, and occasionally 'umar, are used as 
hypothetical names, like Jones, Brown, and Robinson in English, 
as Ragbib gih u 'amre rah; Zed u 'umar u Raghib u tirtan we 
'illan ; iza darabak Zed min in mis. 



THE VERB 
ITS CONCORD WITH ITS SUBJECT 

§ 158. When the Bubject is definite the verb as a genera] 
rule agrees with it in gender and number, as ir ragil gih the 
man earn ; il mara 'aiyatit the woman wept ; tfiga'nS r&s-i my 
bead aches (lit. pains me) ; ir riggala yishtaghalu the m> n work : ' 
hut the following important exeepl inns must lie noted : — 

(a) When the subjeci is a broken plural the verb is very 

frequently placed in the feminine singular, as il hamir insaraqil 

kuUiha (or kulluhuni) all the donkeys wen stolen; il kh& kanit 

aa th hones were tired; nizlil il kilab we iauwit the dogs 



1 In relative clauses the verb is, of course, of the gender and 
number of the antecedent, whether expressed or understood, aa 
ittagirilll bah li 1 buda'a ; i<l dawaya Hi nkabbit; ill kand bins 

r.ilni Masi-. 



276 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

came down and barked ; ish shababik infatahit the windows were 
opened; gat ir riggala we giryit in niswan the men came and, 
the ivomen ran away ; kan fib. 'aiya ktir ma ben in nas, lakin il 
hamdu li llah aghlabha gat salima there was a great deal of illness 
among the people, bid, thank God, most of them recovered ; mahabis 
gheru kanit mahbusa mi'u other 2>>'isoners were imprisoned with 
him ; is siyas misbyit the sayces went away ; lamma gat il bara- 
bra nizlit ir rukkab min il babur when the Berberis came the 
passengers got down from the train. 

Remark a. — When the demonstrative is in the feminine 
singular the verb should be so likewise, as in nas di tigi, but in 
nas dol yigu. 

Remark b. — The verb may be in the feminine singular though 
followed by a predicate adjective (or participle) in the plural, as 
'eneh kanit maftuhin his eyes were open ; il wiraq kanit maktubin 
the papers were written. 

Remark c. — In all the above examples the verb might also be 
in the plural, and would be perhaps more often than nut when 
the subject denotes human beings, or when it precedes the verb. 

(//) The verb will occasionally be in the feminine singular 
when the subject is a perfect plural and is preceded by the verb, 
as lamma gat lefendiyat mishyit in naggarin when tht Efendis 
came the carpenters went away. 

Remark. — In naggarin il mestakhdimin rahit (the subject 
preceding the verb) will rarely be heard, because by placing the 
noun first in the sentence we emphasize the fact that it denotes 
a number of separate objects. 1 

(r) The verb will sometimes be in the third person singular 
masculine when preceding a plural subject and separated From 
it by intervening words, as Fatah luhiun bab il bfit il khaddamin 
the » rvante opened the door of the house to them ; but Fatahu Ilium 
would also be quite correct, and indeed more usual. 

Remark. — The third person singular may occasionally be 

heard when the verb is similarly separated from a feminine Sub- 
ject in the singular, as LddSI lu higab 'ashan yeruh minnu l>i izni 



1 The construction is admissible when the persons «>r things 
described are spoken of as a single body without reference to 
their personality. It must be remembered that the Feminine in 
Arabic also represents the neuter of other languages, and thai 
several objects mentioned together, though they be living, are 
liable to be regarded in the Semitic langu i mere multeity 

when their individual it \ is not brought to the Foreground. Oomp. 



THE VERB: ITS CONCORD WITH SUBJECT 277 

Hah il 'en / gave him a charm that the evil eye might, by God's 
permission, depart from him; but this is an irregularity not to be 
imitated. 1 

(d) When the past tense of the substantive verb kan precedes 
a definite subject it very frequently remains unchanged, especially 
if the subject is a feminine singular, and this even when it serves 
as the auxiliary of another verb which itself agrees with the 
subject, 2 as kan il bint fi 1 bet the girl was in the house; kan id 
dawaya ikkabbit the inkstand had been upset; iza kan il binte 
tigi (in preference to iza kanit il binte tigi); k3,n ummu bit'aiyat 
his mother was weeping ; kan (or kanit) is sa'a tnen it was two 
o'clock ; kan id dinya dalma it was dark. 

§ -159. When the verb precedes two or more definite subjects 
of different genders or numbers, it may either agree in gender 
and number with the first, or be placed in the plural, as gih (or 
gum) il walad w abuh the bog and his father came, gat (or gum) 
il mara wi bniha ; insaraqit il 'arabiya we taqmiha the car, 
and its harness were stolen; qumt ana wi Mhamrnad / and M. 
got up. 

§ 460 When the subjects precede, the verb should be in the 
plural, as il mara wi 1 walad gum ; ana wi nta ruhna; but it is 
occasionally made to agree with the first when feminine, as hlya 
w abulia r&hu or (less usually) r&hit; but abuha we hlya r&hu, 
not rah. 

461. When the subject is a collective noun the verb will 
be in the masculine singular, as il gamus kan li 1 ghet the 
buffaloes were in the field ; is sagar yikhdarre li shahr abril the 
get green in the montlt of April : il lainiin, il burtuqan, ghili 
j, have got dear; bunduqhum inzabat min il bulls 
their guns were st ized by the police ; kam nafar gat (or gum) ! how 
many person* came ? 

Remark a. — Though the above construction is the usual one, 
Tin- verb is sometimes in the plural, especially when the subject 
denotes living beings, as il ghafar gih (or gu) tho watchmen 
■■urn' . 

Remark b. — With the words 'askar soldiers, troops, and 

1 'I'll'' intervening words ma\ cause the Bpeaker to forget that 
I with a masculine verb and intended t.> use a masculine 
i «'U u. In i he above example, for instance, the word hasad might 
be in lii- thoughts when in- began with the eerb yeruh. 

En oompound tenses the auxiliary is often of a different 
number and gender to tin- principal verb, as il gama'a kanit 
lissa ma gush tJu },><>j,/< had /"•/ yet a 



278 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

ghanam sheep, the verb is put in the feminine singular, as 
qalit il 'askar li ba'diha the soldiers said to one another ; il ghanam 
gat. II 'askar gum may also be said. 

Remark c. — Nouns of this class, denoting nationalities, are 
usually regarded as masculine singulars, but the verb is not in- 
frequently in the plural or the feminine singular, as lingliz 
miskii (or miskit) arduhum the English seized their land ; mishyit 
il 'arab the Arabs are gone. 

§ 462. When the subject is a noun of multitude the verb 
is usually in the plural, but may also be in the masculine or the 
feminine singular, as ahlu rahu (or rahit) Masr his j/eople have 
gone to Cairo ; il khalq igtama'u (or igtama'it) the people collected ; 
il harim nizlu, nizlit, nizil li 'arabiya tanya tlie la/lies got into 
another carriage ; kulle barre Masr beyid'u 'aleh all Egy]>t a 
him ; ba'd in nas yequlu (or teqiil), the latter agreeing with the 
broken plural nas in the feminine singular ; but ba'duhum 
yequlu (or yequl) ; il gama'a dol rah yirkabfi li 'arabiyitak? 
ate these people going to drive in your carriage? il 'alam da, di. 
dol gih, gat, gum min e"n where have these people* cc 
il kulle gih (or gum) all came. Of two verbs, one may be in 
the singular and the other in the plural, as il ba'de gih wi 1 
ba'de ma gush some came and sorru did not come. 

v 4G3. Kani with its substantive is most frequently followed 
by a verb in the feminine singular, but the plural is admissible, 
and occasionally the masculine singular is heard when the noun 
denotes male human beings, as kam kilab gat, (less usually) 
gfl i kam mara gat, gti i kam ragil gat, gu, gih ! 

Remark. — Shuwaiya, habba, and ba'dishi ( = ba'de si 
the sense of «/ lift • . arc regarded as nouns of multitude, and are 
generally constructed with a plural verb, as ish shuwaij it il 
Lilian ghilyti the little milk has boiled; babbit tibn inflaraqfl mir 
ris^abl a little straw was stolen from (he ntable ; il ba'dishi 
ddl ma yikaffush (or il ba'dishi da ma yekafflah) this small 
quantity will nut suffice. 

! A verb will sometio with fche idea conveyed 

by b word, though nol a collective noun or a noun of multil 
rather than with the actual form of fche word itself, as arba'a 
ti tal.it. i feibqa (less usually yibqu) Ltnashai , " 12; 

itn'isliar min 'ishrin bibqa tamaiiva twelve from timit-. 

eight; itndo yekaffi two's enough; ana rah add] lak 'aahara 
gindh ; iza khallasak ma fish ma'na, ma khallaiakabe . . . 
ma yi'gibak baqa / am going to offer you il": \fU sottf/ 

■ monde. 



THE VERB: ITS CONCOBD WITH SUBJECT 279 

welt and good ; if not — why, please yourself ; kutte biddi aruh 
(for kan biddi) 1 wanted to go ; l ma kuntisk lazim agi (for ma 
kanshe lazim); yeqiim dimaghu yefuq 'aleh 2 he reeai 

mess; illi zeyina nirkab 3 hamir! do such as ice rid 
donkeys? yibqa inta ksibt it results that you han won; or it 
may agree with a word which is strictly in apposition to the 
subject, or in the relation of a genitive to it, but of more im- 
portance in the sentence, as kulle barre Masr betid'i 'aleh (for 
i"-\ id'u, as above, agreeing with Masr). This is commonly the 
where the word nafs and others of similar meaning precede 
the noun with which they are used, as nafs ir riggala qalu ; 
so with titles, as hadritak, ganabak, sa'tak, the verb agreeing 
with the pronoun. 

i; 4G5. Verbs expressing the state of the weather are put in 
the feminine, the word dinya (dun ya) being understood, as matarit 
(or natarit) it rained, betishti if is raining, betir'ad it thunders, die. 

i; 466. Dinya (dunya) is also understood 4 in the expressions 
kanit id duhr, il maghrib, qamar, turab, &o. it was noon, sunset, 
moonlight, dusty, &c, but kan is also said if the predicate is 
masculine, and even sometimes whim it is feminine. 

§ 467. In the expression we khulsit baqa and so my story 

. liikaya is understood ; in ma dakhalitshe B it has nothing to 
do with it, the subject understood is a word or phrase just 
spoken. In some others, as gat salima it has turned out all 
right, il hamdu li llah illi gat 'ala kede thank God that it has 
turned out that way, hakamit kede it lias beta so ordaim /, has 
so happened, afiye ma fcigl tigi come what may, tekun h hanakak 
tiqsam li gherak, i.e. there is many a slip twixt the ewp and tft 
the verba are impersonal, the feminine standing fur the neater. 

Remark. — Impersonal verbs are, however, sometimes in the 
masculine, as ma yinfa'sh, ma 3 iglsh minnu it's of no use ; hasal 
kher no harm's done (all's well that ends welt) ; and baqa is used 
much more frequently than baqat 6 (§ 560). 

1 Kutte biddi is used nearly as frequently as kan biddi. 

2 The educated often use dtmagh with a masculine verb. 

3 Illi zrvina yirkali may be Said, but even then the plural 

hamir will be used. 

4 It is, however, frequently expressed in both cases, as id 
dinya k.'mit turab, bitir'ad. 

Or 'li ma dakhalitshe wala kharagil that is neitlier ken 

nor li. 

'■ Baqat is occasionally used for l>aqa even when it is nol 
used in a purely adi erbia] sen se. 



280 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 468. A definite dual subject requires the verb to be in the 
plural, as ir raglen gu, nizlu, or gum (gu) ir raglen ; but it is 
not unusual for the verb to be in the masculine or feminine 
singular when it precedes the subject, as lamma gih ir raglen : 
gatnl §agart@n ; and it will sometimes be in the feminine 
though following its subject, if the latter denote an inanimate 
object, and in particular if it denote the double members of the 
body, as ideh bitlit we '§neh rahit, i.e. he has lost the use of his 
hands and his eyes. We m:iy Bay 'eneh kanit maftuha. or kanit 
maftuhin, or kanu maftuha, or kanu maftuhin, but kanit 
maftuhin and kanu maftuha are unusual. 

§ 469. When the subject is indefinite and precedes the verb, 
the concord is regulated by the rules and exceptions set forth 
in the preceding sections ; but when the verb precedes, it is 
placed by preference in the masculine singular, whatever the 
gender and number of the Bubject; < .</. mara darabit bintiha 
a woman beat her daughter; qutat wi klab te'adde ba'd tats ami 
dogs bite one another; ragl@n, kitaben, gum: bul L'.i lu wahda 
'aguza there came to him an old woman ; nizil nas waiyah 'ala 1 
balad there >rent some people with him to tin village : ma yibqa 
lish ugra zeyi n nus / don't get proper wages; kan maugud nas 
ketir there were many peoj>l>- present ; lissa ma fatshe - 
iot yet passed a year ; ma hasalshe minha Bamara 
not been <<»>i good result from it: kan hasal nadra an accident 
had happened ; Lamma yigi lak gawabat when you get letter* : iza 
lu haga if anything happened to him; tabbe 'aleya raglfin 
two men overtook me, came upon me ; gih khamsa naggartn ! 
came five carpenters ; gfi Ltgurnalfin / received ' 

1!i:m\i;k The veil), however, not infrequently agi 
ciallv when it immediately precedes the subject, or the sul 
is emphasized, as hasalit lu nit's (or '§n) the > inl eye has c 
him ; gat Lak dahya! perdition upon you/ kulle ma ti.'i lu i 
yitkhaniq waiyaha whenever a v> ir him he qua 

with her, kan (or kanit) 'alfih kiswa sftda h / 
The substantive verb preceding an Indefinite subject will often 
agree with it in form, owing to the fact that there is an ellipse 
of the relative between the subject and the following word 
kanit bint qa'da ganb il bab tin 

( I. i bint illi qa'da •'. , . .); kanit 

usually 1 '.a okabbit, but kan inkal I j i an 

inkstand had > . kanu riggala henak ' tht 



i So g ' 



THE TENSES 281 

were then ; kan rigg&la henak there were men there, in such a 
phrase as ma gash ilia mratu the verb is masculine although the 
noun is definite as agreeing with the word hadd in 
The full expression would be ma gash hadde ilia mratu gat. 

70. When following the indefinite pronoun gy and it- 
noun the verb regularly agrees with the noun, but occasionally 
remains unchanged, as eye gihitin kanit whatever direction it be. 
With l.irsu, on the contrary, it remains unchanged, as 'auz 
yitgauwiz binte min hesu kan he wants to marry >> airl, wl 
the he. 

Rbhabk. — Kan serving as an auxiliary an<l placed after the 
principal verb is generally unchanged, as aati ana gil tiha kan ; 
ana qultilak inbarih kan. 

171. The verb is never in the feminine when preceding a 
perfect plural, and very rarely when preceding a dual or broken 
plural denoting human beings; thus, while both nizil and nizlu 
im (or naggaren) are admissible, nizlit cannot be said. 
•17i'. Though the first of two or more verbs may not a^ree 
in gender and number with a subject common to both of them. 
the other or others may and generally will, and this whether the 
subject be definite or indefinite, as gat il banat a misku fihum 
// "' ' seized them; q&bilni ragldn u gftru yimshti 

waiyftya two men met mo and continued walking with me; lamma 
yiL'i lak mara we tis'alak wfu n a woman comes to you and asks you ; 
iltammit in nas 'alfiya we darabuni we saraqunl the f 
around me and beat awl robbed me; (jam abb il bint w ummiha 
qftlfl . . . 

THE TENSES 

. 17::. The past tense (or perfect) denotes: — 
| An act just completed at the present time, as katabt il 
gawab / havt written the letter; kanasu 1 6da th v 1 t th 

room. 

completed at some past time, as kataht il gawftb 
qable ma yigJ / wrote the letter be/ore he came; banu ] b.'t 
'amnauwij they built the housi last year. 

• An act begun at the time of speaking, or previously, 
and continued at the pr nt time, as il walad habbiha II, ■ 

<ll> n inlnr, ,r 1 1, /, , ,- ■ . s;l , |, \ :ll{ „ ;l { y\^ r J ul f , /(// 

alzam tak leinnak \> • '■ I ommand yon to go; istaghrabl / 
hed ; ha< ( <|uha qafaltul i ght to have sh 

prayei or wish, as la samah Allah G bid; dumtum 

bi Uh."r may you keep well, farewell ; katl Allah) 

'''"■' ""■ well-being, thank you ; gat lak dahya perdition 

yOU ; in-hall:. h ma rnl.it / l,,.j ■ you won't 



282 THE SPOKEX ARABIC OF EGYPT 

(e) An act to be performed in the immediate future, as sibu ; 
l.t 1 is; u i (car we ilia) qataltak leave it alone or I'll kill you; §sh 
qultum h 1 mas'ala what say you about the matter I khallGtik be 
'afya ya sitt / leave you in health (said by a lady caller on taking 
leave). 

(/) An act which may probably or possibly take place at 
some future time, such as would often be described by the 
subjunctive in other languages, as in gih, iza rah if he t 
go; 1 li eye matrahin ruht to whatever place you go; §ye botin 
lean whatever house if be; kulle min kan 2 whoever it be; kulle 
ma amartuni buh a'milu whatever you command me ( = shall have 
commanded me) I will do. 

(</) An act which has been performed once and is cited as a 
rule for the future, as iza kan fill inishwar ruht if then' it 
errand I yo on it. This construction is nut uncommon in 
proverbs, in which vividness of expression is always an object ; 
e.g. illi tarak she 'ash balah who haves a thing live* without if 
(■= waste not, want not)', or in narrative where we could onlj 
use the present or future in English, as il walad ininna lamina 
yikbar we 'all/, yitgauwiz yequm yitlub lnahre miu abl'lh . . . u 
ha'deii lamina shat' aln'ih mush 'auz yiddi In luahr bauwish 

ugritu u gab mahre min 'andu we qam abuh khatah hi bint 
wlien one of our children grows up ami wants to get marru I /'<■ 
asks his father for (money for) a dower . . ., but wh 
his father unwilling to give it him, he saves uj> /lis earnings and 
finds the dower out of his own pocket, and his father betroths him 
to a girl. 9 

17!. The verbs khalla ht, sliat' >". siini" hear, ha- •'■■ 
mils/,/, /•, lai|.-i, waga< I find, a i id o1 hers of a similar signification, when 

themselves referring to past events, maj be followed by another 
verli iii the perfect where in English it would be in the infinitive 

Of a participle, the second verb forming an indirect predict 

the objeel of the first; e.g. khalldtu rah il bei / •' /< 
Hi" house; shuftiha gal / saw her com . Bimi'na 1 fulus wiq'it 
min gdbu we heard ilt<- money fall from his pocket; kutte bah- 
sibhum ishtaruh / mis thinking they had bought it ; ^liut't •.; 
ingalad I saw him flogged ; laqdtu nisi] rah I found him 

Rkmabk. We m is also Bay khalldta yeruh il bet, suni'ns 
1 fulus tuqa', .v.-., hut the facts are no1 then so fully certified. 

1 For the conditional 
toit. 
The present and pasl are used indiscriminately, the sp 
changing from one to the other, 



THE TENSES 

The English / saw him going will bo translated by shuftu rayih, 
or we huwa rayih, 1 or biyeruh. 

^ 475. The pa > is equivalent to the English plu- 

t : — 

(a) In a clause united t<> a previous one by a conjunction, as 
ma f&tosh ilia lamma mauwitu lie didn't leave Jam till he had 
killed him : rauwah qable ma khallas shughlu he went away befon 
he had finished his work : ba'de ma katab il gawab hattu fi zarf 
after h> had written the letti r he put it in an • nvelope. 

Kkmark. — In indirect discourse the past tense or pi 
used as a past is not followed, as in English, by the pluperfect, 
but by the simple perfect, unless it is desired to lay particular 

- on the fact that the action was already completed at the 
time that the reported words were spoken, as qal innn katab 
il gawab h* said thai //■ had written th? letter; bahsib innu gih 
1 thought he ha 

(b) Occasionally with tan, Id, in conditional sentences. 
" /•) 

'.. The pasl tense of the verb kan with a participle will 

often express the pluperfect, as kanu mbaddarfn il akl they had 

prepared the meal. This mighl also mean they h"*! been or 

.- the meal, according to the context. 

7. The aorisl corresponds to <>ur indefinite unfinished 

is ahibbu / ov him; il ghina yegib ishab rides bring 

U ; kulle vnm yiddlni qersh hi gives me </ piastn > very day . 

Lab shamse liihr ti ■ i ,; sa'a? at what time does the sun rise? o\ 

to the indefinite future, thuftu aqulln if I set him I will 

tell him : lamina yigl ashdya'fl lak when /<■ : / him 

la* ti ani sa'a bukra? at what tinu 
(will) the sun rise to-morrow f 

Rkmabk. II- nee English adjectives in able, il' L . A'-., ma) 
generally lie translated by the aorist of s passive or neuter 
verb, and comp >und nouns often rendered by its help. 
vitt.ikil edible; yin'irif recognisable; ma yitqibilsh unacceptable; 
ma yitfihimsh incomprehensibU ; yimkin possible; qamus yithafte 
ti I gflb a pocket-dictionary ; meqauwara tdtqauwar biha 1 gibna 
a chi ■ ■■ -scoop. 

i. It often plays the pari 'it' the historic present, at 
yequl (aiyib agl all right, h taps, r 11 come; yequm abuh yis'al 
minim we yequl lu his father then gets angry with him, and 
to him. 

tetimes baa the force of the imperfeel pr< 



284 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

especially when joined by the copulative to another verb in the 
imperfect present, the bi being dropped perhaps in the latter 
case for euphony, asl tindah li leh? why do you call me ( = are 
you calling me)? bit'aiyat wi tza"aq kede leh? what are you 
crying and howling like that for ? 

Remark. — Similarly, the bi may be dropped in the unfinished 
future, as u';1 tekun tinsa. 

§ 480. An event which happens habitually at regular periods 
may be denoted either by the aorist or the imperfect present, 
as kulle sana nhigg (or binhigg) we male the pilgrimage ■ 
year. 

§481. It is used like the perfect, and with much greater 
frequency, to express a wish or desire (which includes a curse), 
as Allah yihfazak, yisallimak God preserve you; Allah yitauwil 
'umrak God prolong your life ; il'an (for Allah yil'an) abuk (God) 
curse your father. Both perfect and aorist may occur in the 
samo sentence, as shakar Allah fadlak u Rabbina yitammim bi 
kher God requite your kindness, and our Lord bring about a 
issm . 

§ 482. The aorist is very frequently attached to a preceding 
verb or its participle, or a verbal noun or expression, without 
the intervention of a conjunction or any other particle. This 
may happen : — 

(a) Where it is equivalent to the English infinitive, whether 
simple or gerundial, and qualifying or limiting the sense of the 
preceding verb or verbal expression, or acting (with its comple- 
ment) as an object or an indirect predicate, <>r denoting a pur- 
pose; e.g. 'an/- aruh / want to go; yi'raf yiktib he knows how 
to write : talalma nruh we asked to go ; ana talilt minnak tiqdi li 
1 haga <li / beg you to do this for rru ; emta fcigi tshufntl when 
will you come to see met ,u'ih yishtimnS he came to insult 
liattalir ashrab dukkftn / haw given uj> smoking tobacco; huwa 
yikhtishi yeruh he is asha . khallih yitkallim let him 

speak : fadtshe tithr I {are you) not free to go outt biddt, gharadl 
amauwitu it is my wish (/ want), my purpose, to kill him ; talah 
iniiinu moiya yishrab' he asked of hiv r to drink; 'al.'kil 

fciktibA In it is foryou to write to him . kan menabbih ma bad- 
dish yigl 'andu he hud given orders f ''<»;» ; 
ma qadarshe, ma rdisb, ma qibilshe, yakhda i unable, w+ 
.rilling. In refused, tn take it . ma a'rafahe aruh tVn / don't ■ 
where to go ; ma yehunshe 'al6ya amauwitu / haven't //»»• luart t<> 
kill d ; amain yeruh v ordered him t<> g<> .■ kan lasim yigl //- 
ought to have come ; baram, H 'l>. 'alek t> qui k> 
tf you to sny so. ma Ihiqshe yigl ht couldn't 



THE TENSES 285 

i tinsa take care you don't forget; u'a tftqa' beware of fatting ■ 
>he haqqu yidrabu ht had no >•/<//</ to strike him ; 'auzak 
i www .• qui In yiddih lak tell him to ,. 
you; ma hibbish (ahibbish) titkallim kede quddam in 
don't !■ * you t<> speak thus in public; bilif yimauwitu he 
/;>// it ; shgya't aglbu / have sent to fetch it ; 

t up; il hakim harrag 'algh ma yit- 
la'ahe nun il l»-t the doctor forbade him i j house .- lazim 

h fa must go; lazim yaknn rah fa »/ M tf fa M ^ 0/ie • m >it 
hum, aqnllak //oi^ to tell you; rah vilbis /,, has go 
■ yikhlaa ,/ has come near to being finished (Le. 1 1 
knm be finished); qarrab yigi fa tmU soon be here; khayif vefut 
fa t8 afraid to pass. 

(b) Where, being the complement of the preceding verb it 
would be expressed by a participle in English; e.g. .lakhal 
mzl1 - Wl ' wwwj w, dom; tili- yigrf fi 

rowing; Bhataznn! fi 1 lei u bat sabah vishtimni Ac insulted me 
at night, went to bed, and got up insulting me in the morning ■ 
mAshl yighannl singing as he went. This idiom is verv common 
with the verbs qa'ad and fidil, as qa'adna ndardish t ll i] j 
•hatting together all night; kan qa'id yiqra fi 1 Quran /, 
"#" ■ the Koran; fidil yishrab he conHm 

hdilna aimanl lamina wisilna toe continued walking till we am 
iv,- besides denoting continual, 

running after him; sir yidrab il waladbi 
'asaytu fa %a» Atttir^ tfa /,„,, „■///< his stick. Dar veliff Lb 
used in the sense of walking around, as kan dftyir yeliffe li 1 
bal ■ ting about the village. 

II.- imperfect present is sometimes used in the same 
Qushyit liiya betihsib il fulns lissa li gebba she 
thinking the money was still m her pocket, and may also 
replace the aorisl as an historic present, as a ba'den biya bitqnl 
u th ' n " '"" • baqnl lu ana mush ana illi -an, iLt il 

Mmal.ya di, lakin ma' zalik beyifdal yidrab ttya I told him U 
I who 'hi it, but in spite of that h goes on striking 

, Ii .'" v, ' rh l'-' fularly used in the present 

for the indefinite or im] . ,„, kU ssa hinaf bahsCbak 

, " ,,L " "■«■ "'■ • t I thought you had gom i i 

la fargha / thought ti, , un- 

" ,;,h '-'' **nu\ . Idhf Bahsib il lamda rita why did 
, t "' 1 th,: " ■■■'■ I ■ i vming. 

1: ' M !;l - I may be preceded bj the auxiliary kin, 

1 ' J »uld be followed by a rerb in the paal tej i 



286 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

forming the unfinished past or imperfect tense, as kunte bahsib 
innak akhuh / was thinking that you were his brother, but the 
imperfect present is more usual. 

§ 485. A past customary or continued action is generally 
denoted by the imperfect present preceded by the auxiliary kan, 
as ana kulle y6m kunte baddi lu qershen sagh / was giving him 
two piastres a day ; kan beyigi 'andi ktir h- used often to ea 
my house ; kan beyakul we yenam (for biyenam) waiyana mar- 
raten fi g gum'a he used to dine and sh ep with us twice a 
kan beyidrab fih he was striking him ; kanit bithizze fi rasha she 
was shaking her head. 1 

S 48G. It has been seen that the aorist may stand for the 
English indefinite future, but as such it has only to do, in affir- 
mative sentences, with simple futurity. To express volition or 
the determination to perform an act we must add the participle 
rayih (rayh, rah), or the particle ha, or adopt a periphrasis; 
thus lamma tigi inta aruh ana when you come J shall go, but iza 
get inta haruh ana if yon a I 'I go ; aruh l<"h ? why should 
I got but ana rah aruh / am going, I /mint to go; tigi bukra ^ 
trill you come to-morrow ! ha ti^i bukra shall you eo 
inta 'auz timna'ni min il mirwah, lakin bardu haruh ana yom 
want to prevent me from going, but J will go all the .-an:-. 

i 487. The determination not to do a thing is, on the con- 
trary, generally expressed by the aorist, as ruh min hina. Ms 
rubsh (aruhsh) go away from here, J won't go ; aaJlimni 1 
Hi fi idak. Ma sallimhl laksh (asallhnha laksh) or mush rayih 
asallimha lak give mc up the stick you have in your hand. I irtll 

tail givt if you. 

Remark.- Rayih, rah, and ha are sometimes inserted where 
we should expect the aorist alone, as ma yisahhisb h-inni ana 

rayih akdib ala n lias if would not be right that 1 ■ and 

tell //■ b to peoplt . 

• A determination sot to do a thing is sometuni 
pressed by mush 'auz, as il musmar mush 'auz y it l.r 
ant to ( i.". won t) come out. 

'. The future perfeet may in some eases be rendered by 
borisl of the auxiliary followed by the participle of she rerb, 
just as the pluperfect maj be bj the pasl tense of the auxiliary 
Ui.l the participle, as mesafit ma mikul is samak 3 lybtn 

il laliiu l'ij fh< titm "•' liar- eaten On j:>i< they trill hoot i -ought 
th> in' at. 



I this use of ti. . I, Rem 



THE M<x,DS 287 

THE MOODS 

'. The Bpoken language baa, as we have Been in the 
two finite moods only— the indicative and the in 
peralave. As there is no separate form for the subjunctive the 
•• has to perform its offices. 

. The imperative maintains (die t of tin- aorist in the 
n. or, m other words, the aarist is used for i1 •— 
'".' , ]n proWbitions, as ma tqarrabshe ,- /f or 

'I :i1 ' ^ tgteh don't •,!;,,: iv , k r.., }l 

don t go. 

When preceded by the particle ma or the imperative of 
•"'•I' baqa,' as ma (qui li but tell me; ma tigi; ibqa truh 
>andu po to fcu house; but we may also say ibqa ta'ala <fcc 

lywith the conjunction ya either, or, as ya tun«ud 
•/• ,,/ rfowi ,„• oo (way, bo* uq'ud walla rnshi 

Brequentay i„ other cases to render the commun-l less 
barsh or abrupt as tigl bukra mimd you com* ttHnOTTOW ; tibqa 
tsallun h ■ala box ra lember me to your fat 

Ci-muck. -Tibqa, tibqu, are said more often than ibqa, ibqu 
• *» z - '" express an exhortation in connection with 

»n we may employ the verb khalll (§ 144) foil. 
'"/,; f ''r' :l " ri ^ ; ' : khalllna nrfth, khallih 

d^ (or ptfaddai alone) /*/«*> ■ ...... khallih yitribit 

itril.it) /./ U be bound. 

. ; ! : ' :; - '■■' .■ ■ ■ alao expressed by the second person 
J«f of the imperative followed by the preposition bi with 
. 1.x ,.t the first person plural, as imshl bina (or imsbi bna) 
nq'ud bina let m rit down. 

. ,:! ■••••■' ■ B sometimes added to the firsl person plural 

ol the aorist, as nerufa bina, &c. 

died potential mood is made np in Arab* 
1 fa principal and an auxiliary verb, as aqdar 

yunfanak tig] youem Dh, may be 

"' l ; ,v,: ■ preceded bj kan, as kunl asheya'u lu 1 

''["■'''' **tohn . mush kutte tiadi limn, 

• Iin :;!'- V!l I" 1 " .' ki«rdl!«andakS 
V' '>"■ quantity yon ha* ' kanrt ti'mil • 

by the help of other auxOJ kan yiinl 

vi Irabu ht ould ha him. 

1 I pi lis. 

in fulfill, -l ehitj is »ae*J»ea implied, 



288 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 495. Would and would have, in a subjunctive, conditional, 
or optative sense, will be rendered by the tenses of the indica- 
tive mood. 

§ 496. In indirect discourse the aorist, generally preceded 
by ha or rayih, will be employed, as qalit inniha tisheya'ha. ha 
tiktib, rah tigi she said that she would send her, would write, cone. 

§ 497. The English infinitive is expressed : — 

(a) By the aorist united to the preceding clause or word by 
a conjunction, especially when the infinitive denotes a purpose, 
as ruhna 1 balad 'ashan nistafhim 'an il khabar we went to 
town io inquire about the news ; gibte kitabati 'ashan awarrlhum 
lak / have, brought my boohs to show (them to) you ; haddarna r 
ragil laglo yihki lak hikaytu we hare brought you the man to tell 
you his story; talab minnu innu yi'allim 'ala 1 waraqa they 
begged of him to sign tJie paper; at'askshhn inn! aqdar agi / 
hope to be able to come; wa'adnf innu yiktib li he promised to 
write to me. 

(b) By the aorist without a conjunction (§ 482). 

(c) By a definite verbal noun governed by the preposition li. 
or 'ashan when a purpose is expressed, as il mashye ahsan min 
ir rukub it is better to walk than to drive; ma baqa ln&sh h&ga 
ghlr it taslim we have nothing left us but to submit : ithakam 
'aleh bi 1 gild he urts condemned to be flogged ; guhuz li 1 mirwah 
he was prepared, ready, to go. 



THE PARTICIPLES 

§ 498. The active participle very frequently replaces tin 1 
continued present, and sometimes the past or future t< 
and this whether the subject be expressed or undersi 
kan katib il gawab ( = kan beyiktibu) lamina tablet an 
was writing tin letter when J appear* t . yekun fatih il bftb Lamma 
busal lie will be opening tin gati when gun arrive; ana gay 1 am 
coming; ana dayir( = kunte badur) fi 1 balad we gib. wahid ijal 
li as / was walking round the town some one canu and told 
kan waqtiha sbArib lie was drinking at the moment . qain waqif 
lie stuud standing (<=* he stood up) \ lamma wisilna laqi na n n&fl 
garyin (or beyigru) we found the people running 
shufna 1 maahayikh (alyin (beyifWum) min il balad rakbln 
liainirhum we SOW the sheikhs comi: the village riding 

their donkeyt ; ragga* ii. talyin bring back //<".-< who are going out ; 
isli shibbftk 'ala v.'iniii id dakhil, i.e. tht window is on your right 
</.-• you go in ; bid*] ma nta q&'id hina instead of your sitting 



THE PARTICIPLES 259 

ma Dish qaylak imbarih? didn't I tell you yesterday? ma fish 

lm i is there nothing (you) ham forgotten f ana mrabbfh 

'and! min Bugre sinnu I have brought him up from his chUdh 

kan fatih, qafil he hail shut, opened (hie, shop, $c); so ragil qari 

a reading man, i.e. a read man; rah dugri sharib fing&n il qahwa 

■ /// straight and drank the cup of cofft e, i-e. he drank it straight 

off; yeruh dugri darib il walad fi wiahshu he straightway I if flu 

boy in the face;* ana mush n&yim li 1 b§t il lela(for ma akunshe 

iiuviin), il babur qayim in naharda walla buki-a? is th<- boat 

starting to-day or to-morrow? so ma ntish hina buki'a? won't you 

be Itere to mo) row ? the participle of the substantive verb not 

g in use. 

'. The passive participle refers only to an act already 

past, and the English imperfect passive participle must be 

translated by a periphrasis ; thus laqSt il walad ma ■hub bi 

i the boy struck with a stick; laqet il walad be-yi- 

drabuh (or beyidrabu fib) I found the boy being hit. 

,§ 500. The participles, like any other adjective, may qualify 
a noun or be used substantively or adverbially, as ir ragil il 
hadir the man who ut present; il mara 1 maqtula the mur 
"■'Jinan; kalam matbtV a printed statement ; il gawabat ii i 

rs; id dakhil lazim yikhalli balu he who 
goes in must h il matqul ma yihkish hikaytu, i.e. 

//"-/( tell tt>j tales; wahid gahil in ni'ma, nakir il ma'rui 
getful of favours, i.<-. an ungrateful man; il gari yusal qabl il 

bJ the runner arrives before the walker; uq'ud sukit sit q 
il husan misbi had! the horse went quietly. 

il. The active participle is, strictly speaking, imperfect 
in its action, and neither it nor the passive participle can be 
used by themselves, like the English participles, to define the 
circumstances of an action. An English clause, therefore, in 
which a participle has of itself the full force of a verb, must 
I into one introduced by a conjunction, or be othei 
phrased; thus madam 'irifte innak mush gay tili" 
knowing that you weren't coming, 1 went out (not 'firif innak); 
lumm.i t'akkidte inniha gal having 

come; ba'de ma sakkSt il bab ljatt/t il muftah ti gfibS having 
d the door, I put the key in mypo ket; ma rdlsh yigi ikminnu 
red, he was unwilling to conn , ba'de 
1 h&\ dakhal il bet having jx 

in beyit'asha Lstanna li 1 bab 

1 Upmp. the English " Don't go hitting him," " Whj d 
go doing thai 

T 



290 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

dinner, he waited at the door ; ba'd il f ulus ma ndafa'it (or lamma 
ndafa'it il fulus) the money having been paid ; shal il 'aiyil 'ala 
kitfu we till* yigri lifting the child on to his shoulder, he ran 
away. 

§ 502. But they may be used like the aorist to qualify the 
meaning of certain verbs, as mat maqtul ; and an active parti- 
ciple may — 

(a) Immediately follow the verbs rah, gih, qam, fid.il, and 
tann, limiting their action, as rah gari he went running ; gena 
mashyin we came walking, on foot ; qam waqif , sakit ; fidilna 
tal'in lamina li foq we continued going up till {we reached') the top ; 
tannuhum sharbin they continued drinking. 

(b) Define the condition of the object of verbs signifying to 
perceive or find, as ana shuftu dakhil / saw him going in ; laqetu 
darib il wad I found him striking the lad. 

Remark. — In both cases the aorist or present may be used 
instead of the participle, and in the latter, especially after verbs 
of seeing, the conjunction we may be inserted between the object 
and the participle. 

§ 503. A partial exception to the nde laid down in § 501 is 
the use of the copulative with the personal pronoun, which, 
together with the participle, are equivalent to a clause intro- 
duced by a temporal conjunction, as itqabilte waiyah w ana 
rayih 'ala 1 balad / met him as I teas going to the oMagt . 
shufnah wi hna gay in min 'andak we saw him when we were coming 
from you ; w ana mash! waiya Mahmud qal li as I was walking 
with M., he said to me. (See further, $ 576.) 

Remark. — Here again the continued present may be used, 
as itqabilte waiyah w ana baruh, Arc, but the participle is 
preferable. 

§ r> ( ) -4 . The English gerund may be rendered in Arabic by a 
verbal noun, the aorist, or a separate clause sometimes intra 
duced by a conjunction, as yehibbe dars il lugha //- is fond of 
studying philology; &ahn ligharfid dik </ dish for serving ih>' 
fowl; ana badrabak 'asban daqqitak di 6 l>inti / am hitting you 
for pushing my daughter in this way ; yehibbe yiqra li I Qur*ao 
he likes reading the Koran ; qam 'adda 1 bahr we barab 
by crossing the river; shanaquh 'ala sbazi ma qatal imratu hi 
hanged for murdering his wife; iggannin ikminnu (or lamma) 
daiya' fulusu he went mad through having lost his money; kbadu 
bard ikminnu kan wfiqif ii 1 ma^ars he has taken cold through 
standing in the rum . kattar kberak illi g§t thank you far coming; 
ma Fish fayda ti innak berub there's no good in your going. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 291 

THE VOICES 

§ 505. The passive voice is expressed — 

(a) In certain verbs by a special form (Accidence, S 141). 

(b) By one of the derived forms (Accidence). 

(r) By the use of the third person plural of the active, with- 
out reference to a definite subject, as darabuh he wo* '■■ 

katabn 1 gawab i when was the letter written ! rayhin yish- 
nuquh /" is going f<> be hanged; rah yiqtil we qataluh he went t<> 
"kill {somebody), and //■</.-■ killed himself. 

16. The agent is usually introduced byminwhen a passive 
form is used, but not infrequently by bi, especially when it is 
not a human being, as inqatal min min ? hy whom was he kitted ' 
quruste bi 'aqrab / was stung by a scorpion. 

Remark. — Although the passive forms are freely used in 
Arabic, it is better, as a rule, especially when the agent Le 
pressed, to put the verb in the active voice ; thus the thief was 
caught by two 'men passing would he better translated by itnen 
kanil faytin misku 1 harami than by il harami itmisik min itnen 
kanti faytin. 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 

^ 507. The protasis (or clause containing the condition) is 
introduced by iza or in when a future condition is stated, and 
by lau, 16, 1 iza, or in when a past condition is stated. In all 
- the verb must he in the past tense; e.g. iza gib wahid if 
an;/ one come ; in wiqi* il kitah min idak if the hoe,/: should /all 
from yout hand ; iza kunte ruht if you had gone ; lau kutte had- 
dart il husan if you had brought the horsi . 

§508. Iza kan and in kan. followed by the aorist, are used in 
the same way as iza and in with the past tense, and followed b\ 

the imperfect present introduce a condition which may he in 
process of fulfilment. 

9. Tin- conjunction inn or le inn may intervene between 
lau, Id, la. a-c, and the verb. When this happens, tin- verb kan 
ii understood, so that the strict rendering would he ir, re it that 
. . . not (hat . . . the words introduced by the conjunction form- 
ing a substantival clan-.-. 

•"■in. '|'h,. following examples of affirmative and negative 
clauses will show what tenses should he used both in the pro- 
tasis and apodosis (thai is, the clause containing the conclusion). 
irding as the former implies that the fulfilment of the condi- 
tion i lible, probable, or impossible: — 

1 The form Id i- generally used in negative aentei 



292 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

(a) Future possibility, or probability, or mere assumption : 
iza gih, in gih, iza kan yigi (or in kan yigi), aruh ana 1 if lie 
comi (or corner), I will go ; iza ma gash, in ma gash, iza kan ma 
yigish, iza ma kanshe yigi, in kan ma yigish, in ma kanshe yigi, 
aruh ana if he do (does) not come, I will go. 

(/') Present possibility or probability : iza kan beyigi, in kan 
beyigi, aruh ana if he is coming, I will go; iza ma kanshe beyigi, 
in ma kanshe beyigi aruh ana if he he (is) not coming, I inill go. 

('•) Future improbability : iza gih, in gih, ruht if he came 
{should come), I would go ; iza ma gash, in ma gash, ruht if he were 
not to come, I would go. 

(</) Past probability or possibility : iza kan gih, in kan gih 
aruh if he has come, I will go ; iza ma kanshe gih, in ma kanshe 
gih, aruh if he have {has) not come, 1 will go. 

{>■) Past improbability : lau gih, lau innu (le innu) gih, in 
kan gih aruh ana if he should have conn . / would go ; Lau ma (or 
loma), gash, 16 la gih, lau innu (le innu) ma gash, in kan ma gash, 
in ma kanshe gih, aruh ana if he should not have come, I will 
go. 

{/) Past impossibility (condition unfulfilled) : lau gih, lau 
kan gih, lau kan yigi 2 ruht, kunte ruht, kunt aruh ana if he 
had come, I would have gone ; lau (In) ma gash, 16 la gih, lau (h) 
ma kanshe gih (yigi), lau kan ma gash, 16 la kan gih (yigi) ruht, 
kunte ruht, kunt aruh ana if lie had not come, I would have 
gone. 

(v) Imperfect impossibility : lau kan beyigi kunte ruht, kunt 
aruh. kunte baruh, ana if he had been cuming, I would have gone 
{be going) ; lau (16) ma kanshe beyigi, Id la kan beyigi, lau kan ma 
beyiglsh kunte ruht, kunt aruh, kunte baruh, ana if he had it"? 
h en ■■oming, I would have gone {been going). 

Rehire <i. — I/, lam yigi is sometimes used for in ma gash by 
the uneducated, in the belief that they are displaying a kn>>\\- 
Ledge of nahwy. 

Remark &.— In (g) the aori&l is sometimes used for th< 
binued present, as lau kunte a'raf ma kuntish astarda if I had 
known (lit. been knowing, aware), I would not h ted. 

§511. La, a particle of asseveration, is sometimes prefixed 

1 Sometimes, also, kunte aruh when the probability is remote. 

In kan \L r i La perhaps more remote than iza kan yigi. When 
the fulfilment of the condition is practically a certainty, i 
in becomes equivalent to lamma, a.> in t i 1 i • m oahar ueruh, Le 
wh( u it in morning we will go. 
{ ini-aial. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 293 

to the verb in the apodosis, as lau kunte itqabilte waiyaha 
lakunte mauwittuha had I met her, I would assuredly haw. killed 
her. 

§ 512. Iza kan is generally regarded as one word, kanremain- 
inohanged in number and person, 1 as iza kan agi, yigu if I, 
they, come ; but we may also say iza kunte (or kutte) agj kanu 
yigu, itc. With in, on the contrary, kan should agree with the 
subject, as in kanit 'agabitak walla n kanit ma 'agabitakshe 
whether sht pleased you or not. 

i 513. L6* ma, 16 la, and sometimes in m;l, may immediately 
precede a substantive in the sense of but for { = " for), 

as 13 m.'i khdfu minhum but for his fear of them ; 18 la d dawa dih 
kutte mutt but fur this medicine, T had died; in ma kansbi d darb 
but for the blow. The verb kan is not infrequently expressed, as 
lo la kan id dawa dih, etc. 

£ 514. The conditional particles are often omitted, especially 
when there are two alternative clauses, as raysen fi merkib 
tighraq, lit. two pilots in a boat, {awl) it si/t/:.< ; kalam il lei mad- 
ln'm hi zibda; yitia' 'aleh in nahar, yesih the words of the night an 

id with butter,if( "hen) the day rises «/»-// them they melt 
away ; tiqraha ma fihash haga read it, and there is nothing in it ,• 
Bhalu li fdq zeye ma fish haga he lifted it up as if then 
were) nothing; yig! ma yigish z§ye ba'du it is all the same whether 

nee or not ; yigl, taiyib; ma yigish, ni'mil eh I if I 
well and good ; {but) what shall we do if he does not conn f gih gih, 
ma gash neshuf lina (artqa tanya if he comes, he comes : if hi <'<■■> 
not. we shall see what {else) can h done; ma fish fulus, ma 
s-sh iii) mom y, no brt ad; - kan henak, khud minnu radd ; ma kanshe 
henak, fut il gawab ( andu if he is there, bring on answer from him .- 
if If is not, leave the letter at his house; iza kan khallasak ma 
Rah mani' ; ma khallasakshe z§ye ma* yi'gibak baqa if it satisfies 
you, well and good ; if not, why, ('/<>) as yo keblr kan an 

lughaiyar whether ii be much or little; naggar walla mush r. 
ma Inash da'wa it does not cona rn us whetht r he is a carpi nteror not. 
515. The conditional particles are expressed after verba 
denoting wonder, surprise, be., thus, instead of Baying bastaghrab 
iza kan rah yigl walla la', we Bay bastaghrab rah yigl walla la- or 

tan \ i lj- i walla la*. After verba of asking they may be 
used or not optionally, as sa'altu iza kan rayih yigl (or sa'altu 
yigl) / askedhimifht were earning ; but Dote that in the latter 



1 Kan Bometimea remains unchanged also with lau. as lau 
.nt't ii for lau kunte shuftu. 

.mi I: iji'iL. 



294 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

case the question is actually asked, and the words must be pro- 
nounced accordingly. 

§ 516. Whether ... or is often expressed by f;awa in kan . . . 
an, walla (we ilia), as sawa n kan yiksab au yikhsar whether he 
gain or lose ; whether . . . or not by iza kan, iza (with past tense of 
verb) in kan, sawa n kan . . . walla la', walla ma, as qui li iza 
kunte radi walla ma ntash radi, iza kunte 'auz teruh walla la' 
tell me whether you are willing or unwitting, whether you wish to go 
or not ; in kanit takul walla ma takul whether she eat or nut • 
iza ruhte walla ma ruhtish whether you go or not ; ma a'rafshe 
kan ir ragil maugud walla la' I don't know whether fit" man was 
present or not (in being understood, as above) ; even if, though, by 
wi lau, wi lau inn, or lau we inn, as wi lau gih hftwa harii.h ana 
thongh he come, J will go; haqul il kalam da wi lau innuhum 
yiwabbakhuni I shall say this though they scold mr ; kibir kan wi 
lau sughaiyar be it large, or even be it small ; lau wi nnina ma 
shufnahsh even though we saw it not. 

Remark. — We must be careful to distinguish between walla 
or ( = wa ilia, we ilia) and wala nor ( = wa la) ; we in la is con- 
tracted to willa, as iskut willa aqta' rasak be quid or I will break 
(lit. cut off) your head. 

INDIRECT DISCOURSE 

§ 517. An indirect quotation may be introduced by the 
conjunctions inn, leinn, 'ala inn, as qal innu 'amal kede ht 
that In' tii<l so; or the original words may be quoted, as qal ana 
•ainalte kede ; ma tqulshe li hadd ana 'amalte kede don't tell aim 
one you did so. 

§ 518. Occasionally these two forms of speech are confused, and 
a direct quotation is introduced by a conjunction, 1 as qal le inni 
kunte sakran waqtiha //'■ said he {himself) was drunk at the time .• 
ba'den ana qulti lha In inni ana liaMV-tik Itlcu f>>l>l her I l'ir' 
her; khabbaru 1 basha'ala Lnnina ma lqgnahshe they i nformed the 
pasha that they had not found him : kan menabbib 'aldya innak 
tihaddar il akl //-• had ordered //"■ to prepare the meal. 

519. In indirect questions the conditional particle iza kan 
may l»" used with all persona, as sa'alni iza kunt t > rayh agt, 

sa'alu iza kan, Ac. ; OT it may be Omitted, and \.iy generally 

is, when 1 1 1 • - 1 ■« - i- an alternative clause, as sa'alni i walls 

1 So i'l;i sometimes in Greek, Confusion is not likely t.< 
arise from the double meaning, tin- context showing what is 
intended. 



INTERROGATIVE BENTENl 

la, .shuftu walla la h" asked rue whether I am coming o 

him or not; istafhim gih walla liasa inquin whether 
te }> r not ; or the original words may lie quoted, 

i rah tigi, shuftu walla la\ The first of the I 
forms of expression is the most usual. 

K The conjunctions inn, le inn, <tc, are not infrequently 
omitted after the verb qal, though the quotation remains indirect, 
as qalfl ma laqush il walad they said they didn't find the boy; is 
sauwahin yequlu ma shafush il haram the tourists saytl 

the Pyramids ; qald 'aleya mat (or mutt) they t 
I had died; il laban mush maghli ; it tabbakha bitqul maghll 
flu '■ ! ; the cook i I (i.e. that it it 

i 521. When the verb in the indirect quotation or qn. 
would not logically be in the past tense, it is placed in the 
imperfect present, aorist, or future in Arabic; thus what 

■ v : 11 said he ■ /will be translated by qal §h? 

qal innu biyigi ; h- said h- didn't think by qui -ala inm 
yiftikirsh ; th y said they v<>ul<l bring them by qalu innuhum 
yngibuhum (or ha 3 _ am); / asked him. if he accepted by 

tu ba kan beyirda; so qal li innu ma ya'rafahe haga -an U 
inas'ala 'li h> said 'ne knew nothing of this matter. 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 

§ 522. An interrogative sentence usually stands without an 
introductory particle, as in English, when* nothi plied 

th< answer, as tab tigi bukra I <n- you com\ 
shaft ir ragil illi kan hina? or when the verb i- 

f&rmative answer is expected, a- ma Bhuftish ir ragi] i 
you see the man t In othej is oot uncommonly h 

d by the word ya'nl (the 3r<l pers. sing, of th.- aorisl 
the disused 'ana /<< mean), an affirmative .-. then 

invariably expected if the verb is affirmative, and a negative 
•i- if tli. ; verb is negative, as ya'nl rah tigi bukra \ you are 
coming to-morrow, then? ya*nl ma Bhuftish ir rikgi] da I 
didn't see that 

xa'nl may !"• followed pleonastically by th.- noun 
ma'na with the feminine pronominal Buffix, as* ya'nl ma-: 
mu^li radi ti^'i so th- n ' you a 

I ■ in direct and indirect questions the interrogative 

1 Va'ni and ma'nftha may be i 
but thej are much more freely used in Lutein 

than th-i; I . rcjuivul- : 



296 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

pronoun usually precedes the verb when it is the subject, and 
follows it when it is the object. (But see § 423.) 

§ 525. An alternative question is introduced by walla, as 
'auz teruh walla tistanna hina do you want to go or stay here ? 
sheya't il gawab walla huwa lissa 'andak have you sent the letter, 
or have you still got it t 

§ 526. The Arabs are very fond of introducing a principal 
or causal sentence by an interrogative clause, for the purpose 
of attracting the attention of the hearer to the fact about to 
be stated ; e.g. lamma sa'altu qal li eh ? qal li le innu 'umru 
ma shafhash when I asked him, what did he tell me? he told 
me that lie had never seen her in his life ; wi humma maqsudhum 
£h ? maqsudhum yitaffishuhum and what was their object? their 
■ was to drive tliem away ; ana qulti lak il kalam da leh? 
qultilak il kalam da 'ashan ta'raf . . . why did I tell you that 1 
I told it you that you might know. . . . 

§ 527. Instead of answering yes or «o, the person to whom 
a question is addressed will often repeat the principal word 
of the interrogative sentence (usually a verb) in an affirmative 
or a negative form, as shufti ktabu ? Shuftu (or ma shuftush) ; 
da ktabu ? Ewa, kitabu ; fi nas henak ? Fih, ma fish. 

Remark a. — Notice the insertion of la' in such expressions 
as get imbarih au innahar da? la', get imbarih; gibte Wahid 
walla tncn? la' gibte Wahid bass; da ragil taiyib ? la', taivib, 
the second alternative, even though unexpressed, being denied 
before the first is affirmed. 

Remark h. — Note that qal is sometimes used for sa'al, as 
qal lu i/.a kan huwa rah yeruh dilwaqti walla yistanna shwaiya 
he asked him win ther, $& 

Remark c. — An interrogation may be equivalent to a 
ti\c. as akhallas qaw jm ; a'auwaq ? ( = ma 'auwaqsh) / shall finish 
quickly; do you suppose I shall I- I 

VERBS EXPRESSIVE OF WONDER, BURPEISE, 
DOUBT, FEAK 

§528. Where a circumstance is mentioned as a matter of 
surprise or doubt, the Bentence recording it is introduced by 
the conjunction inn, 'ala inn, &c., and acta as the object ox 
the verb, as ana staghrabte 'ala innak ma ta'rafshe ahsan bud 
kede / am ewj vised that you do not km \o better than that . 
'andi shakke leinnu huwa / doubt whether it it />■ . but where 
an alternative or an interrogative follows, no conjunction is 
. a> ithaiyarna rayhtn yiguna walla la- ici wen 



NEGATIVE SENTENCES 297 

r they were coming to us or not ; istaghrab rah ni'mil <'-li 
fih h> wondered what we were going to do to him; 'andi shakke 
yektin hdwa walla gheru / am in doubt as to whether it be h 

■ 
§ 529. The English I wonder whether may generally be 
translated by ya tara 1 or haltara (or hantara), which may either 
precede or follow the verb, as ya tara rah fen / wonder 
he has gone; humma til'um min Masre ya tara have they left 
, / wonder; so in a dependent sentence, as shut" ya tara 
ni'mil eh see, find out, what we should do. Tin- conditional par- 
ticles sometimes follow, as qui li ya tara in kunte mabsttt walla 
la' tell me, as I am woncU ring, whether you are conti nted or not. 

§ 530. The clause which contains the object of fear, being a 

future event, is introduced by the conjunction lahsan (or ahsan) 

or occasionally, but improperly, by inn, le inn, &c. ; or it may 

1 by itself ; as khayif lahsan. ahsan yigi, ma yigish ft wring lest 

he come, do not come, or (less usually) khayif yigf, ma yigish. 

§ 531. Sometimes the negative la is used superfluously though 

the event is expected to take place,- as khaf la yemut il walad 

he feared lest the boy die or the boy would die; khad waiy&h sham- 

min kh>"/f la tumtur id dinya he took an umbrella for fear it 

I rain. Similarly with the verb wa'a, a^ A* a la tinsa. 

§532. When the object Lb an event which is believed to be 

actually taking place, or t< > have already taken place, it will he 

introduced by the conjunction inn, le inn, as khayif le innu 
•ing he bt coming, I 

NEGATIVE SENTENCES 

3. The negative suffix sh may be attached, as we have 
in the accidence, to pronouns and pronominal suffixes, 

well as to the verb, and even to other words when emphatic; 
in kunte ma ntish mesaddaqnl if you don't believe me, 

where in ma kuntish mesaddaqni might equally well be said ; 

in kan ma Ihumshe 'fish (for in ma kanshe luhum) if 

haven't any bread; ma bSnlah u bdnak h&ga (for ma ftsh bdnS 
u bdnak) then is nothing between us; ma humm&sh kubar 
humma mush kubar) they art notlargt ; ma ( ilm!sh le innu rah 
1 have nn km that he ha haddish gih; ma 

1 V;i tara ifi more often used than haltara. Tara is the 2nd 
of the \ erb ra'a. 
//./ in Greek, m in Latin, ne, non t no in the Romance 

langti. 



298 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

'umrish simi'te hfiga zgye di i" never in my life heard such a 
thing. The sign is sometimes attached to the principal verb, 
instead of to the auxiliary, when there is a stress on the 
former, as kan ma, biyakulshe (for ma kanshe biyakul) he icas not 
eating ; kan lissa ma gash he had not yet come. 

§ 534. Ma is not infrequently omitted, especially in in- 
terrogative sentences, where an affirmative answer is expected 
or astonishment implied at the existence of something, as 
ma'akshe fulus? haven't you any money ? lakshe ikhwa ? have you 
no brothers? kuntish henak ? weren't you there? balakshe 1 hfiga 
di ? don't you remember this matter? ma'akshe wala khamsa 
sagh ? haven't you got even five ]jiast7 , es ? iza kuntish dafa't kan 
ahsan it would have been better if you had not 'paid; ma 'rafshe 
kan maugud walla kanshe / don't know whether he was present or 
not (but we may here also say wa la kanshe) ; ad! sabab ma 
gctsh this is the reason why I didn't come (to avoid the double 
ma, but adi sabab ma ma getsh will sometimes be heard). 

§ 535. Ma is used without sh : — 

(a) Where it is supported, as it were, by another word 
or other words in the sentence, which already so strongly 
emphasize the negative notion that the sh is intuitively 
dropped as superfluous, as wa llahi ana ma a'raf by G<>d (in 
very truth) I know not ; * 'umri ma shuftu ; wa 11a na ( = llah ana) 
infini fahim kalamak of a truth 1 do not understand your words. 
It, is not unusual, however, where no particular stress is laid on 
the strengthening word, to add the eh, as wa llahi ma 'rafshe 
upon my word I don't know. 

(b) In emphatic wishes (but optionally), as Allah ma 
yihrimna (or yihrimn&sh) minnak may God not depn 

i if you. 

(<•) In the expressions in a , drish ilia, ma basse ilia, ma yish'ur 
ilia he didn't know where he was, If hadn't time to look round before 
. . . , used with reference to a sudden event. The copulative 
iri is often inserted either before or after ilia, as ma aah'UT ilia 
(or we ilia) u;ilii'l hatte idu ti gfibi suddenly I felt s,<me one /nd 
his hand in my pocket : ma basest illau ( = ilia wet u.diid minhuui 
tiatte ii 'arablya we barab / hadn't time to Ionic round be/or 
of tii, in sprang into n carriage and mode off. 

(</) When used for la in the sense of neither, and followed in 

another olause by wala nor, as ma kallimtu wala shuftu [neither 

1 The omission of the sh here may also be due {<■> the 

prevalent notion that the Koranio, oral least the Nahwy, should 

he imitate. 1 in a BentenCS of a reliffioufl turn. 



NEGATIVE SENTENCES 290 

spoke to him nor saw him ; ana ma darabte wala ndarabt I neither 
struck nor "-as struck : but the suffix will often be used, especially 
if the first sentence is emphatic or more emphatic than the other 
or others, as ana ma darabtush wala huwa darabnt / did 
strike him, mn- did lm strike me. 

(e) In some phrases of a religious turn, and mostly in 

proverbial expressions, as da ma yikhallasni inin Allah that will 

not same me from (thr wrath of) God, i.e. it is against my conscit no 

16 la 1 kasurama kanit il fakhfira but for the breaking, tlmn in mid be 

ttery ; la she" illi ma luh nafa' there it nothing without a ?/.»'. 

(/) Occasionally in other expressions where ilia follows in 
the sense of except or, combined with ma, in the sense of only, 
as ana ma ddilak il Cuius ilia lamma tsallimni 1 kimbiyala / 
won't give you the money till you ham/ me the bill : ana ma ruhti 
hi ilia nftba wahda / only went to him owe; ma ois'al ilia 
'ankum we ask only about //ou (i.e. my thoughts tare only of you). 
Here again sh may be added if much stress is laid on the denial. 

§536. Neither . . . nor are more generally expressed by Id . . , 
wala. and sh is rarely added in the first clause and usually omitted 
in the second, as la Laq&tu wala dauwarte 'aleh J ha>> nit found it, 
nor ili'l I look for il ; In dakhal wala kharag, i.e. il has nothing to 
'to with if ; la shuft ir ragil wala shuft akhuh I didn't see the man, 
nor ili'i I see his brother; la laqu 1 bint wala Laqfi 'ammiha; la 

shuftu>h wala kalliintusli (or la shuftu wala kallinitu) / neither 

saw him nor spoke to him ; khadu fulusi wala khallu llsh haga they 
took my money and left me nothing : wala fish wahid gherna nor is 
there any besides us ; wala hish masalaii okhti nor is she, for 
example, my sister. Where wala is equivalent to the English 
without sh should be added, as yishxab wala yakulsh Ju 
without drinking, khadte minnl nuase gineh wala raddgtush. 

§ ."i.">7. Sometimes ml la used pleonastically after wala, and 
in this case the sh should not be omitted, as ma kunnash 

ni'iafhum wala hiimma ina \ i'raf unash W6 didn't Limn- them, HOT 

did they know us; ma 'andish nihil wala moiya ma fish / have no 
wine, nor have I even any water ; khadu fulusi wala ma khallu lish 
: wala ma fish hadde gherna. 

Ma may be placed before a pronoun, the subject of 
the lUDstantive verb, whether expressed <>r understood, as mush 
( ma buwish) k.'m hina / wasn't he heret ma ntiah r&dt? 
mm ?mt willing t iza kan (or kunte) ma Dttsh rayha if yo\ 
are not going. Sometimes the pronoun Lb repeated, as u i kunt 

inta in i ■ ill. 

1 M 1 1 - 1 1 i niish i. as we have seen, is need for all genders 
and numbers, and may !>•• followed by all benses. In inten 



300 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

tive sentences it invariably calls for an affirmative answer, as 
mush kunte fi betu inbarih ? weren't you (i.e. surely you were) at 
his house yesterday ? mush ish shamse betitla' mish sharq ? doesn't 
the sun rise in the east ? 

§ 510. When followed by a verb negatived by ma it must be 
translated by not that, as mush ma rahsh not that he didn't yo ; 
mush ana ma mishitsh — mishit not that I didn't go — / went. 

Remark. — Ma . . . sh are occasionally used with the verb it- 
self when mush would be more regular, as huwa marahshe yisraq 
we miskfih darabuh it was not that he went to steal and teas caught 
and beaten. With the aorist it may serve to express an emphatic 
command or prayer, as mush tiskut ! won't you be quiet ! mush 
tisallifni wala khamsa sagh ? won't you lend me even five piastres I 
mush tiftah li 1 bab? are you not going to open the door for me? 

Remark. — Ma is apparently pleonastic in such a phrase as 
kef sihhitak min waqte ma ma shuftaksh how have you been since 
I saw you (depuis que je ne vous ai vu) ? but the idea is during all 
the time that 1 have not seen you. In the expression nakar innu 
ma shafush he denied that he sate him, both negative particle.- are 
pleonastic. 

§ 541. La, unless preceded by the conditional particle 16, 
rarely stands in the spoken language before a noun with ellipse 
of the substantive verb, except in expressions borrowed from 
the Koran, as la ilaha ilia llah there is ?/" god hid God, in a few 
proverbs, and in the expression la, budde min (or 'an) lit. there 
is no escape from, as la budde min motu he must surely die ; la 
budde min inni aruh / must go. La is sometimes used as ma, 
above, with the aorist to express a wish, as Allah la yi'afik may 
God not give you health, and occasionally with the past tense 
when preceded by the conditional in, as il la ( = in la) ma aha' 
Allah if God will not. In the compound tenses the auxiliary 
may remain positive and the negative be appended to the prin- 
cipal verb, as Ltunna ma kharagnash. This adds, perhaps, vivid- 
ness to the negation. So kan ma fish 'fish there WOS u<> \ 
(f or ma kanshe f S ( fish),lazim ma haddish gih noonecanhavi come ' 

§542. The verb khalla sometimes passes on the negative 
which would be more Logically attached to it than to the quali- 
fying verb, as ana khallfitu ma rahsh / didn't let him go (for ma 
khallfitflsh yeruh), with no appreciable ditt'ereneo of meaning. 

§54.".. The verb following qidir !■> able, can, may take the 

1 Tliis is invariably the construction with Lazim and words 
of similar import forming with the verb the past tense of the 

potential mood. 



VERBS TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE 301 

negative, aa niqdar ma nis'alaksb we are able not to ask you, i.e. 
we are not liound to ask you. 

§ 544. Ma fish i> occasionally used as the negative of yekun, 
or even kan, but in this case it is usually equivalent to is, 
less than, as ish shurut ma fish darb yihsal minnak the conditions 
are, no blows on your part ; is sa'a ma fish arba'a it is not yet four ; 
il mesafa ma benhum ma fish mitren the dist<in<-e between them is 
nut two metres (lit. as to the distance between them, there are not tiro 
metres ; mush arba'a. mush mitren, would not necessarily imply 
that the time— number — was less); kalna gibna ma' 'esh bass, 
ma fish zibda ire ate cheese with bread only, no butter. It has the 
force of a noun in the expression qafalu 1 bab 'ala ma fish (or 
'ala 1 hawa), i.e. without it-< homing anything to hold it. 

i 545. The negative particle lam of the written language is 
sometimes employe-! by the lower classes in the desire to pa- 
educate*!, but always with the past tense, as lam shuftu wala 
ra'etu, except when preceded by the (also educate'!) conditional 
particle iz, and in the expression lam yazal. 

VERBS TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE 

§ 54G. Many veil is are used as in English, sometimes transi- 
tively, sometimes intransitively or reiiectively. as darab il garaz 
he raw/ the bell, il garaz darab the bell rang ; shahhilu he hurried 
him, shahhil he hurried ; qaddimu liina 'andS bring him forward 
to in", qaddim kam&n shuwaiya come a little further forward . 
iqla' hidftmak take off i/<>nr clothes, qala'fth they stripped him. 
qala' we nizil fi 1 moiya he stripped and went into tin water; zad 
ugi'itu he increased his pay, zad in Nil the Nile rose; fcamm§t Lsh 
shughla / /<"'■• finished tin' job, tammit ish shughla the job is 
finished; khulust ish shughJ I have completed the work, khulua ish 
shughl the work is completed; Libia hidumu (or lihis) he dn 
ghaiyar (or ghaiyar hidtlmu) he changed; qarrab il huafin bring 
the horse near, qarrab li t talitwar ' I nent , 

yiduqqu (nafsuhum) they tattoo (themselves) ; battalt id dukhkhan 
/ have given u/i smoking, il madrassa batfalit the nchool kept 
holiday; ghasal he washed himself, ghaea] tdgh, hidumu, at.; 
ridd il qizftza stoi . i.e. put the cork in, the bottle, ana aaddSt bidalu 
I took hie place (filled the vacancy) ; rabatuh 1 > i 1 bab] th> 
him with a /•"/".', biddj arbut (sc. il qdl) waiyah / want to come 
to terms with him, il babur rabat th* boat moored; ishtaghal il 
Iiuviii h worked, exercised, the hone, ishtagha] tul in oabi 

1 Trottoir. 



302 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

worked all day ; khadu ba'd (or khadu rauwahum) tliey took tliem- 
selves off ; qafal, fatah, id dukkan lie dosed, opened, the shop, kan 
qafil, fatih irnbarih lie (i.e. Ms shop, $'c.) was closed, open, yesterday, 
iqfil or qaffil (sc. hanakak) be quiet, "shut tip!" yishrab nibit 
he drinks xoine, yishrab he drinks ; itfaddal pray walk in, 
§c, itfaddal 'esh, kursi pray take sorm bread, a chair ; 'amal 
atrash, meyit he pretended to be deaf, dead ; kan hatit or 
nasib (sc. kheshu, &c.) we shal lie was pitching his tent, putting 
up, here, but has since decamped, huwa batt he has become infirm 
(from old age) ; kan yimshi yemidd (sc. riglu) he stepped out, 
'walked fast ; sallim nafsu and sallini lie surrendered himself, 
surrendered. 

Remark a. — In the expressions sain Ramadan, akal (or fitir) 
Ramadan lie fasted during (kept) Ramadan, lie eat during Ramadan. 
the noun may be regarded as an accusative of limitation. 1 

Remark b. — The imperatives itla' and inzil are often used, 
when the object is not expressed, for the derived forms talla\ 
nazzil. 

§ 547. Some verbs govern their object either directly or 
indirectly, i.e. by means of an intervening preposition, as id dawa 
nafa'ni (or nafa' li) the medicine benefited me, iggauwiztiha / 
married her, iggauwizte biha J was //tarried to her ; ihki li bi 1 
hikaya (or il hikaya) tell me the story, sagadu (or sagad lu) he 
worshipped him; lahag 'aleh (or lahagu) he cheated hint; kabastn 
I seized him, kabas 'aleh in nfim sleep overcame him; yilzimni 
(more usual than yilzim li) kursiyen I /rant tiro chairs (lit. two 
chairs are necessary to me, so lazimni 'arabiya, <fce.); hiinia •annu 
he protected, defended, him, but Allah yihamik ; akninu and 
aknin 'aleh he annoyed liim ; sharu and shar "aleh he eOtUUeUed 
h im . 

Rbmabe a. — In some cases the preposition may be regi 
as part of the verb, as in English hi begs for bread, sec. 

Remark b. — The preposition often produces a slight dill'erenee 
of meaning, as nadahu he called him : oadah lu he coiled to him ; 
fain he I' ft him, passed him, fat 'aleh lie passed by him, paid him 
a visit ; saddaqu believe it, saddaq l>i believe m .- khulust ish 
shughJ I have finished the work, klmlnste mis Lah ahughl 1 hart 
finished with the work* 

."i|S. Others, whose equivalents in Knglish gOVem a direct 

object, always require the help of a preposition to complete their 

1 Unless these expressions are, after the analogy of 'amal 
Ramadan t<> keep Ramadan,- (S.) 
i But always saddaqu of s person. 



VERBS TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE 303 

action, as khaf min to fear ; barik fi to bless : shafaq 'ala to pity .• 
shaqqe l ala to visit; nabbih 'ala order, 'allaq li 1 husan to 
the horse. 1 

i 549. Verbs expressive of motion are sometimes regarded as 
transitives, and take a direct object, as ruhte bet abuk / went to 
your father's houn : ganigawabmin Lundura I ht ed a 

• from L>j/i>lo)i ; lamma dakbalna 1 bet when we entere<l the 
house : hiya msafra ekandariya she has left for, gone to, Alexandria ; 
waddihum it tumn take them to the psiice station ; nizil il balad 
is gone to town ; ramgtha 1 moiya I thri w her into the water ; 
ba'de ma wisil il moiya as soon as he arrim d at the watt r ; waealni 
1 gawab, i.e. / hoot the letter; da ma yiglah taman shelu 

tliut doesn't come to the price of (= won't pay for) the porta 
qataru he ran after him : so with causative veil is : ragga'u 
matrahu take it ba •/• A> its phve ; waqqa'tu 1 ard 1 threw him <m 
the ground; wassalitu 1 bet she saw him home. We may also Bay 
ruhte 'ala bet abuk, dakbal guwa 1 bet, wasal li gawab, qatar 
warah, <fcc, and note that the preposition generally intervenes 
when the object is the second or third personal pronoun ; thus 
ruhti lak, yigi lu, yeruh lu, aruh luhum are said in preference 
to ruhtak, yigih. yeruhu, aruhhum. 

Remark. — Tigi is almost invariably used for ta'ala when 
the object (director indirect) is a personal pronoun ; thus we say 
tigtni, not ta'alani. The sliortened form t&'a can, under no 
circumstances, take the suffixes, 

§550. Verba of resl are sometimes Followed directly by the 

place as the object, as huwa qa'ad Bartz shahren he remained 

onths in Paris; ana fidilte maha.Ul 1 remained in my place. 9 

§ 551. Verbs denoting t<> give, lend, deliver, deprive <>j\ strip, 
ward off. often govern the indirect object directly, as iddet il 
walad kit&bu / gave the i»/i/ his book : iddini qershen ; Ballifnj (or 
s.illif li) gineh lend me a pound ; sallimu 1 basha il gawab they 
delivered the letter to the pasha ; Allah ma yihrimnash wiladna 

min wiladna) Qod bereave us not of our children ; il ghina dih 
viharramni □ nom this tinging deprives nu of sleep; aala'tlb. 
hidumu they stripped him of his clothes; Allahumma kfina - - 
Qod, avert the evil from us; but in order that the indirecl 
object may stand alone (».e. without a preposition), it nm-t 
immediately follow the verb, or al least not be preceded bj the 
direct obj< 



further, onder prepositions. 
- ihdar ardabbah yeztd. 



304 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

§ 552. The direct object is sometimes used for the indirect, 
as in English, when it is a personal pronoun, as qaraha 1 gawab 
(for qara lha) he read her the letter ; ishtirini kitab (for ishtirt li) 
buy me a book ; zauwidnah hibre ahmar we added some red ink to 
it ; da 'auzha shughl (§ 558) ; so walla'ni give me a light, but 
walla' li hadritu give the gentleman a light. 

% 553. In addition to the above, the following verbs may 
take a double object without the aid of a preposition : — 

(a) Causative verbs, whether in form or meaning only, pro- 
vided that in the former case the primitive verb may have a 
thing as its direct object (ac. rei), as warretu l 1 matwa / let him 
see (showed him) the penknife ; qalla' il walad hidumu he made the 
boy take off his clothes ; sharrab bintak id dawa dih make your 
daughter take this medicine ; niqsiin il 'esh nusscn we will divide 
the bread into two ; rakkib il fasse dahab set the stone in gold ; 
'allim il walad il lugha he taught the boy the language; qabbadni 
1 mablagh he let me receive (paid me) the amount ; fakkaritu 1 
mas'ala she reminded him of the matter ; dakhkhal is sandiiq il 
makhzan put the box inside the cellar ; isqini inoiya, qahwa give 
me some water, coffee, to drink. 

§ 554. Prepositions are not infrequently inserted, as sharrab 
id dawa dili li bintak,- dakhkhal is sandiiq fi 1 makhzan, wakkilu 
li 1 husan give it to the horse to eat. 

(b) Verbs signifying to make, name, appoint, find, know, see, 
think, feel, &c, as 'arual il be basha he made the beg a pasha : 
sammiu 1 walad Mohammad they named the boy Moharm 
'aiyinu 1 hakim qadl they made the doctor a judge; ana ba'de ma 
qataltu laqetu akhuya when I had killed him I found him (to !>• ) 
my brother;* humma ya'rafuk ragil taiyib 4 they know you {I" !■) 
o good man; bahsibu harami / took him for a thief. 

Kkmakk. — In the above instances the second object is a 
predicate accusative. 

(c) Verbs denoting to fill, &c, and others whose action is 
limited by the noun and where the preposition with is used in 
English, as malet 6 il kuz inoiya (or, but less usually, bi moiya) 

1 Or warrSt lu. 

- Notice the inversion of the order. We should nol 
sharrab il moiya I bint. 

:; Ana laqitu, shuftu, bahsibu, rfih il balad (§474), are in. 
stances of the same construction, only in this case the second 
object is a sentem 

1 More usually ya'rafuk le innak rfigil (aiyib. 

& So the adjective malyun. 



VERBS TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE 305 

JT filled the mug with water ; 'as riglu tin he besmeared his foot 
with mud ; darab il bet buya he painted the house. 

Remark a. — We might regard the objects included under 
this heading as mere complements attached to the verb, but 
they take the sign of the accusative in literary Arabic, as in 
other languages. 

Remark l>. — Notice the expression rahit timla moiya (oi 
simply timla) she went to draw water. 

(d) Verbs which are followed by a noun of kindred signifi- 
cation, the so-called cognate accusative or internal object, often 
the infinitive of the verb itself (§ 230), or one which limits the 
extent of their action, as darab il walad darbiten, 'alqa, nabbuten. 
khazrantC-n r 'asayten talata, kaff, kaffen he struck the boy two 
blows, yave him a thrashing, hit him with a nabbilt, gave him 
or three cuts with a cane, a stick, gave htm a cuff, &c ; saUa 
rak'iten he j/rayed two prostrations, i.e. a short prayer ; ana nazil 
mishwar / am going on an errand ; qasamna r righit' qisnign we 
divided the loaf into two halves; kharamt il murina khurmCn / 
bored two holes in the plank; isbugh li t tob sabgha kwaiyisa 
dye this dress for me nicely (lit. a nice dyeing); naddafha nadafa 
taiyiba ; qa u adhum 'ala banuka qu'ad il talamza make them sit on 
benches as schoolboys sit ; ghalet il moiya ghalyiten (or ghalwiten) 
/ the water in- ice; il husan tabbe tabbi shdid the i. 

bled badly; id'ak riglu da'ke kuwaiyis (or rla'ka kuwaiyisa) 
give his leg a good rubbing; it tabbakha sauwit il kharshuf nusse 
siwa bass tJu cook ha-< only half cooked the art okes , istiqamna 
henak istiqama kbtra we make a long stay then . 

vKK. — It will be seen that the noun of unity is genernlly 
used in such expressions. When otherwise, the noun generally 
serves more to intensify the meaning, 1 as rametu ramy, mush 
daqqStu bass I threw him down, I didn't only push him; asma 4 

• / hear only. 

§ 555. In the passive construction the object which does not 
become the subject remains attached to the verb or participle 
:ts in English, as yit'allimu 1 mazzika they are fought music; 
il ki/.'tii itmalit moiya th mugsw with water; riglu kanit 

mitfasa '..: hisfo t was besmeared with mud; il be*t madrub buya. 
ve of the nature of a participle may also be 
qualified by a verbal noun as an accusative of specifical ion, as kan 

hdid Ju ngly ill ; 

drunk a* a lord; bo malyan malw brimful. 

i. The verbal noun may, like the verb itself, [ 

imon in Beb] i 



306 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

action on to another noun as its object, as qable dukhulna 1 bet 
before our entering the house ; waqte rukubhum khelhum at the 
moment of their mounting their horses ; il istilah ahsan min 
mirwah il karakon reconciliation is better than going to the police 
station; eh sabab darbuhum 'ainmak ? what is the reason of 
their beating your uncle ? shurb il husan il moiya the horse's drink- 
ing the water. 

Remark a. — When the object is a personal pronoun this con- 
struction becomes impossible, and a preposition must intervene, 
as qumte fi zaqqitha di liya / sprang up on her pushing me in this 
way ; bi sahab hubbu fiha by reason of his luce fur her. Further, 
a preposition generally separates a genitive from the object it' 
the latter is a noun, as shurb il husan fi 1 moiya. 

Remark b. — In some cases the noun following may be regarded 
as a genitive instead of an object, as akl il batatis the eating of 
potatoes. 

IMPERSONAL VERBS AND VERBS USED 
IMPERSONALLY 

§ 558. Under these are included : — 

(a) Verbs and participles which have a sentence for their 
subject whether introduced by a conjunction or not, as ma 
vehunshe 'aleh yisrif, yidaiya' fulus it is not a light thing for him 
to spend money ; ma yib'adshe innu yigi it is not improbable that 
he will come; ma yimkinshe agi lak, ma simi'she (or inni agi lak, 
innu ma sini'sh) it is impossible for me to come to you, that he did 
not hear ; iza saraqtu yibqa kuwaiyislau raddctu if you stole it. it 
will be well to return it ; yukhrug, yitla', min idak, ti'mil kede? 
is it within your poiver to do such a thing ! ma hasalshe abadan min- 
nak innak darabt akhuk? did it never happen that you struck 
brother? sadaf inni ruht it chanced that I u- nt ; b§yin 'alek innak 
•;iiy;'m it is dear from your aspect that you are ill ; ma kanahe le 
innu saraq mandi] y6m min d61 ? wasn't it (isn't it) a fact that h 
one day stole a handkerchief? fatal aqul lak inni msafir / 
(lit. it escap Ime) to tell you that I am going away ; ma yikaffikshe 
innak kharabte l >« ■ t i bi fitaak we daiya'te umri I does it not suffice 
you that ymi bar- n wrucfa d my life— by your calumnies .' 

mashlu'ir 'annu innu ghani it is repxded of him that he is rich 
( = he is reputed to be rich). 

Rem \i;k. The verbs ban and si'ib sometimes agree in gender 
and number \\ ith the object of the following verb, as ma thunshe 
•.ilrli yidrabha he has not the Heart /<• strike her; yis/abfi alSya 
agazihum it is haul for nu to punish them : a In'- banit 'alGya wi 
darabt iha. 



PECULIAR USES OF PARTICULAR VERBS 307 

(h) Veil is which have no subject, i.e. passive forms of verhs 
which in the active Lave an indirect object, as il 'arahiya dasit 
'aleh the carriage ran over him, Lndas 'aleh he was run over; hakam 
'aleh he passed judgment on him, ithakam 'allh 
paused on him; 1 'allim 'ala 1 waraqa he signed the paper, it'allim 
'ala 1 waraqa the paper was signed; katab 'alSh he "-rote on 
it, inkatab 'aleh it ivas written on; ghishi, ghimi, 'aleh (from 
obsolete actives meaning to cover, darken), it is made) 

dark around him, he fainted ; il moiya di mal'ub fiba some one 
lias been playing a name with this water. 

Remark. — The agent is introduced by min or bi, as me'allim 
'aleh minim signed by him ; but occasionally it stands alone, as 
mindas 'aleh 'arabiya (or bi 'arablya) run i ver I"/ a carriage. 

(c) Verbs whose subject is understood without having been 
previously mentioned, as matarit (or natarit) it rained; betir'ad, 
betubruq it thunders, lightens (sc. id dunya), <fec. ; imsa 'alehum 
(or imsa 'alehum il h'l) the night overtook them ; kattar kherak 
(.-'■. Allah) thank you (lit. may II- increase your prosperity); 
yurzuk, gazak, in'al abuk may (God) provide for you, punish you, 
curse your father ; da 'auzha shughl. 2 

Remark a. — In some cases, as in hakamit kede, it is difficult 
to supply the subject. (See § 4(17.) 

Remark A. —Allah may be omitted with one verb and ex- 
pressed with another in the same sentence, as kattar kherak 
wi sliakkar Allah fadlak. Kattar Allah kherak is naturally 
more emphatic than kattar kherak. 

PECULIAR USES OF PARTICULAR VERBS 

§ 559. The verbs dar and q&m are often placed superfluously 
before another verb, serving, as it were, to introduce it. The 
former is joined mostly to verbs of motion, and in all cases 
retains its original signification of turning in a (■//•'•//.while the 
latter is of much more general use, and is often besl left un- 
translated or rendered by then, thereupon, &c. It is, as a rule. 
immediately Followed by the principal verb, while dar is usually 
connected with it by the copulative wi; < .-/. ijulti lu ti'mil fih hina? 
• | .- 1 1 1 1 ijal 11 "ana badauwar ala wahid " I said to him, What an you 
doing hen ! In- said to nu . "I am looking for someone ; " gih 
qam qa/ad ganbu his father canu and sat by him; mikhtishi le 
innu yequm yakul waij gtoith the lady; lamma 



1 Malikuin Is sometimes said formahkum 'alfih 
\ lovenly expression for dl 'auza Ihs Bhughl. 



308 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

shaf kede qam darabu fi wishshu when he saw that, he straightway 
struck him in the face; quint ana bahsib le inniha gat / tit en 
thought she had come ; yeqfrm abuh yiz'al minnu his father tJu re- 
upon gets annoyed with him; yequm yukhsha 1 'aleh minni he 
then fights shy of me; hatta yedur we yigi 1 ma'ad until (he 
appointed time comes round ; kan yedur yeliff he was going round; 
lamma darit u matit il 'aguza when the old woman came to 
lamma yedur u yikhlas isb sbabr when the month comes to an 
end. 

Remark. — Sometimes lamma is used for wi between dar 
and tbe otber verb, as hatta yedur lamma yistiwi until it gets 
cool: 

Qam is sometimes attached to the participle, as qam raqid 
'aiyan he went to bed ill. It is rarely used in the imperative 
except when it retains its original sense (though still redundant), 
as qum uqaf (or waqif) get up, stand upright. 

§ 560. Baqa. The primary meaning of this verb, namely, 
to remain stationary, can be traced in most of its derived uses, 
the principal of which are the following : — 

(a) In the sense of to become, as baqet makrush I got out of 
breath; baqa mihtar he became, stood, peiplexed ; baqu mush 
'arfin yi'milu eh they stood in ignorance of what they should 
do ; iza ma laqetush fi 1 bet habqa ana ruhte balash if I don't 
find him in the house, I shall have gone for nothing ; iza kan kede 
yibqa enta ghashshitni (or yibqa ismak 2 ghashshitni) if it 

then (it results that) you have cheated me; yibqa yeruh emta? 
when will he be going? tibqa tigi bukra ; ma tibq&sh terufa 
henak ; 3 ma baqash qadir yakul he became unable to eat. 

(b) In the sense of starting or continuing the aetion of the 
verb to which it is attached, as baqu yidrabti fib they begem to 
beat him; baqat tishrab li hadd is snbh sJu went on drinking 
till the morning ; ma baqush laqyinu, i.e. they part up trying /<< 
find it. 

(c) With ;i period of time following it as its Bubject. In 
this connection it remains unchanged in number and gender 
by the rule laid down in § It'. 1 .*: e.g. baqa li Banatdn ti M -■ 
/ hav( been two years in Cairo: kan baqa hi talatt ishhur 
lamma . . . h>- had been three months whin . . . ; yibqa lha 

1 This use of qam with an impersonal verb shows that it is 
regarded as an adverb, although it agrees with the object of 

the verb in form. 

- Bee ,' 590, Rem. b. 

8 It is very commonly need with an imperative. (Bee §491). 



PECULIAR USES OF PARTICULAR VERBS 309 

y6men dayra (or we hiva dayra, 1 or we hiya bitdur) site has 

for two days; huwa ghayib (or we huwa 

Lb) baqa lu saba' sinin he has been absent for seven years; 

baqa lak kam yum hina? — 'aiyan? how long have you been here? 

—ill > 

in the past tense with the negative emphasising a quali- 
fying verb in the aorist, as ma baqash yigi he won't a 
there is no chance of his coming now; ma baqitsh aruh / 
go at all now; ma baqSnash ni'attib betak we icill never 
your threshold again. 

(e) As a pure adverb. As such it takes the form baqat as 
well as baqa, though the latter is by far the commoner. It may 
be omitted in translation or rendered by so then, <fcc. ; e.g. shuf 
lak eh baqa see what lie will tell you; ni'mil eh ba [a \ wh it 
are ice to >lo then ? lakin baqa ti'milii ma'ruf hut anyhow do me 
the kindness; baqa mitwakkU bukra? so you are off to-mor 
baqa 1 fulus di mush betahtak? this money is not yours, 
baqat ha t'azzil min hina so you are moving from here; dilwaqti 
baqat abuh mat. Baqat is perhaps more likely to be used where 
there is a pause. 

§ 561. Some few verbs, as sabah to get up in the morning, 

aabaq precede, qurub (or qarrab) approach, rip} . 1 in 

conjunction with othe> I -lated by an adverb or 

rbial expression in English, though they are infl 

ighout. The following examples will illustrate their use: 

nisbah oib'atfl lak we will in the i . Lsbah tig! 

first thing in ' but sometimef 

full Bense of the verb may be rendered, aa sabahna laqena d 
dinya betishti lit raining: Babaqna qtdna lak 

in told you before, ana sabiq fakkartu / reminded him previously; 
ish shughla qurbit tikhlas the job is nearly finished) lamina qarrab 
yi^'i 1 ma'ad when tJi hand; rigi' khallit 

niinlia h( begat am ! by ht r. s 

'. A verb is sometime- followed immediately by another 

in the same I I <>f practically the same meaning, but 

an intensive. The latter will in this case be generally 

rendered by an adverb or adverbial expression, :i- rah qa^a' //■■ 

/, ghufus ma bansh he has eh an vanished. 

1 •:' other verbs w- id adverbially we may uotice the 

substantive verb kan, which often bears the meaning of 

1 S 576. 

1 mp. the use <>f rigi' in such an expri 
ii /c want tin. 



310 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

formerly, or gives the principal verb the sense of a pluperfect, 
though remaining unchanged, as ana yom min dol qulti lu kan 
I once said to him; ish shita 'auwimit id dinya kan the rain had 
deluged the earth. It is sometimes inflected, as qulti lu yum 
kunt. Even in qulti lu inbarili kunt it cannot, as following 
the principal verb, be treated as an auxiliary ; it might be trans- 
lated by the slovenly expression, / told Mm yesterday, I did. 

Remark. — Participles are, of course, as liable as all adjectives 
to be used as adverbs (§ 336). 

§ 564. The verb beyit (first derived form of bat) is used in 
the sense of keeping a thing with one at night, as beyit il gawab 
'andak w isbah waddih il busta ; beyit 'ala is used intransitively 
of calling on one at night, as bcyitte 'ala n naqqash 'ashan yigi 
badri 'andina / went to the painter overnight to tell him to come 
to us early. 

§ 565. Ga', gih, has often the sense of to be or become, as 
lamina gih abuh mabsiit minnu when his father iras pleased with 
him ; yigi azraq lamma yinshaf it will be blue when it drii 8. 

Followed immediately by the aorist of another verb, it is 
often equivalent to the English come with an infinitive, as lamma 
get aruh when I came to go, i.e. just as I teas going ; so lamma gat 
tdlid, and, with a future sense, lamma yigi yidrabak ihrab minnu. 

Remark. — Tili' has also the sense of become, or rather turn 
out, prove to be, as il walad tili' shatir. 

§566. Ya rOt 1 would that is used when followed by a past 
tense, cither alone or with the pronominal suffix, as ya r£t ruht 
or ya ritni ruht ; but when it is followed by the aorist, the suffix 
is omitted, as ya ret neriih would that ire might go. 

$ 567. The verb basar to see, though obsolete in the past tense, 
is used with the interrogative eh in the first person singular of 
the. aorist in the sense of so ami so, et cetera, as kan 'auz yiddf lu 
dawa, absar §h he wanted to give her some medicine or something. 
Sometimes it corresponds to our phrase " what was I saying," 
like izzeyak, but is not pronounced interrogatively. It is used 
occasionally at the beginning of a sentence as a Btrong im 
gative, as absar eh u madrik §h illi kunte bitqul 'aldya what's all 
this, pray, that you've been saying about me? 

568, The English must is expressed by lazim, as lazim yeruh, 
Lazim yekun rigi', <fec, or occasionally by bidd a with the suffixes, 

i Fur ra'ei <.' 189, note). 

'-' Bidd with the suffixes means also to want. It sometimes 
gives ila' aor. a purely future sense. The mod. Armenian btdi 
prese'nl a a (anions parallel. 



THE PREPOSITIONS 311 

as bidde aruh / must go ; ma biddukush titgabbaru 'alena (or 
bidduku ma tgabbarush 'alena) you must not tyrannize ovn- us. 

§ 569. The verb to have has no equivalent in Arabic, and 
the ideas it conveys must be expressed by help of the preposi- 
tions, 1 as luh ukht, 'andi ktab, ma'ak fulits, &c. (See Accidence.) 

THE PREPOSITIONS 

§ 570. A list of the principal prepositions has already been 
given in the accidence, and it remains only to add a few ex- 
amples of derived and peculiar uses of those which most fre- 
quently occur : — 

Ba'd 

ba'de bukra to-morrow. 

ba'de ba'de bukra the day after to-morrow. 

ma fish ba'de kede nothing could be better. 

la qablu wala ba'du incomparable, second to none. 

Ben 
Ben is usually, but not necessarily, repeated with the second 
of the two objects whether it has reference to a material or 
moral connection, as : — 

ben ik kursi wi s sufra between the chair and the table. 
bgnak u b§n ir ragil it tani betwet n you and // an. 

ma fish mehabba b§n ig g6za wi durritha there is no love bet 

tin two wives of one man. 
ben da u ben da (or b§n da wi da) between flm and that. 

The repetition often emphasizes bhe connection or relative 

I ion of the objects. 

Remake a. — B§n, like all other prepositions, must, of course, 
be repeated with each pronominal sumac. 

Remark 6. — To avoid confusion where ben occurs with th 
different objects, we may insert, the words min giha, min giha 
tanya, as basal khinaqa bfini wi benu min giha u bfin akhuna 
min giha (or min giha tanya) a quarrel arose between him ami 
on the one side ami < ur brother on //<• other. 

Ms is sometimes added to the first be*n, as ma fish biga 
mabfinl a b6nu there is nothing between us. 

' '■' " is equivalenl bo half in Buch expressions as ben nayim a 
?fihl huh' ■ I half awake, ben bahri u sharqi north 

1 Malak implies complete possession, and is mostly used in 
a legal sei 



312 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

It takes the dual form in the expression b§n il benen middling, 
and sometimes the plural when a plural suffix is attached to it, 1 
as b§ni u b§nathum. 

Bi 

darabu bi 'asaya he struck him with a stick, &c. (as the instru- 
ment). 

mitlaffe bi shal wrapped up in a shaiol. 

bi sukkar with sugar, bi zibda with butter. 

qalam il katib bi dawaytu the clerk's pen and inkhorn. 

il fanagin bi tbaqhum the cups and saucers. 

il hamir bi hmalhum the donkeys with their burdens. 

tigi bi 1 humar, bi 1 'arabiya come with ( = bring) the donkey, the 
carriage. 2 

harga' buh / will come back xoith him (bring him back). 

sarah bi 1 mawashi he xoent to pasture the cattle. 

bah bi 1 kalam he let out the secret. 

talata gheri walla biya ? three with ( = counting) me or 'without me ? 

da bi da this with that, both. 

'arbagi bi sitra a driver icearing a coat (not a galldbiya). 

ragil bi daqn a man xoith a beard. 

itkallim bi sot 'all he spoke xoith (in) a loud voice. 

kalam yikkallimii bu an expression they use. 

shuwaiya bi shwaiya (or shuwaiya shuwaiya) little by little. 

bahari bi (better ma') gharbi north-west. 

iswid bi (or ma') ahmar reddish-black. 

Allah yihannin 'alek bi qersh may God cause you to be comforted 
with a ]//'astre. 

itnen gingh bi 1 ketir, bi 1 aqall £2 at most, at least. 

ma ktafush bi kede they were not satisfied tcith that. 

ahsan bi ktir much better. 

bi n nahar by day, bi 1 lei by night. 

'aiyan bi 1 gidri ill xoith smallpox. 

'aiyan bi 1 gism ill in body. 

bi 1 hanak by word of mouth, verbally. 

bi khlaf kede contrarily. 

akbar bi shahrcn two months older. 

atwal bi mitrf-n two metres longer. 

'agaza bi talatt iyam a holiday of three days. 

iddini bi 'ishi'in \sc. qersh) give me a dollar's worth. 



1 As in Hebrew. 

2 So inzil bi, &c, rendering a neuter verb transitive. 



THE PREPOSITIONS 313 

yomu bi yomen l (zeyi 1 miri) his day is equal to two, i.e. a very 

long one. 
hitta bi qershen a two piastre piece. 
itkallim fi haqqu bi taiyib he spoke tcell of him. 
ni'inil il kulle bi 1 marra let's do it all at once (straight away). 
mathum bi sirqa accused of theft. 
qum bina, valla bna (or bina), &c, (§ 493). 
simihti bu / have heard of it. 
auwil b auwil first of all. 
sakin bi (better fi) 1 bet living in the house. 
fasalni bi qershen he settled (agreed) with me for two piastres. 
bi msafit sa'ten at a distance of two hours. 
ish shamse kanit 'ala 1 gabal bi qasabten talata the sun icas two 

or three " qasabas " 2 above the hill. 
ma dritsbe bi takhbit il babur / didn't feel the shaking of the 

train. 
'arrafnt buh introduce me to him. 
ma 'lamshe bi 1 mas'ala I know nothing of the matter. 
amaru bi 1 hudur, bi 1 magty he ordered him to come. 
ana kalliftu, wassgtu, bi 'arabiya I ordered a carriage of him. 
itmaskhar bi wahid make fun of one. 
bi llahi by God, in truth. 
hi khatrak that's your affair, as you like. 
ishtaretu l>i qersh / bought it for a piastre. 

Remark. — Affixed to the substantives, or adjectives used as 
substantives, bi corresponds to the English preposition by or 
the adverbial termination ly, as bi s sudf by chance ; bi 1 ghalat 
by mistake; bi z zabt properly, accurately, exactly ; bi t tarn ani 
completely ; bi z zur of necessity. 

Ganb (pronounce gamb). 
huwa ganbak tawil he is tall compared to you. 

Zey 
■'■' lye zeyu = zeye ba'duhum. 

'Ala 

leys he passed by rm . called on me on hi.< way. 
yekun 'aldya / shall be responsibh for it. 
in km 'aldya if it depended on me. 
yequl 8h 'ala 1 mas'ala di? what dues he say of this mattt 



1 Or hi 'ashara, - A qasaba«3'55 metres. 



314 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

qarrab 'ala (or min) draiv near. 

fadil talatt iyam 'ala akhir ish shahr it wants three days to the 

end of the month. 
saqqaf 'ala 1 khaddam lie clapped his hands for the servant. 
sheya'te 'aleh? have you sent for it ? 

ish shibbak yikshif 'ala 1 ginena the window overlooks the garden. 
huUuhum 'ala ganb put them aside. 
khayif 'ala 'umru fearing for his life. 
marhfm 'ala riyalen pawned for two dollars. 
katab il kitab 'aleha he entered into a contract of marriage with 

her. 
tekhiffe 'ala d dawa dib you will get well on this physic. 
betiftar, bitghaiyar riqak, 'ala eh ? on what do you breakfast i 
khad, wallif, it'auwid, 'ala take to, get accustomed to. 
lonu iawid 'ala hmar of a reddish-black colour. 
khadtuhum marra walla 'ala marratcn did yon take them <d\ at 

one time or at two different times ? 
ghasal lina 'ala idena. 1 

'ala hasab il 'ada illi 'aleya according to the custom I have. 
ma ghdarshe (qdarshe) 'aleh / am not equal to it. 
il haqqe 'al<"k you are in the wrong. 
liva 'alek qersh^n you oice me two piastres. 
'ala 1 mahl, 'ala mablak, &c. slowly. 
'ala mesafa at a distance. 

'ala kullan, ala kulle hal, 'ala hsan hala anyhow, better. . . . 
'ala zanni in my opinion. 

'ala fikri according to my idea, while I think of it. 
istafhini 'ala,, ista'raf 'ala inquire about. 
ista'raf 'ala recognise. 
gar 'ala be jealous of. 
ma 'alehsh (or 'ah'sh) it doesn't matter. 
qabad 'ala seize, catch h<>ld of. 
shihi'l 'ala give evidence againtt. 

akkid 'ala wahid, cala haga insist with one, press on Something. 
ridi, Lsl irda 'ala (or l>i) consent to a thing. 
it.inauiia 'ala wahid ask something of one. 
aa'a] 'ala (or 'an) ask about. 
istama' 'ala listen /<>. 
hama 'ala (or 'an) defend. 

ammin, ista'min, wahid 'ala haga ••ntrust one wUh a thing. 
kidib 'ala wahid give <>nr lh<- lie. 
■ala ghafla unawares, of a 



1 Tin' water being poured over tin- hands. 



THE PREPOSITIONS J15 

'ala taai we 'eni, 'ala r ras wi 1 'en too** willingly, without fail 

uerally in reply to a command or a. request). 
itnamrad, itgabbar, &c., 'ala tyrannize over. 
ratlin sukkar 'ala talatt irtal 'asal two pounds of sugar with three 

pound* of honey (in cooking recipes) ; so khamsat 'ala 

'asharat, shuwaiyit laban 'ala shuwaiyit moiya, Arc. 
min da 'ala da alfogt ther. 
yintibikh keman 'ala sanfe (pron. samfe)tani it may he cooked 

in another "-ay. 
gg iwiz 'ala (or f6q) wahda take another wife without .divorcing 

a previous one. 
'ala tul str '.'/( = min barra barra). 

giri 'ala akhir nafas /*• ran till he n:a-< out of on 
zauwar 'aleya he committed a forgery against me, told lies 

a ! 
fi 1 hala illi hlya 'alena as affairs are with us at present. 
aiba- bashawat itbauwiehu 'aleb wi huwa f Maar hi has seen four 

ed t . the Pashalik [Khediviai 
baka 'ala 

nada 'ala wahid call 
da'a 'ala ! 

maahshi, fassah, il huaan 'ala idak lead tht ho 
i-1 ddr "al.i min 1 wh 
_ . Ul 'aleya thai 
klui'l li 'alek shuwaiya make a little room for me. 
ittafaqu, iaaawu, rabatu 1 qol, 'ala Lnnuhum yeruhu (h 

{arranged) to 
qal 'ala innu gih he said ht /■ 

lii'i<l 'an /or /rom. 

hadaiya' raaak 'an gittitak / wU ir head ft 

it'akhkhar 'an iflh shugh] hi 

keblr 'ao (§ 47), 

itlaha l)i 1 li'be 'an Lab shughl he was more bent on m on 

■r/;. 
'an iznak by your 
ea'al, istafhiin, &c., 'an (or 'ala) 

liain ■■■ 

kulle wahid .slnkl>- 'an il I u to th- 

huwa wakil 'anim / /• at. 

yighlab 'an il lii> / ny. 

onjunctions. 



316 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

iddini 'ashara quriish 'an il meqaula kulliha give me ten piastres 

for the whole job. 
il 'arabiya 'ala mta the carriage is for when ? when do you want 

the carriage ? 
naqqasu 'an il ugra he reduced his wages. 
ma 'annak (or la 'annak) get / hope you will not come. 
ma 'annush = ma 'alehsh. 
la budde 'an motak (§ 541). 
afaddal dih 'an dih, is safar 'an inni abqa hina I prefer this to 

that, travelling to remaining here. 

'And 

'andi, &c, I have, fyc, with me, at my house. 

ma 'andish haga zeye di / would never do such a thing. 

fassaltu 'and il khaiyat / had it cut out at the tailor's. 

kam 'andak ? wharfs the time by you ? 

iz zanbe mush 'andi the fault is not with me. 

li 'andak qershen you owe me two piastres. 

abiih gauwizu min 'andu his father married him at his expense. 

Rabbuna razaqu min 'andu God provided for him. 

'andi mush kuwaiyis it is not becoming in my opinion. 

il kalbe 'anduhum nigis the dog is with them unclean. 

kan waqif 'and il bfib he was standing at the door. 

uq'ud 'andak, istanna 'andak sit, stay, where you are. 

uqaf 'andak (or simply 'andak ) ! stop ! 

'and il luzum in time (in case) of need. 

kullu 'andi sawa it's all the same to me. 

Ft 

enta ghaltan f arba'a s&gh you are four piastres wrong. 

talata fi 'ashara (§ 103, Rem.). 

una 'auzak fi kilma, kilmiten l I ivant to have a word, two words, 

with you. 
ana l>idili atraggak fi mas'ala I have a favour to ask of you. 
mathuin 11 Birqa accused of a theft. 
misik t'i seia hold of, hold on to. 
beyiakar ti 1 hashish he gets drunle on hashish. 
ma yi'rafshe t'i he is no connoisseur o/. 8 
tiddlni kfim fi dih? how much will you give me for this? so 

addiiak 'ishrin gingh fi 1 hus&n. 
kidbe fi kidb lit upon lie : so kaddab li kadd&b. 
khashab li khashab nothing but wood. 
rah fi n i n"'ii i he wt >if to sh • />. 

1 Tribus verbis te volo. '-' 1/ ne se connaii pas en. 



THE PREPOSITIONS 317 

sitta fi 1 miya 6 per cent. 

humma fi s rafra they are at table. 

!w-r An 31 "' » JS™^ 1 / 1 ] ar<1 > nlt {t > J threw him > on the ground. 
it talit fthum the third one of them. 

tirkal, il hnsan fi 1 bet walla fi 1 lukanda ? will you mount at the 
home or the hotel ? 

mabsutfn fi (for min) akluhum pleased with their food 

limiu- fi to covet. 

min hubbu fiha/ram his love for her. 

safir fi 1 babur in nimsawl he travelled by the Austrian boat. 

betidfa eh fi sh sbugbla di ? what are you paying for this job ? 

? !r a i mUSh f dhjr sometim <* H ** dear and sometimes not. 
ragii ilk fa 1 quwwa di a man of such strength. 
ma ti'akhiznish. Fi eh 1 excuse me. For what ? 
marra fi marra/rom time to time. 
waddih fi 1 bet fi 1 busta (for <ala) take him to the house, take it 

[to) the post. 
I'-'li-'n fi ba'duhum two h's following one another 
il wiqqa fih an olce of it. 

»^ E A A £ K r F[ 1S V6ry fre( l uen % ^ed with the unfinished 
and indefinite ten.es to emphasize the continuance of the action, 
as kan boyishi.Me fi 1 habl he was pulling away at the rope- 
i.Jl»." k yu«,ibu ih hatta mauwitfih they beZt hJtdl they / 

F6q 

'umru fdq it fcalatln (or without the article) he is over thirty 

roq 'an sa'a more than an hour. 

iggauwiz foqha (or f6q minha), as 'aleha (above). 

Li 
liya. lik. be. T, you, #<-., hn 
ma lakshe haqqe tidrabha you have no business to strih 

! ^i.khMtjn, i„h (»•,,,. im,,,,,) th , lj/hl , (ll ,, t]iirhi 

• 1 ainre b Huh it rests with God. 

film rtha wihaha / smelling horribly 

llk """ ,,1: you left f 

ma tr,:, t - i,,| llull .,„. u , lla Wn» one domtt understand a word 

a tf«b •' lamda i llnl)l ,;„• m 

mazzaq lu I gallabtya te tore his gown for him 

•'•'I luhshe shughla can't you find him ajobt 



318 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

shuf li 1 Basha see the Pasha for me. 

ab'adiya tisawi lha 1 alfen gineh a farm worth £2000. 

bakrag yakhud lu 'ishrin fingan a coffee-pot holding twenty cup>s. 

biddi akkauwah li, an'is li, aghfal li, shuwaiya / want to lie down 

a little, take a nap. 
da'a li to bless 

khud lak kursi get yourself a chair. 

ina nish qadir arsi li 'ala haga / don't know what to decide on. 
rain mat lu ? whom has he lost ? 
larunia tibqa lak 2 il arde sukhna zeyi n nar when you have the 

ground as hot as fire. 
qam huwa, qani lak 2 eh ? 3 rah darab il bint fi wishshiha what 

do you think he did? he went straight and struck the girl in 

the face. 
qalu lu Mehammad they named him Mohammed ; yequlu lu fil 

they call it an elephant. 
qa'ad waiyaya li 1 maghrib he sat toith me till sunset. 
(li) shuwaiya tat 'al§ya presently he passed by me. 
(li) wahdu by himself. 
(li) tani yom is subhe gih next morning he came. 

Remark a. — The use of li or 'ala after verbs of motion is 
practically identical, but the latter is more common. 
Remark b. — For le inn, see § 577. 

Ma' 
ma'ak il haqq you are right. 
ma' zalik all the same, in spite of this. 
oahar il hadde ma* lelt il itnen Sunday, day and night. 
bahri ma' gharbi south-west. 
mesafir Id ma' nahar travelling day and night. 
ma' il maghrib at sunset ( = bi 1 magrib, ti 1 maghrib, but is more 
vivid, implying contemporaneous action). 

1 It is mole usual To say yis&wi lu. yakhud lu. Ac. thai- 

yisawi, yakhud, simply in such cases. 

Lak in these two examples is an instance of the ao-called 
ethical dative. Comp. the use of the Becond pronominal suilix 
with bard as Follows: baqa nta sauwart il hikaya dJ 'aleya. 
Ila-al w ana bardak kaddab so you invented this tali about me. 
It fa f ■ liar. The strengthened forms 

of the adverbs qawam, ya ddb (qawamak, ya dobak) probably 
present a similar use of this suffix. 



THE PREPOSITIONS 319 

Mia 

huwa min d6ri he is of my age, a contemporary of mim . 
dakhal min guwa bab il bet (for guwa) he went inside the ga 

the h 
da min mudda thafs a long time ago. 
wiqi' min tulu 7u measured his length on the ground. 
iimrnu nmtit minnu he has lost his moth' r. 
ga\bu 'idad il qahwa min bakarig u tanak they brought the vessels 

for making coffee, including the bakrags and tanakas. 1 
huwa minnina he is of our party. 
nas min kubar u min sughar people high and low. 
'anduhum tamant olid min subvan u (min) banat they haw eight 

children, what with hoys and girls. 
minhum nas, min ba'de nas (§ 448). 

minnu farran u minnu baqqal he is both a baker and a grocer. 
y,i salam min il hair! ijood heaven*, what heat! 
yerauwahti min il maghrib they go away at sunset. 
min fiki'i le inn it is my opinion that. 
zabatuh min betu they arrested him at his hot 
ish shamse titla' min ish sharq the sun rises in the east. 
min y&m li y8m from day to day. 
khalli balak min il 'afah keep an eye on the luggage. 
yatim min il umm one who has lost his mother. 
battal mish (min ish) shughl idle, without work. 
rah min hina, min henak he has gone this, that, way. 
'adda min il bahr, min fuq il kubri he crossed th 

ovt r by the bridge. 
qarrab min (or li) approach, quraiyib min near t<>. 
ganbe minnu beside him (for ganbu). 
misiktu min ish aha*! / caught him by the hair. 
il khalifa mat min il gidrl the Khalifa died of smallpox. 
sitritak daiyaqa min taht il bat your coat is too tight under fh> 

arm. 
/.ainaii mudda min is sinin many a long year. 
minnu li llah it is between God and him. 
itmazzaqit il gallabtya min kitliha the gown was torn in tin 

shoulder. 

liiitti.-h minnu baga zdye dj / never Linn- him to do such a 

thing. 
i- sirqa tninkQ t'iku one of you has committed the theft. 
k nut 4- shela ( ahayla) 1 wad we ma1 minn] th boy died U 

arms. 

1 1 tifferenl kinds of coffee-pots. 



320 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

min da 'ala da a little of both. 

'auz teruh min dilwaqti? do you leant to go at once? 

hat minnu bring some of it. 

luh bet min Mb, min 'ataba he has a house with its door, its 

approach, all to himself. 
in nadafa mil iman cleanliness is next to godliness. 
zi'il min (or waiya) get annoyed with. 
mala min (or bi or direct object) fill with. 
intaqam min avenge one's self on. 
talab, &c, min demand of. 
ti'ib min get iceary of. 

Waiya, iciya 

ana waiyak i" am with you, of your opinion. 
quraiyib waiyah related with. 
khalli balak waiyaya think of me, don't forget me. 
enta waiyak bard ? are you cold ? have you taken cold ? 
zi'il waiya (or min, 'ala). 

Wara 

'amalu min waraya, min wara 'ilmi he did it behind my back, 

without my knowledge. 
waraya shugl, diwan, talab / have work to do, to go to the ojjice, 

am wanf< 1 1. 
talat sinin wara ba'd three years consecutively. 
nifi warah u ma quddamu all he has. 
ish sbahr illi warana dih next month. 

Prepositions may be placed before or govern other parts of 
speech than nouns and pronouns, as ruh min hina ; ahsan min 
innina nmut better than that we die, ma fish fayda fi innak 1 
teruh there is no advantage in your going; so 'ala inn, leiun, 
ma' inn, «tc. 

THE CONJUNCTIONS 
§ 571. Of these, the following deserve some special notice : — 

Fa, wa (usually pronounced h, fe; wi, we) 

Thf former connects sentences only, ami the relation the] 
bear to one another is usually more remote than when wa is 
employed. It picks up the thread of the discourse, and the fact 

1 in the second sentence is often the effect of th 

1 1.. Innak is more usual in ordinary conversation. 



THE CONJUNCTIONS 321 

in the first, 1 as il walad iza rah li wahdu yimkin yetuh, fa ahsan 
teruh waiyah if the boy goes alone he may lose his way, so' you 
had better go with him; fe ana lamma smihte minnu kede rigi'te 
darabtu tani and when I heard him say that, I stmck him again ■ 
kan fi idu sikkina, fi ihna min khofna tba'adna minnu he had a 
knife in his hand, and so we were afraid and kept away from him 
lhe verb of the second sentence may be in the imperative or 
the first be introduced by a conjunction, as ana khadte minnu 
talagraf le innu gay, fi ruh enta iddi khabar li 1 Basha / have 
had a telegram from him saying he is earning, so go and tell the 
Pasha ; ma dam huwa mush 'auzu f e ahsan niddih li gheru since 
he doesn't want it, we had better give it to some one else. 

It is sometimes used immediately before the verb in a sen- 
tence introduced by the conjunction amma (or we amma) or 
lakin (we lakin), to show emphatically that the action of the 
verb relates exclusively to a particular object, as litnen dol 
rahum we amma 1 baqyin fe fidluni matrahhum. 

§ 572. Wi connects both single words'and sentences. It i« 
commonly omitted between two verbs closely connected even 
though then- subjects are different, as rigi< ir ragil 'and il farran 
talab minnu r raghif the man went back to the baker's and asked 
him for the loaf; dauwarte <aleh laqetu / looked for it and found 
it; arga' asukku / will come back and lock it; 2 gih yikahhilha 
'ammaha lie went to paint it (his eye) with "kohl," ami blinded it • 3 
hat li 'arabiya tkun kuwaiyisa get me a carriage, and let it be a 
good one; ishtirmna saniya tkun min in nahas lasfar buy me a 
brass tray (with a stress on the word brass) ; ana twaladte laqetu 
kede I found it so when I was born, i.e. / know it was so since my 
ovrth ; nadahti lu gih I called him and lie came; ana qulti lak ma 
tiftahsh il bub tequm dugri tiftahu / told you not to oj>en thy 
'/our, ami you immediately go and open it; ma saddaq ggt qal li 
he waited m I came, awl then told me ; raysSn li markib tighraq 
(S 514), ihdar ardabbak yezid be present at the {delivery of) 
yowrardabb, awl it wiU iwrease(be better measure); enta qadde 
kede 'abit 'amalte kede were you such <t simpleton a.< h, do that t 

Remakk.— Such expressions as rah we gab, qam huwa we 
abaf, are uncommon. Note that after i-mii ma'ruf be so hind 
the copulative is regularly used, though not after kallif khatrak 
{donnez-vous la peine), as i'niil ma'ruf we qui li be m good M 

1 It is equivalenl in many cases to the German darm. 
■ B • ■• gab, banzi] astafhim, a.-. I a nega- 

tive verb, as ma g&ah qal li he didn't come ami tell me. 

J Proverb. 



322 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

to tell me ; l kallif khatrak tistanna shuwaiya hare the goodnesA 
to wait a little. 

§ 573. On the other hand, where two or more nouns or pro- 
nouns are in sense united each with the preceding one, the 
conjunction must be expressed between every two, not only 
(as is often the case in English) between the last but one and 
the last, as is sab'e wi 1 fil wi n nimr the lion, the elephant, and 
tlte tiger; gena ana wi hiya wi bniha she, I, ami our son came; 
kan badir il 'aris wi 1 'arusa we waldehum wi 1 kull tlie bride, 
the bridegroom, their parents, and all the rest were there. 

§ 574. Wi is sometimes joined to the conjunctions amma and 
lakin, as and to yet in English, and to the conditional lau, 
giving it the sense of although, and may in the last case also 
be repeated with the following word, as huwa gih we amma 
khuh ma gash he came, but his brother did not come; humma 
fikruhum kede we lakin humma nas gahliya such is their idea* 
but then they are ignorant people ; we lau il walad rah (or we 
lau wi 1 walad rah) (§ 516). 

§ 575. In the following phrases the conjunction seems out 
of place in English, though its appearance is not in all cases 
illogical: kulle yom wi t tani every day or two; marraten wi 
talata two, or even three, times ; ba'de yomen wi t talit laqetu ; 
kulle sana (or 'am) wi ntu bi kher may every year bring you 
prosperity (lit. every year and you in prosperity) ; shuwaiya (or li 
shuwaiya or shwaiyiten or habbiten) wi gih presently he came ; 2 
kulle ma da or dau ( = da we) yisman, yikhiss he gets fatter, 
thinner, every day ; ma ash'ur illau ( = ilia we, also allau) huwa 
ganbi lie was at my side before I knew it (lit. 1 iras on I y just aware 
and there he was, &c.) ; ma saddaq allau gih ; ma kanshe minnu 
illau shatamni what did he do but insult w> . 

§ 576. Somewhat analogous to the above is the use of wi 
with a participle, adjective, or the continued present tense, in 
place of a temporal conjunction and a verb, as slnit'tu w una 
ravili il balad / son: him us I was going to th< village; itqabilte 
waivah wi buwa g&y niin is si'u| / met him as iim/ from 

tfie mart'/ ; talatin Sana wi r ragil mat it is thirty yetflt since the 
man died; ya tara lull zamaii we huwa 'aiyan //■/.-• h- bem ill long, 

l wonder; ana B&ftrte wi nt i gughaiyarai u-nt an-ay uh>n you 
a liith- girl ; ma shuftuhumab iQ* we bmama qodd&ml I 

i>nhj taw tluiii when tiny wen before m>- ; ana nmihtak wi nta 

1 ( lei in. >• gut. mid. 

'■' <\>ni|i. Eng. a mOMBnt, and /■ . "a little irhde, 

and yr shall see me." 



THE CONJUNCTION? 823 

bitisrukh / heard you when you were crying ^ut ; nadah 'alehum 
wi humma beyitla'um he called to them as they were going out. 

Remark a. — The clause with wi may precede as well us follow 
the other, as wi hna mashyin fi s sikka gana wahid qal lina as 
toe were walking in the street, kc. 

Remark b. — The simple aor. may also be used, and the con- 
junction and pronoun may be (though they seldom are) omitted, 

d>athum yiaraqu he caught them stealing, seized them in the 
met "f stealing. 

Remark c. — Wi is occasionally used for lamma with a past 
-. as w ana kunte henak shuftu / sav> him when J 
there. 

Kkmark d. — As the substantive verb has no present parti- 
ciple, when I wot, dec, will be translated by w ana, <i:e., as wi 
nta fi skandariya nizilte fen ? where did you put up when you 
■ Iria 1 ma shuftush wi huwa walad ? didn't you set 
him when he was a boy ? 

Remark e. — This clause introduced by wi is. regarded as a 
genitive when a word expressing a period of time preced- 
min muddit wi ntt bint* sugaiyara. 

Remark/. — Wi is very seldom used in this way with anything 
but the personal pronouns. 

17. The preposition li is affixed to the conjunction inn 
without practically adding anything to its force, 1 aa will be 
bom tni» following example h of which inn nii;_ r )iT 

alone be used : qulti lu le iuni "aivan / told him I was ill . 
hnnah la inn il mablagh Lndafa' inasmuch as the sum ufpeuet; ma 
vi-ahliish le innak fcigj U u not right that you should come; min 

le innina hadrln a ■ ing th i 
le innu ■ i ix it thai y lias not ee 

rriiiii.ui le iuni shuft often has* I 'am le inniha qalit 

kede, lakin . . . (it is) true she said so, out . . . ; qulleinnugil 
(i.«-. suput • )heca ra Le inniha '-' gat ti •find i 

thing come into my eye ; huwa fr ham min le innina rauwahna 
lut imagined we had gone; darabn&h hat&a le innina mauwil 

we beat him till we killed him , 'a>han le innina bid lina nsh 

vuee we want to 

\uk a. — It will he noticed that inn and le inn are not 

iv pi ried \<y a v.-il ., and also that when the subject 

y<i the v.-rli following is a pea sonal pronoun it must be appended 
-uffix to the conjunction, but when ilia La used (she pronoun 

.t leinn is more oeuaJ than the simple conjunction. 

* Le inniha might here I"- Offiitl 



324 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

is not expressed, as akkid 'aleh innu yigi (or ilia yigi) insist upon 
his coming. 1 

Remark b. — Where inn or le inn is preceded by another 
conjunction or an adverb it may be practically superfluous, 
having no conjunctional force, as 'ashan le innu gay since he is 
earning ; amma innak 'abit verily you are a simpleton ; allahumma 
inni ana zi'ilte minnu indeed I was angry with him ; u ba'den ya 
sidi le inniha tanniha mistanniya. Inn will occasionally stand 
quite alone, itself introducing the sentence, as innak enta 'abit ! 
with the same meaning as above. 

§ 578. 'ala inn is optionally used for inn or le inn after qal, 
iftakhar, khammin, yihsib, and verbs of similar import, as qulti 
li 'ala innu mush radi you told me he wasn't willing ; iftakarte 
'ala inn il husan da beta'ak I thought this hoi'se was yours ; bahsib 
'ala innak ta'ban / thought you were tired. 

§ 579. The relative ma forms conjunctions with the pre- 
positions 'ala, qabl, &c. (§ 245), or prepositions followed by 
certain nouns v as 'ala bal ma whilst, 'alashan ( = 'ala shan) or 
'ashan ma, &c. It must in almost every case immediately pre- 
cede the verb, so that where the subject is expressed and pre- 
cedes the verb it is separated from the rest of the compound, as 
qabl ir ragil ma yigi ; 'abal ( = ala bal) il gawab ma yinkitib 
until the letter is written, &c, but we may, of course, say qable ma 
yigi r ragil, &c. 2 

Remark a. — When used with tauw it should not in any case 
be separated, nor is it, as a rule, when used with till. 

Remark b.— Ma is added for emphasis to ketir, halbatt, and a 
few other words, as ketir na mbasat, ma gena, ifcc. ; halbatte ma 
yigi ivhy, of course he'll come. 

§ 580. Tauw may take the pronominal suffixes, and hum in 
with a past tense that the action has just been completed, or, 
when followed by ma, as soon as it was completed, as tauwu gih 
he haxjusf come; tauwu ma ruht as soon as yon went, With the 
aorist it denotes as soon as an act is (will be) accomplished, u 
tauwu ma yigi as soon as he comes. It should in the latter case 
be accompanied by ma. The participle may be used in place of 
the past tense, as lissa tauwuhum gayiu ( - ma gum). 



1 Ilia is not in frequent use. 

8 It cannot be said that qable nia r ragil jdgl is never heard, 
but such an expression should not be imitated. 



THE INTERJECTIONS 325 

THE ADVERBS 

§ 581. As has been seen (§§ 244, 336), substantives, adjec- 
tives, and even verbs, may be used as adverbs. 

§ 582. Adverbs may qualify substantives as well as adjectives, 
as huwa sahbi ketir he is a great friend of mine. 

THE INTERJECTIONS 

§ 583. As an appendix to the list of interjections given in 
the accidence, a few expressions used mostly among friends on 
the occurrence of common events are here given. 1 

To One Starting on a Journey 
Tariq is salama ; ma' is salama; Rabbina 2 yiwaddik bi 

kher. Reply — Allah yisallimak ; in sha' Alia, nshufak (or nshuf 

wishshak, wishshukfi) fi kher. 

Rabbina yitammim 'alek bi kher. Reply — Allah yihfazak ; 

Rabbina yigma'na 'aleku bi kher. 

To One Returned from a Journey 
Salamat ; hamdu li llah (or hamdilla) 'as salama ; wahashtina, 
auhashtina.^ Reply — Allah yisallimak ; wahashtina, to which 
the person returned may reply — Allah yihfazak, yisallimak. 

To Congratulate 
Mebarik (mubarak). Reply — Allah yibarik fik. 

To One Leaving after a Vimt 
Sharraftina. Reply — ihna Hi tsharrafna ; Allah yisbarraf 

qadrak; or 

Anistina. R'-jdy — Allah ye'ansak; Allah yitfaddal 'al6k bi 

1 kher ; or 

Nauwarte bStna. Reply — Allah yihfazak ; or 

Hasal lina g siin'ir hi Wgudkum. Reply — Allah yihfazak. 

After Drinking (in a Friend's House) 
11 hamdu li llah (saluting at tin- saim- time). /fry/y— Hanl'an 
(liik.mii ), to which the drinker replies — Allah vihannlk (or hannak 

Allah 3 ). 

1 The meaning of tli" words which follow, if not already 
given ii' the body of the grammar, will be found in bhe vocabu- 
lary at, 1 1 1 * - end. 

bbina and Rabbuna are both said, the latter after th« 
Kterarj . Nabwyish. 



326. THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Ox Receiving a Cup of Coffee 

Qahwa da'iman. Reply — damit hayatak (or Rabbuna yidim 
'alek is satr). 

After Eating 

Inbasatte ktir min in akl. Reply — bi sh shifa wi 1 'afya, tot 
which the first replied — Allah yi'afik (or yi'afi badanak). 

On Rising to Leave 
'an iznak ; nista'zim ; min gher mu'akhiza. 

To Express Thanks or Gratitude 

Kattar kherak ; mitshakkarin (mutashakkarin) ; kattar alfe 
kherak ; ana mamnun min hadritkum u mutashakkar. 1 Reply — 
kattar kherak ; il 'afw ef endim ; istaghfar Allah. 

To A Beggar (in place of a piece of money) 

Ruh ! Allah yihannin 'alek ; yirzuq ; ruh, ya shekh, Allah 
yirzuqak ; Allah yi'tik, yiddik. 

To Beg Pardon 

Ma t'akhiznish (ma t'akhiznash . . . unish, kc). Reply — il 
'afwe ya sidi ; ma 'alesh ; la mu'akhza. 

To an Invalid 

Shidde helak. Reply — ish shidde 'ala 11a. 

Mushahsan? Reply — il haindu li llah ; Allah yisallimak. 

On Inquiring after One's Health 

Izzeyak? Reply — il hamdu li llah, taiyibin, &c. (or simply 
il hamdu li llah). 2 

On Meeting a Friend 3 

Naharak sa'id J naharak sa'ld U inbarak. Reply— Hie Same 
words. 

Ahlan u sahlan. R<ply — sahlan (or ahlan) l>ak. 



1 For mutashakkir, (fee. The Turkish expression barakai 
warsal or warsin (Turk, versin) is still sometimes used, especially 
by the lower classes. 

- It is not. Arabia to say ana (aiyib, kattar kherak in reply to 
in inquiry. Kattar kherak is uot used in this way. rTattai 
kherak illi sa'altinl would be oorrecl and intelligible, but U> i 
above are th*> proper replies, 

\ \\w mlman greets another by the expression iciam ^>r 
iin) 'all ku. Reply -'aldku a Balam. 



THE INTERJECTIONS 32?: 

Ox Meeting a Friend in the Evening 

Allah yir.iHssik bi 1 kh'-r, massiku bi 1 khgr 1 (S 38) J; 
—massiku bi 1 kher wi s sa'ada. 

Timsa 'ala kher. Reply— wi ntu mnahl ( = mia ahl) il kher 
(or wi ntu mnahlu) ; tirnsu 'ala klier (or bkher). 

At Night 

I, ltak sa'ida (§ 326). %/y-same words. 
Imsa 'ala kher we tisbah 'ala kher. 

On Announcing a Death 

II baraka fi hissak, hakaza halt id dinva (or adi halt id 
dmya); il W it tawilak (for it tawil lak) . . . akhuk „, t 
husanak mat, dkc. ' 

To one about to Pray 

In sha' alia haraman. /^/y-suhba (or gaura, or Rabbina 
yigma'na) ; - or 

Allah yitammin bi kher. Reply-in sha' allah, Rabbina 
yisuia minnak u yitammim lina wi lukum bi kher. 

To One who has Recovered fhom an Illness 
l.IamdiJi ... y-Vy-Allahyisallimak. 

To a Fiance 

Mebarik. Reply-AMh yibarik fik ; -uqba 1 'andak ( = It 
anuak). v 

To CoKDOLE 

II baraka li hi>.vik. A'-yVy — Alhth yibarik Ilk. 

Oh the Occasion of a Festival 

Culle .sana wi nta faiyib (or wi ntu taivihm). fi-^-kuUe 
-nt, lbk |,, ; il -i.l Ifl .-Uirik in BOB 11,1, &J 

'aldna wi 'al8k hi khfir. 



women. 



' Th """ "P*** "" lly used hvanv hut Oopte and 

men. • • ■ 

only in um among Bfuasulm 



328 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

On the Birth of a Child 

Mabruk il maultld. 1 UK (i.e. God), gab lak yikhall! lak. 
Reply — Allah yibarik fik ; Rabbina yiddik (yi'tik). 

To a Father on the Death of a Child 

Allah yi'auwad 2 'alek. Reply — ya mahsan 'awadu, halt id 
dinya kede. 

On an Averted Mishap, or when a Thing has happily 
turned out well 

Hasal kher ; il hamdu li llah illi gat salima. 



ORDER OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE 

§ 584. The rules as to the position of words in the sentence 
will have already been gathered to some extent from the exer- 
cises and examples, as well as from the remarks bearing directly 
on the subject, but a short resume of them will not, perhaps, l>e 
out of place. 

(a) The subject, when definite, may either precede or follow 
the verb, as ir ragil gih or gih ir ragil, ana ruht or ruht 
ana. 

(/;) "When an indefinite singular-, it very rarely precedes un- 
less the indefinite article is expressed; thus we should say gilt 
ragil, but we may say wahid ragil gih. Riggala gum is, how- 
ever, not uncommon. 

(c) When two or more verbs have the same subject the 
subject may precede them all, follow the first, or follow them all, 
as is sitta khadit ba'diha u rahit, or khadit ba'diha s sitt u 
rahit, or khadit ba'diha u rahit is sitt. The last order is rarer 
than the first and second. 

(</) With only a few exceptions, the qualificative adjective 
follows its noun whether definite or indefinite. 

(e) The demonstrative pronouns almosl invariably follow the 
noun, but words may intervene between the noun and it, as il 
mahill illi hna qa'din fth 'lili this place in which i tting ; 

yeqQm ir ragil illi kan mfish] <lih. 

1 When a mother is congratulated, the following words are 
often added: wi ttalirih wi bgauwizu li hayatik we li hayat 
abuh. 

1 = 'auwada llah ahsan 'awad. 



ORDER OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE 320 

(/) Interrogative*, especially e (eh), le, kam, min, and the 
conjunction emta, 1 are usually at the end of the sentence. 

((/) A verb is never in a strict sense preceded by its object, 
but the object may be mentioned absolutely (for the sake ot 
emphasis or clearness) before the verb, and be represented and 
so repeated after the verb by means of the pronominal suffix, as 
ir ragil slmt'tu, never ir ragil shuft. 

(It) When the subject follows the verb, the object and other 
wards as well may come between the two, though it is more usual 
for the subject to be near the verb, as katab ir ragil il gawab, 
or katab il gawab ir ragil ; min ba'de ma khadit il khamsa 
gin£h il 'aguza after the old woman had taken the £5 ; qal lu 
tan ib il Beh " good ! " mid the Bey. 

(i) With verbs of giving, <fcc, the indirect object should 
precede the direct as in English, unless the former is governed 
by a preposition, when it may either precede or follow, as a'ta 1 
walad il kora, but a'ta 1 kuia li 1 walad, or a'ta li 1 walad il 
kora. 

(j) It is better in a conjunctive clause to place the verb 
before its subject, whether definite or indefinite, especially 
where there is another verb connected by the copulative ; thus 
lamina gih ir ragil u shut" halt il walad is much preferable t<. 
lamma r ragil gih, <fec. 

(fc) Th<' auxiliary kan may be separated from the principal 
verb, as kanit min qable li 1 babur (alabitu minnl she had asked 
me before in the boat ; kau waqtiha abuya fib. 'andu shugl 
my father was busy at that moment. 

ih, rah. when used with the aorist, should not be separated. 

(/) The vocative may occur in the middle of the sentence, 
even between subject and verb, as ana ya sidi ma 'amaltish I. 

quite ya bitti li nat'si la/ini tikhalliki qalbik gamid / said t>> 

\f t M j girl, you must keep a brave heart ; is Bikkl 'li ya gada' 
min liina 'ala i''\i< where, my lad, does this road /■ 

ana ma ma'lsh ).i klii fuluS j liati \a bitte kursi. 

(m) The adverbs kettr, qawt, follow in most cases the words 

qualify, as (aiyib qawt, but kettr Bometimes precedes, 

I of how, to what degree, also follows an adjective, 

buf rufaiya'tn izzdy see how thin they are, and is usually at 

tin- end of the sentence, in accordance with rule (/), as mat 

Others, as taqrtban about, tamallt ahoa ithei 

1 This is apparently due to Coptio influence (8). Tl 
junction mate { emta) always precedes, but it is \<i_\ rarely 



330 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

follow or precede an adjective which they qualify, as tamalli 
uadif or nadif tamalli, but they should follow when unemphatic. 

(v) Adverbs should not intervene between subject and verb 
or verb and subject unless very emphatic ; thus ir ragil qam 
halan the man got up at once, but ir ragil halan qam (or qam 
halan ir ragil) the man immediately got up ; so da halbatte ma 
yisahhish that certainly won't do ; ana s sana di mush rah asafir ; 
huwa dayman l tamalli yibqa 'aiyan. 2 

(p) An emphatic word will often be put in a prominent 
place, though its natural order would be elsewhere, as kanu 1 
qadi meshaiya'il lu as to the Kadi, they had sent for him ; ma 
fish fi 1 bet 'esh. 

FIGURES OF SPEECH 

ELLIPSE 

§ 585. By this figure we understand the omission of a word 
or words, to be supplied from the general sense of the phrase. 
The following are instances of its use : — 

(a) The omission of the name of God in such expressions as 
kattar kherak, in'al abuk. 3 

(h) The verb qal is sometimes omitted in a narrative, as 
giryit in nas ..." khabar eh " the people ran up (saying) 
" What's the matter ? " 

(c) Usbur, or a word of similar sense, is often understood 
before lamma, as gara lhum eh ? Lamina s'alhum what's happened 
to them ? Wait till (or I'll tell you when) I have asked them. 

(d) When the object, to which the action of the verb has 
reference, has just been mentioned, and would, if referred to, 
be represented by a pronominal suilix if definite, or by Wahid 
if indefinite, it is frequently omitted altogether, as ana qulti lak 
tigib li 1 kitab da; leh ma gibtish / told you to bring me that 
hook; why didn't you bring it 9 'auzkursl? Ewa, hat do you want 
a chair ' )'■ 8, bring <>ue. 

(e) Words are omitted in a few other expressions of com- 
mon occurrence, as the nouns sinin and 'alqa (a beating) in ibnfl 
'ashara, i<Mi lu ; khad b§h, basha (for rutbit b8h, &o.) ; innama 
haga; 4 k&fak (for 'ala kdfak) as you lih ; 'andu uluf hi hoi 

1 Notice the aooent. 

2 Notice the ditl'erence between shakwitu tainalli ma tinfa'.-li 
anil sliakwit.ii ma 1 1 nl'a'.-lie t;iin;illi. 

3 As in English Bleeeyouf Ovneyi 

4 Main il y n urn choe* ; e'i una cosa. 



EUPHEMISM 331 

thousands (of pound* | . is <■< ry rich : mush 'aus yidaiya' he d 
wish to spend (money); id dinya nawiya (or nawiya 'alaniya) the 
weather is threatening. Fih moiya qadde tulen (i.e. tul raglen). 
S;t'id and kherak are often said in reply to naharak sa'id and 
kattar kh&rak with an ellipse of the first word. 1 

§ 58G. The form of ellipse called brachylogy of comparison 
is illustrated by such expressions as qimtu ragil its height is 
tliat of a man (for qimtu qimit ragil) ; wishshu na'im zeyi 1 
harim his face is soft like a woman's ; so san'itu naggar his trade 
is that of a carpenter ; hilif 'ab'ha bi t talaq inniha ma tfutsh il 
b»*t = qal laha ma tfuti^h il bet we hilif 'aleha bi t talaq iza 
fatitu. 

EUPHEMISM 

§ 587. The avoiding of unpleasant or unlucky words by 
others more propitious, sometimes implying the exact opposite, 
is an idiom not unknown to Arabic. Instances are : — 

Iddi lu 1 ma'lum give hint his present or bribe (you know what) ; 
itwakkil («c 'ala 11a) to go away (lit. commend one's self to God.); 
khud il malyan take away the full (cup), meaning the empty one ; 
i l waff a (tuwuffi) die. 2 

A person saying an unpleasant thing to another, or of an- 
other, will often address him, or speak of him in the la 
;i> il bi'id (or il ab'ad) the far, the farthest one, to avert the evil 
from himself or from the person addressed, as ya kalb il ab'ad 
vin'al abu 1 bi'id curse your father ; ikrush il ab'ad dih 
drive away this fellow ; akhkh il ab'ad mat his l>r>A1t'-r has d 

Bid 'annl and hid 'annak ( = bi'id 'anni, <fcc, i.e. ish sharr 
th" evil) are used for tin- Bame purpose, as huwa bi'aivat leh ? . 
'ashan bid 'annak mat abuh. 

A man generally speaks of his wife as gam&'itna (or il 
gama'a 'andina), and occasionally as bC-ti (or ahle b'ti, or fami- 
liyite); 4 so gama'tak, &c., your wife; wiladl may include the 
whole family — wife as well as children. 

The word bayad whitewash is used for sift pitch. A house 
should not be spoken of as maqful. 9 

1 See also g§ L'61, 300, 313, 357. 

1 1 is paralleled by the word defunct, 
•* Comp. il 'ttmre tawilak, above. 

1 Pamillyiti is after the Turk. famHyam, and rarely used by 
■neducated. 
Zift will be used, of course, by those who have to deal with 
it. M II Mt maqful" might imply that there bad l»«-**ti a d 
in it. The word menaffad should be used. 



332 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

RHYME, USE OF SIMILAR SOUNDING WORDS, AND 
ALLITERATION 

§ 588. This figure occurs : — 

(a) When words of the same origin, but of different parts 
of speech, are placed together, as "will naturally happen in a 
language where most words are derived from a verb root. Thus 
there is nothing clumsy in such expressions as darabiih darba ; 
qismit il qisma inni fate decreed that I . . . huwameqawil wahid 
'ala meqaula he has made a contract with one; ish sheyal shal ish 
shela the porter carried the burden; wahid 'abid biyi'bid Rabbuna 
fi 1 gabal yiwahhidu a hermit worshipping the Lord in the moun- 
tain, and declaring His Unity ; yimtur il matar it rains ; yirga' 
margu'na li our story now reverts to (lit. our returned returns) ; il 
katib katab il kitab the tvriter (clerk) wrote the writ ; l nor will an 
effort be made in any case to avoid the similarity of sound by 
using a synonym. 2 

(ft) In proverbs and other expressions where the rhyming of 
two or more words serves to impress the meaning of the whole 
sentence on the memory; e.g. ma ya'rafshe bu'u min kii'u he 
does not Icnoio his right hand from his left (lit. the bone of his toe 
from his elbow); kulle ma hasal wasal, i.e. every little helps; il 
insan fi t tafkir wi r Rabbe fi t tadbir, i.e. man proposes ami 
God disjwses ; lisanak husanak wi n suntu sanak your tongue is 
your horse ; take care of it, and it will take care of you. 

(c) Where a particular word is emphasised by another or 
others of similar sound rhyming with it, but not necessarily ex- 
pressing the same sense, or indeed any sense at all. The second 
word is often identical with the first, but appears with a new 
initial letter, generally ?», 3 and often in a lengthened form : 
la yi'raf kalam wala salam (of a boor) ; dakhal la dastur wala 
hudur he entered without asking permission (saying dastui 
announcing his presence, i.e. without ten mony ; La ffish wala 'ale'sh, 
i.e. irithaut any result ; hos d6s pell-mell ; khalta balta confusedly, 
topsy-turvy; la Ilia nafa' wala shafa' of no use or advantage ; ma 
'andtsh wala be»5 wala gliet. <-e. ^ <"" homeless and pi ///>;■ ss ; ana 
ragil min bfiti li gheti, La simple; isme bala gism ; iddinyabaqat 

1 La yu'qal li 'aqle 'aqil is a favourite phrase aiming the 
educated. 

'-' Gibna 1 gibna we have brought the eheen would be mora 
pleasing t<> the ear than haddarna 1 gibna. 

:l Cf. llai'ut and .Ma rut, the names of two rebel angel& The 
Koranic names for Cain and Abel are Qabil and ElabiL, 



TLEONASM AND TAUTOLOGY 333 

kulliha 'osa u losa nothing but dirt ami mud in the street* ; ma 
shuftish wala ragil wala tagin, i.e. no one and nothing ; x tanialli 
qayim nayiin (tul in nahar fi betu) of a stay-at-Jiome ; wala fayda 
wala 'ayda of no use or profit (return) ; halan balan at once ; haudat 
u laudat bends and curves ; dus dughri 2 in a straight line ; tannu- 
hum yikkallimu fi haqq in nas we yequlu qal u qil u qulna u kan 
u filfui wi 'illan u tartan they went on gossiping about people and 
saying, " he said," and " it was said," and " we said," and "he was," 
and " such a one" ami " so and so ; " wala kitah wala mitab ma fish 
there is no book, nor anything like a book ; dauwarte 'aleh fi salqat 
u malqat / searched for him up hill and down dale ; kulle hin u 
min every now and then ; ma 'andish shughla wala mashghula / 
have nothing whatever to do ; la she' wala mashwe' nothing what- 
ever ; ma fish hadde wala mahdud wala she' wala mashwe' no- 
body and nothing ; haga mihtaga something or other; itmal§na 
turab ihna u halna u mihtalna (or mihtiyalna) we were covered 
with dust as well as everything belonging to us ; bala kani wala 
inani, i.e. don't tall: nonsense ; ma tuq'udshi tqul li la kani wala 
mani wala dukkan iz zalaba.ni (or il fakharani). 

So great is the love for rhyme, that gram mar is sometimes 
sacrificed for it, as itghadda tmadda (for itmadd), it'ashsha it- 
mashsha, i.e. after dinner rest awhile, after supper walk a mile ; 
birgalatak birgalatak halaqa dahab fi widanatak; 8 161a 1 kasftra 
ma kanit il fakhura. 4 

PLEONASM AND TAUTOLOGY 

§ 589. This figure is naturally very common in a rich 
language like the Arabic, where the same idea can he dressed 
in manifold garbs. It is due usually to the desire of the speaker 
to make his meaning clear by repeating it in different words, 
or by translating a nahwy term into its corresponding dririg, or 
vice versa. As in other languages, it is much more prevalent 
in the talk of tho lower classes ihan in that of the educated; 
>■.</. daklialna guWS ti d dukkan (where dakhalna fi d dukkan 

or dukhalna <1 dukkan would express the same sense); so kharag 
barra; kansabaq qablu («sabaqu); dughri ii 1 hal immediately; 

li awan \\ ; i ■ j t is get in the *uiiiiu>f sniso/i ; QUI bt'nua u ben ha'd ; 

1 The? say of a bachelor, la 'anda man wala tagin. 

2 Tin ki>h. 

8 See Exercise XIII. 

* A.bjOve, though used bj I rs (for 

tour), is not Arabic. 



334 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

rigi' tftni he returned ; moiyit il maward rose water ; ahsan ziyada 
better ; basse faqat only ; lamma shaf ha qa'da galsa henak when he, 
gam her sitting tJiere ; rasaruhuin 'ala hasab taswirit siirit bani 
Adam he drew them in the form of men ; da'iman tamalli always : 
ya'ni ma'naha I mean, that is to say ; kaffit kulle haga every single 
thing ; la budde min innt le inni aruh it is imperative that I go ; 
'ashan ikminnu mush 'auz because he doesn't want; kan ahsan 
lazim teruh 1 you should have gone ; in sha' Alia Rabbuna yirzuqak 
bi walad please God, the Lord will give you a son ; wahdani li 
wahdu quite alone by himself ; ana mara 'azba we gozt mat / am 
a xoidow woman, and my husband is dead, ; 2 mabsut min qui 
kalamu pleased with his words; gallabiyitka kanit izzeyiha? what 
was her robe li/ce? baqa lazim tequl li 'ala 1 kalam id dughri we 
•al.i 1 kalam is sahih we ti'mil ma'ruf tequl li qol sharaf — il waqt 
illi ruhte fih kan f ani waqt? 3 Wahid yom gih il bashmu- 
handiz gih hina fi 1 bet — kan hadir il khawaga lamma gih, u 
waqtiha lamma gih ma kanshe maugud Salim hina kan rah fi d 
diwan waqtiha is sa'a tamanya kede. We am ma 1 bashniu- 
handiz lamma gih kanit ya sidi is sa'a titla' ya'ni taqriban tie** 
avi tis'a u rub'e kede, izzeyak, 4 u lamma gih . . . Rikib husanu 
we tannu mashi huwa wi 1 khaddam beta'u we s sayis beta'u we 
tannu rnashi 'ala betu u nizil fi 1 bet beta'u. 5 

§ 590. The words baqa, qam, beta', ya'ni, izzeyak, absar eh, 
as we have seen, are often slovenly inserted without adding to 
the force of the words, but the first two, though generally merely 
expletives, sometimes add a nervousness or elegance to a sentence 
which is lost in a literal translation. To these we may add 
ma t'akhiznish (for ti'akhiznish) accuse my saying so {jpaesez moi 
re. mot), an expression frequently employed, especially when the 
speaker is addressing a superior, without any reason : ti'raf yem 
knots ; qal, yeqiil he said, say.< he (in a narrative) ; walla h.i_ 
something, as mush kunte y6in min dol dakhalte fi betu walla 
h&ga dicbt'i you go into hi* house one day <>r something t 

Remark a. — Ti'raf (orta'raf) and qal, yeqftl are by no bmbju 
as commonly used as their eejUtf! alcnt- in Kuropean langu 

but the latter are often used after verbs of asking, ordering, Ac . 
conrertung an indirect into a direct sentence, as aValha we qal 

1 A mixture of ideas. The ex pi eooion is a very common one. 

* Of. '1 Sam. xiv. 5. 

8 Notice the mixture of construction. 

* See below, § 590. 

The last sentences illustrate the prolixity of the lower 
ee 



PLEONASM AND TAUTOLOGY 335 

laha he asked her, saying . . . ; yigi yutlub min abuh we vequl 
lu . . . 

II km ark b. — The use of ism in such expressions as the 
following may here be noticed : da ismu bet! do you call that a 
house t is that a house? di ismiha 'arabiya! call that a carriage I 
yibqa iamak ghalabtini so you have beaten me or it is a case of 
your having beaten me. 

. The words masal (or masalan) for example and bard 
(or bard), with the pronominal suffixes, are often repeated 
several times in the same sentence, as lau masalan rah min 
'andak masalan haga if, for instance, you (for instance) lost A 
thing; bardu ya sidi zt'ye ba-du ya'hl bardu ma fish mani' 
bardina niqdar ni'mil kede. 

§ 592. Repetition may intensify or convey a plural notion, 
as dughri dughri quite straight; bukra bukra to-morrow "as ever 
is " ; min barra burru straight away ; iskut sakit keep quiet ; hasal 
hasal it has assuredly happened ; l illi katabtu katabtu ; 2 wahid 
wahid one by one ; humma wiskhin wi.-khin ; emta emta (or emta u 
emta) yigi ? fen u fen rah i " where and oh wliere ? " fen hay hat u 
hay hat lamma nehufak marra = kulle hin u hin marra; hitta 
hitta piece by piece (§106); ikwam ikwam. in heaps; kharramu 
khrum khurum pu rce it cdl over with holes; 'ud il qasab yibqa kullu 
'uqal 'uqal a stick of sugarcane i* full of notches; fidil yidrab 
yidrab yidrab fih he kept striking him one blow after another, 
yikhaiyat, yikhaiyat, yikhaiyat, stitching, stitching, stitching ; fi 1 
abaan we ahsan we aktar we aktar ininnu. 

§ 593. The principal clause is very frequently repeated with 
a temporal conjunction by way of introducing a new »•-. 
consequent upon the first, as qa'adit hiya; ba'de uia qa'adit gih 
abulia the sat down, OS 900n as she had sat down h'-r father came . 
dajkhalt il bit, lamma ilakhalt il bit >lnit'r ... 7 went inside the 
. a 1,. n I "■ i>i inside tlie house I saw . . . 



1 Or it has happened, and (here is an end of it. 

2 "o yty/>a(jia ytypatpa. 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 



Kan labis bacllit id diwan. Ir rikabat yitrakkibu fi z zukham 
wi 1 ligam fi r ras ig gild. Hat li hitta hittiten sukkar. Mush 
tis'alni su'al bi 1 ma'ruf ? Ir ragil it taiyib yiban min kalamu u 
min wishshu. Kan wahid miggauwiz wahda ismiha Sitt abulia. 
Fatah qahvvit hashish. Ya ragil ya qahwagi hat lina kam fingan 
qahwa. Qanasil Fransa wi 1 Miskof . Ir ragil il qahwagi qaddim 
lu 1 lahm wi mi'u 1 'esh wi 1 malh. Qui li 'ala inas'alt il binte 
di. Fen il goz il hainam ? Raddum humma 1 kull it talata we 
qalu. Kan mabni 'aleh sur min il bulad. Rabat u 1 qol waiya 
ba'd we qalu. Ana tua yisahhish inni arkab il husan 'ala Barge 
halfa; illi zeyina ma yirkabshe 'alas surug il halfa. Lamina 
tikhlas min shughl il bet. Huwa dilwaqti fi 'izze buliighu. II 
usul 'anduhum lamma 1 wahid yiddaiyif 'anduhum yigibu lu 1 
qahwa. Hatte idu fi gebha, fi geb il gallabiya 1 atlas beta'itha. 
Enta tirkab fi 1 'arabiyit il kubbel we ana rkab fi 1 hantur. 
'aleha hagat fadda. Kal labis badlit it tashrtfa. Kan fi idha 
<|irtas melabbis. Fidil il qirtas il melabbis fi idha. llhis mal- 
busatak il harir. Isntar&na toben talata slush min ish shftsh il 
marmar. Sh§yah lina itnashar kursi min il khaia/.an au min 
il karasi 1 'ada illi mafrushln bi 1 qashsh il akhdar. Sanlyit 
'asha kibira wi tishte haminam. Tahafna lha hittit BUhbil ward.' 
kuwaiyisa. Tighten talata ghasil li 1 fiidum min il kabftr wi 
sanlyit fanagtl min in oahas 'ashan shurb il qahwa. we 
hagar Luzum il matbakh. Ddl asluhum gayin min il barr il 
gharbl illi huwa gharb il Gtsa. Ba'de ma (allaqha [ddaha 
waraqit (alaqba, Gabu lu dulniit gar* we dulmit bedingao we 
lahmit kabab mistiwlya fi a Bamn. Kunte li Bafarlyit is Sudan? 
11 kanun il 'arabl huwa mabnl min it tub we 1 hugara, we amma 
1 kanun il afrangl huwa hadid. Yuthiikhum ti hilal min nahas u 

fill nas yutliukhu m li hram fukhkhar. ilat h >huwaivit y.rt salaam. 
Lamma tirkhas il miilukhiya vihija r i a : 1 • • t'.lia hi 'i>hrin fadda 
ta'nfa. Yeglbu l ii'l/n il mulukhiva 'ala BhAn il khainas .sitr 
\infus yikalVilium 'aaha wi ftur. Khalli n iiai' im-walla'a t iht il 
bulla lamma ti^'hli 1 iya. Yi.shnju 1 Md ti 1 1 1 1 < > i \ a. Yit'iumu 



EXERCISES ON THE BYNTAX 

1 lahm fnq tabltya khashab an qurma khashab. FSn ratlOn il 
labm il li ddrthum lak? Dif 'aleb guz'e min is sukkar we 
guz'e min is Bamn. II hulq&n il hadid. Hat li 1 furaha sh sha'r 
'ala sbahha dibla dahab bi gdiia. Yeduqqu 1 filfil fi 1 gum il 
hagar au li gurn rakham au kbaahab we vedisbshu 1 ful fi 1 
rabayu 1 hagar. Is gahn il ful in nubit. Yebillu 1 ful fi 1 moiya 
u ba'deu yisaffuh, lamma yinabbit, min moivitu. Kulle y6m 

■■ 'ala qaddi kfayit il via. ! '• ink ma'l 
fadda? Ish shuwaiyit il malh wi t fcmnnit ix razz illi gibtubuiii 
min is suq hatithum fgn? lahtirl li shuwaiyit lamun min il 
baladl. Lldi lu 1 kuz il indiva. It tabikh kan mahtflt fi qalbe 
fukbkb.a-. Wazant il kilt ^ id dura? Hal lina' n nus Se 
qadab lr ruzz. Qutit Iakandarlya zayda fi 1 halawa wi fi t 

i 1 kubr 'an qutit il gharb, wi ahsan minha i wi fi 

t tabikb. Yebfu 1 lnbya il qadah fiha bi qirahen aigh au bi 
_b. Illi yebi'u 1 basal il akhdar yenadu 'aleh fi s aikak 
.lu: "ahlamin il 'asal ya basal." Mafish fibgtutuahdt ghaall 
iden. Tehibb il fitlr abn z$t i Taiyib, iddlni talatt arl 
ummat samn we fitirten itnSn ummat zlt. In nfis Oil 'anduhum 
il qirah 'anduhum iahab. Min is eana li a aana, Kan mit- 
hazzim bi shamkt ?uf fi wustu. Minhum yilbiau 1 qumaan il 
ghazll we yilbiram il 'azba - f6q raahum ; wi minhum ydlbisuhum 
min bani-. wi minhum yilbiaubum nun qu$ne bind;." II fi 
il qahwa .- sada bi 'ishrin ta'rtfa, wi 1 fingan il qahwa 1 hilw abu 
sukkar bi qerahe ta'rlfa. Iddini mihkt khami b iyam. 11] 
hawa matar. Humma gharqantn fi d ndi Khadu n i 

lha 1 bard. Ana kutte 'aiyan 1 
wnauwii zamanu bi 1 lid,. Khud lak ahuwaiyit ramla min 
il bSda. Ihna maafrln fi babur il 'asr. Hlya dakhalit 
a 1 khamsin. 11 hawa ddauwar li qibli. Wilfid il harftm 
yi'rafu ba'd. [r ragiJ da tamalli 'andu aiyadit kalam. Ihna 
a ahle khibra yikahifu «ala 1 b6t. Hm . we 

lithum. Iddini talattfiahar hitta bi qershenat we 
Li bni adam minna lu rbe'ln shabah 
" Jl " i; " I 'anduhum 

I'l dinya harriha shidid wi uamusha kittr \di 
nmrahtiah ana. Kulliha bi dial taqrll ,it mak- 

1 wishsh. Meaafil ma yistiwi I i Mil 

r Diinhutii gib .i mityasaar minhum ma gftah. td 

aimm. Humma kulluhum q il 

•■ '" mi'&h .„,,,!,■ Bhutfa. Sb 

1 J 



338 THE SPOKEX ARABIC OF EGYPT 

illi huwa luzum il ligam. II kalam * da kan nahar il hadd. Qa'ad 
'andu mesafa li ba'd id duhr. Risha min fadda u risha min dahab. 
Min hiya 1 kibira fihum. II amri lak - ya malik is sa'ada. Gab 
luhum mahrama qasab. Gat lubum il hurnia 1 khatba. We 
humma 1 goz il khel it taqm illi 'alehum min in nahas lasfar, 
we 'ala kulle ras husan mahrama, ya'ni litnGn khel 'ala rashum 
mahramten, wi 1 itnen siyas kanu labsin badla mulki bi s 
sideriyat il qasab u bi t tarablisat il harir u bi 1 kuffiyat il 
hartr. II ashyat il ma'kulat yeqaddimuha kullilia li 1 ma'aztm. 
Shuf li 'arabiya bi guz khel nudaf. Kaffit ma yekun luzum il 
i'arah. Iz zaffa kanit il 'isha nahar il itnen ma' lelt it talat. 
II wilad dol wahid fuq ras wahid, ya'ni wahid ibne tamanya we 
wahid ibne 'ashara we wahid ibne itnashar sana. Hat li kursi 
au itnt'n, huttuhum fi 1 balakon. Ir ragil goz il marra min d61. 
Qallibu 'ag ganben. Lonu hamar bi sat'ar. Illi yebt' il gazar 
veliffe fi 1 hawari we yinadi wi yequl : " ya rumi ya 'asal ya 
gazar sukkar." 'ud il qasab tul ir ragil au tul ragil u miss, 
"au/. qadde eh ngritha? Hittit it tir'a dl ya tara '6m walla 
khod? 'arabiya bi hsan fard. Baqa gismu moiya. Ahsan 
minnu t taq itnen. Id dinya harri shdid. Ziyadt il kin'; 
kheren. II kidbe ma lush riglen. Ma kanshe lazini tequl li 1 
kalam da 1 kidb. Da wahid ziunlu. II iyam d61 barde kitir. 
Indah li wahid min il bulis. Kan yauriya turn wara 1 khidewi 
mbarih. Rigi' bi idu fadya. Kami n nas waqtiha 1 ma'aztm 
qaydin fi udt il tnesairin, wi 1 be kan qa'id waiyahum sahib il 
Farah. Hittiteri khalakhil fi rigleha. Is sa'ayda Luhum kalam 
gins. Shufna hittit nitfit binte fulla klialis, lakin 'aleha goz 'iyiin 
u g6z khidud zGyi 1 bannura, nagafa klialis. Qui li 'ala matlubak. 

II 

Inti beyina waliya taiyiba min b€t nas (aiyibtn* Saniya 
stambuli kuwaiyisa w islam Bint, Kan malfuf 'ala 1 k 
min ba'de baga min il hartr. Hutm ddl li qalb is sultan 
sint. Walla'u 1 'isbrin shama'a liakandarani. II maulud bint 
mush walad. ETarraghu § >ahn li n oiswan il ma'aztm kullilia. 
Fadil khamas .-itt'' khirf&n wi talatl arha' 'uguM gamus Lissa 
Ddabahush. [gtama'u n o&s wilad il balad il agntya \si 1 fuqara 
kulluhum. yilbisum bidumhum in oud&f wi G 1 balad. 

Il:ii shuwaiyil filfil madquqtn. Is salatai il afrangtya aheau 
min kulle hlga. In o&s il fransawiya w i mistani- 



1 Bee . I. note 2, and jj 29, Rem. 
1 Or an • lik. but not amri lik. 



EXERCISES OX THE SYNTAX 339 

II halla yekun in 'arriha ahuwaiyit aamn wi 

q BUghaiyara. U sa<a baqat me'allaqa fi 1 hgf bi 
tuwal haddadt Ni'mil lak salata rami wala e ai 
il 'uamalll yirkabu 'arabtyat kubbil. II khiyam 
walla lissa? [hna ma nilbia qumsan ghazli. Emshl 
1U ],i ri - W le inne ydm il khamla we ydm 

htnen humma aa'ad u mabrflkin min ivam i] gum'a kulliha 
leinn ibwab is sama tibqa mfattaha, wi za kin il in&in y^qvan 
maaal £ Kit ig gum'a fi nuas il 'l,;i we yiaalM lu rak'iten we 
yittilhl. min Allah le innu yekun aa'id, huwa wi mr&tu a wlddu, 
yimkin Rabbuna yiqbal minim. 11 hit&n betu' il fai. 
quaaiyara ma tkunshe tawila. Lata hmay a miskof 1 ? n*uaye 
kulliha 'ug. Soqna 1 husan < ala akbir § lilkham 

•ad duhr. Iddini ahuwaiyit gibna ruml 1/ zubbat d61 tul 
walla aawirl? Iahtarit iswira min wahda mara 
Daralrahum kulle wfihid darba mufrid. Til'um meqabbil. 

turk we laghwithum turki. Milaya riggfill qutn. II kilraa 
* sirri ma benna. Iddiui 1 kam qirah Oil 'andak Abyad il 

III 
Intum bSyinln Das taiyibin we umara ktir qawi. Enta 
bitiqbad mabiyitak li akbir iah shahrau fi auwilu ? II ma'ruf 
Wi t taiyil, illj -aiualtu waiyfik inta kain.'tii lazim ti'milu fi 1 
wilSd d51. Id dinya wahla qawi d uahar da. Min huwa 1 kibir 
nu " 1 ' Baqalul a fi kbidmit il mlrl. Kan labia 

lawid we rakib himaru bi 1 maqlub. Huwa btfauwil 
li 1 fangh. Is sikka tmzil li 1 watj we titla 1 li 1 • 
kulliha nuqar. Euwa biringi wahid sharrtb fi 1 hash ah Ihna 
li d dunyawe bukra ii 1 akhra. I. ,f 'arabl 

iraq l.usta min ab mallln. Fidilte henik 

k \ tu '' , '- ***** itnto kede. Kanit sayqa'arabtya b 

-•a khSl. 



uta mbarih U had qui ti 1, le innak bukra tdbqa tfakkaml 
waqtiha minabbih 'altaa le innak tehaddai 

ba'd id duhr. [hna gtran wi 1 bet betahhuj 
. w, hna 1 kulle aaknln ii blra wahda. Itfaddal qui li 
'1 maa'aladl? tdi Uihna ' 

A ' h ' 1 da 11. huwa 'ammiha. Gib yishl ujhal 

:' l,1,i lu kattaj khfiru .Hi mahSya'u. Taiyib adinlrift 

'1 jnaa'ala biya 6h. Jl khaahab dih rayhln .,■„„! t .,,„ 

i ••}.. akin ma flab ma(rah anlm hi. Q in; •• i, h 
1 ' ll lu: "• ibal flh." 



340 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

'andina hikaya ghariba. Eh hiya? Haddutit is sultan wi hmaru. 
Min yi'mil li sh shughla di? 'andi min yi'milha lak. Quddamu 
sikkit is salama we sikkit in nadama we sikkit ill i yeriih nia 
yirga'sh ; li rah huwa min is sikka illi ma h&ddish yirga* minha. 
It tanii' yeqille ma gama'. Simi'te liis.se niswan beyitkhanqum 
waiya ba'd. Izzey inta ma ntash Tuif illi 'auzinu? Ma ntish 
nasya haga? La', ma fish haga nasyaha. II husan beta'na 
rakbah htya. II humar gih fi riglu zalata. Iddenaha min 
kaffit ma yilzimha. Qui lina 'al mahr illi ntu 'auzinu kam. 
[Hi hna basal ish sharaf bi Wgudhum. Idehum liuimna litnen 
fi ba'duhum. Laqfihum kulluhum maugudin humma t talata, 
illi qa'id 'ala kursi wi Hi qa'id 'ala diwan — kulluhum qa'dtn. 
Elya ma lush bintukum? Iwa ya sitti ; taiyib ana 'arfa lha 
wahid 'aris kuwaiyis. Ana basma' kulle min k;'m beyishkur fib 
kitir qawi. Qal liha : " hagit rb illi qadettha lna?" Nib 
gyuha wahda minhum wi s salam illi tigi 'andik quli lha. Eyin 
kan wahid minhum yigi 'andak minhum tibqa tis'alu 'an il 
mas'ala. Shuf 'anzin eh. 11 mahall illi hna qa'dtn till din. 
Mahu ana ma rdttshe agi 'ashan aukhtishi. U ba'dSn il walad 
ummu r.'iliit lu we qalit lu. Qal li : " inta 'auz kam qirsh I " Ya 
salam u sallim ya klu wi 1 ugra di ketir 'allya. Flh min il 
'al u min id dun. Wi 1 'arabty&t hammiluhum il 'arbagtya. 
Di shihadt in niswan kulliha zur; yimkin yekun minhum 
'ashara ma tisduqshe minhum wahda. Ma tibqish teehtli 
tqlla tekun teqila qawl. Fi auwul lela ma twaladit il bint. 
A hi il bint ma kanshe 'anduhum khabar. Hatifdal il ' 
mi'ah ilia ma aha Allah. Minhum nas yirkabum khiyul wi 
ykunum labsln minhum yekun labia id dimir wi sh shirwal, 
we minhum yekun labia il mantaldn lafrangi; u minhum yir- 
1 n minhum yirkabum hamtr. Kulle ma hadde 

ye'aiyid 'aiehum wi yequl luhum: "kulle sana wi ntum 
jaiyibln." 11 kharuf ininliuin yekun bi qarnSn kubar wi ; 
iiiiin zahrln min r&eu. Kulle manhu minhum yishtiri lu akl 
'ala hasab marghubtu. Min ba'de naa min il fallahln k&nu 
mashyln wuste Bikka min sikak Masr beyiftikirO innuhum fi 
ghlfanhum, Ee daa 'alfihum 'arabtya. Ma tiftikirshe 1<- inne 
linsan min in nas il fuqara iza nzalam ahakwitu ma tinfa'sh. 
[ddlhum qadde mahum 'auzln. Illi yekun hadir luhum yidra- 

m l.n. Y.l.u" i min il malh fdq mil I i I 

ba'dishe filfil. Naa min il [grig khanquh. Is sikka illi r 
minha rflhl ftha. Kami ma yilzim in kan min puhun walla min 
kubbayai . Minhum m 'anduhum yel 

li bittitdn khulqan. II willya Hi htya waqfa quddamak. 11 

i ma 'irifah il 'aiya Hi huwa 'aiyftn huh. W is .■ in naqb 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 341 

*;• l;i qadde ma yef&t ir ragil minnu. II matara nizlit zeyi d 

durbSah illi yekun nazil min 1 1 <*■ t i t b*t bthidduba. Yiddaru f 

ya tk-'in asliha birka. II kalbe tamalll yehibbe yeruh 

waiya sahbu matrah ma yimabi. Ruh matrah ma yi'gibak. 

Kulle sh.' lull waqt. Waddiha tani matrah ma gibtiha. II 

wahid al'an min it tani. Ana baqrd lak 1 ihlihu. 1 I- 

di harriha shdld. La gawabak wi-.il wala gawab!. Illi 

yiaraq il b§da yisraq il farkha. II qirde 'ande umnm g] 

Fih efendiyat iddarig beta'hum shuwaiya lahsan in n&s yiftikiru 

innuhuin 'ammtya. Ma mi'lsh fulfta ilia dul. In kan ana walla 

v.'tliid zgye bardu. Ma qal lish 'ala min (or 'ala Hi, 'alll) 

I A| yit §h I Illi 'andnhum kha 

shaliri mush ismulmm ghun&y. 'auz askun fi Sye b3t in kAn. 

tishtiri li daw&ya. Min ani dukkan I min Sy in kan wahid, 

min .'viha dukkan in kanit. Shuf lina Syiha bfet in kan 

-■ikan. Knllulinm ausakb min ba'd. Ana 'auz gi 

:h. TaiyibwidJ jagaritlabakh. 'aizin nekhushsbe fi gnintak 

uwar 'ala kura gat filia. Da sh.*- yi'laiiiu Allah. Iliwa na 

batkMniq waiyaku? Da wahid maya'rafahe haga. Min huwa I 
] >a Hi hina li Ma&T. L/.iin timna'u 'an kede. La', bi khlaf 
fcede. Adi 11 ilina 'auzinu. B gih wi 1 I 

Akhuya 'andu tumnemit gin&h. Baama' Lnnedl ifti'ala. Yimkin 
niauv. itu hadde yekun yiqrab hi. Jlli gab da 'auz wa&l. 

i' kulle min k&n beyiabkur flk. Shuf 11 'arabtya tkun 
kuwaiyisa wi kh§lha (aiyiba. Ba'de ma 'irif na 1 walad leinnu 
mahsut. An' I hum kuwaiyis? I musb kuwaiyis i l'i 

-!,•' ma shufnahshe bi •■ lakin aimi'na innu. 

Humma fi matrah W&hidf La*, ddl fi giha wi ddl ii giha. 11 

I illi mush ma'ruf iamu da. 11 qar 1 il idr&f illi huwa Flh 
me'auwig a flh dughrl n Idnu akhdar we huwa tawil. In 
beyiqallibfih min il ganbi da wi 1 ganbi da. [{bukh* li shwaiyit 

ii min 6ye sanf in k.in. Flh na> bftz il kalh 'aii'luhum 
nigis, ii i'ih n.is yinaggisu gismu kullu. I* (aiyib luh w<- li n 

wi r radl li wahdu. [krush il '41am ddl il wiakhtn min 
qudd&m bitna. Ana b&kul l§la ful wi Ifila 'ads. Inta fi likr 

w ana fi likr. Kulle wfdiid shiklr 'an it I'm. Add] ! 

sanduq bi ti'du walla hi lli fthl Imshi waiy&h matrah ma 
lii. Bhuftuhum fen? Bhuftuhum ii mahallemak&nuqa'dln. 

Huiiim a tndo ikhwa ahaan min ba'duhum. Flh wil&d bamm&ra 
ukku 1 himtr betuhhum bi mism&r dsJchil min 'asaya ismiha 

niiklikhn I ilia ma luh ,',khir. Kulh- W&hid \irlul>ni 

1 ! ma t |:,1. 



1 < >f an impossible thii Or idbukh. 



342 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

V 

Gih fi rigl il husan zalata fidlit guwa hafru. Yirkab rukubtu 
in kanit faras au husan au baghla au hmar wi tannu masht 
hiiwa wi 1 kkaddam beta'u. Iqfil ish shababik 'ashan la yigi 
'ufar fi 1 bet wala yitkassar haga. Hasal il qisraa wi tqabilna 
ma' ba'dina. II mas'ala illi qulna lik 'aleha we qulti lna 'aleha 
hadihna qadenaha lik. Min ba'de ma stardum 'ala 1 mablagh 
ahl il 'arusa, mishyit umm il 'arts wi 1 'aris w abu 1 'aris humma 
1 kull, we khadit ba'diha we rahit il hurma. Qa'adit ummiha 
wi ummu w abuh w abulia fi oda tanya. Yindaf 'aleh samn u 
sukkar. Fi gama'a dyuf gum 'anduhum. Taiyib, istardSna bi 
1 main- illi bumma t talatin gineh. II hartm tannuhum nazlin 
min 'ala 'arabiyithum we dakhalum min guwa 1 bab wi tannuhum 
dughrt tal'in 'as salalim. Shal luhum is sitara 1 farrash. Min 
ba'de ma till* foq il harim. Kan waqtiha 1 harim gaybin lamun 
we 'asrtnu we main 1 kubbayat. Kanit iz zagharlt dayra fflq fi 1 
hartm. Yishtiri lha masagh in kanit zatunaauin kanit libba. 
Nazzilu 1 'afsh il 'arbagiya min 'ala 1 karruwat. Teruh il hurma 
we guzha fi b§t il qadi we ahliha kaman waiyaha. Shakwitha 
ma hasalshe minha samara. Min ba'de ma tamm it talatt 
ishhur. Wi 1 mazztka ba'de ma tikhlas min id daqq tit- 
'ashsha, we yakbdum ugrithum wi baqshishhum. Yifdal basse 
talatt arba't iyam 'ala akhir ish shahr. Dabahu 1 fuhul il 
gamus ig gazzartn bi 1 ugra 1 me'aiyina. Fi 1 '6d il kibir il 
mada.fi' tidrab fi s subh u li d duhr u fi 1 'isha hatta tikhlas il 
arba't iyam betu' il 'ed. Yiwalla'u wil'a qulaiyila taht il bulla 
'ashan it tabikh ma yakhudshe siwa ktir. Yiflaqu 1 qar'a 
aussen. Yikharratuha hitat hitat au halaq halaq. Yikhanatu 
1 qar'e takhrit halaq, u ba'd&n yighluh gluih. i t •"■ 1 1 tal&ta -ak 
kanun. In kanum yekunu 'rla illi ray bin yaklum. Walla 4 
wil'a khafifa. Yekunu malyinha min in oahyitdn. Ba'de ma 
yihritu 1 arde bi 1 maharit yikhattat dha khutut. wi yinnu 1 birr 
ii l , . 1 1 ■ f il lni'iii. Min 'ait ' il qttya bizriha yi'auwaq ketir fi ] 
ard hatta yitla' fuq mshshiha. Khafit Lahsan yidrabha 'alqa. 
Baqat tir'ad Ld dinya ra'de khafif wi baqal oazla ma(ara nuzul 
qawtya. 8 Biduniak dabit min 'ala ku'ak. Zi'il ea'al Bhidld. 
Kan ruziq bi walad. Esh gabak Maar? Ba'dfin -iy.t 'aiya 
ahdtd qawt. Wakkilu shuwaiyit lahm. 'ashan yeruh'minnu 
1 'rn illi hasalil In. Id dumu' ni.-.lit min '€neh. Bukra hani$la' 



1 For 'adt. 

- For qawt, qawtya agreeing with m 
For beruh. 



EXERCISES OX THE SYNTAX 343 

1. Guna gama'a min ashabna. 'ashan eh tit : ab kull it 
ta'ab dih ? A'rafu mi'rifit wis'hsh. Ma tsaddaqshe kull il hals 
illi beyihlisu lak, wala kull ir raghy illi beyirghih lak fi haqqt. II 
hidum d61 'auza fcinshitif shatfa miliha. 'eneh kanit mewalla'in 
zgye sharart in nar. Ketir uluf minhum safirit is Sudan. It 
mutativa Hi titatiha di tiwaqqa'ak ruin ( al husan. liizz is a 
liazzitf'-u kede. 

VI 

Anatakhminileinne maf bumshe turab. Riglu kanit min'asa 
tin. Ma gh larshe akhud had le minku akhaddimu. Kashaf 
'al hSta laqaha mashquqa nuasen. Lamma tigil takhlu 'audi 
haqaddim luku haga hilwa. Ti'mil ma'ruf we tibqa twassi r 
la, illi tibqa tishtaghal hina, yibqu mmal lamma yehiddum 
yehiddum bi hsab. Intum mewaddivm il khashab da fen? 
Ihn i gayin nishtaghal 'andak bukra. Kattar kheru illi vekuu 
li wahdu wi ykun yeshuf shughl <ala qadde kede. lima sheflnak 
rSgil laiyih. Laqgnahum tani y6m nahir it talat beyishtaghalu 
ufatahu lhum shinlsha h" 1 h."t. Lamma shuftahum beyibnum. 
Hah raiii.Iia fi qalb il bir, khallaha. Girt hirib min il balad. 
I yebih we yishtirl li kulle higa hatta kusub lu mal k 

»ha li qalb il balad. Rah 'andu we huwa ma 
Fahe 1- inn ir ragil <la gu/.ha. Qa'ad yishrab li 1 qahwa 
lamma. li ghayit nusa il 131. Ana khaddamak. tibat «andi hina. 
II ' lina 'asha lakin yekun il ma'kul sanfe wahid. Dakhalu 
'hum fi 1 gingna. Oq'ud hina t ilatt iyam u ba'den teruh 
'and is >ult;'in we titqaddim quddamu wi tbua il ard we tit- 
•akhkhar; yequl lak: "gibt il haga dl?" qui lu: "hagibha 
bukra." [ssawum waiya ba'duhuin we qalu ihna nmau'wi 
s sikka wi huwa gay min -and abuh. Is sultan kan minabbih 
ma haddish yeqld nur fi 1 balad. Qumtana tli'te agr 

il khaddamln. Ana ma bahsibkish bitqulll kede. 
II a kanit miahyit betihsibhum arba'a sigh. Laqgtha nasya 1 
• Q* 1 1; I " '""' garrgi il husan ketlr. Wi ata ya 'ammi 
mmad quite gh li 1 mas'ala dl? Tekhalll l.dik, ma tins 
lllkl fakra taiyib. Khallihum yigu yitfaddalum yiaha 
turn 'andina. Ana ahibbe le innik tibql mabButa. Taiyib, am 
i nl astafhim minnu 'annu. Maddi lu Ida we rah dughrl b 
,,:i - rnsha Alia Rabbuna yihmik li min 'enfin in Das. In shalla 
Rabbuna yisma' minnak. Kanwaqtiha Lkhaddam beta'ug&yib lu 
- betahta we q&'id mithaddar biha we miatannth. Ni 
••■la kede, Bnta rayijj teruh waiy&na walla Eadil binal 
iilakanit iL'araotya meghattfya I. aha] wi ml.it 



344 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

kulliha bi 1 fantaziya 1 kuwaiyisa. Kis yehuttii fih dih u dih. 
La samah Allah leiimi akdib 'aleki. Lamma gat tulid il mara. 
Yequmu 1 giran yisa'dithum yi'ginu wi yikhbizu waiyahum. In 
nas il fallahin illi yekfinu yigum hina f masr il 1 i yekfinu yebi'u 
wi ishtirum l humma yisma'u 1 kalam min il balad leinne bukra 
a siyam. Yeruh il gazzar dabih il kharuf bi idu, we qable ma 
yimashshi s sikkina 'ala raqabt il kharuf yeqiil : " bi smi llahi 
Allahu akbar," we yeruh garir is sikkina marraten. Yirga'u 
yifassasu ras il qarnabit fisfis Asm-, 'ala bal ma yistiwi 1 fill 
yekimum ghasalum it tumnit ir ruzz. Yegibu farkha yekunu 
sharyinha min is silq. Lazim tisqi 1 arde hatta yedur il bizr u 
yenabbit u yitla' 'ala wishshiha. Lamma yedftr il walad we 
yisabba'. Fidil ir ragil nayim wi 1 kalbe harsu lamma dar a Lib 
il fagr. Bidal ma nta q&'id hina ahsan teruh tindah li 1 hakim. 
ELaiyak Allah ! Nazla matara rufaiya'a. Ma lqgnash gars lu 
haga. Shawir In yigi. Ana mrabbtha min Bughre sinniha. 
Tannak mashi dughri 'ala fcul lamma tdur u tusal wi fcqul lak : 
" adini." Sharih min en? Iftakarna 1 qutt, gana yenutfc. II 
kilma d! betitnitiq bi t to walla bi t ta? Kan d&yir j i' 
1 a'ni.i. Ma tqulshe li hadd ana 'amalte kede u kede. 
haqqiha tigt. Ma Ihiqshe yigi. Kunna mashyin nitkallim. 
[nta ya sta 2 merakkib il gama'a d61 i Kan waqtiha minabbih 3 
'allya le inni a'allaq il husan bi 1 'arabiya. Bi sabab kuut ■• 
qayil lu yirmi 1 waraqa. Iza kunte mewasslh 'ala 'arabiya ma 
kunnasb nit'ib nafsina. Tigi hadri, u'a tkun tinsa. 4 Enta 
tirkab 'arabiya we tannina hna 1 kull merauwahln sawa. Inta 
mkhallif minha 'iy&l? Biddik tistahrasi 1 nafsik. Kulle y6m 
kunna nsuin we niffar f\ 1 maghrib. Illi habbuh itnTn yekun 
Rabbuna talithum. Fi 1 'abid yu'sur ir rumman ii buqq il 
walad kulle y6m hatta trabba a baqa kbtr. Min 6n 8 'andak 
haqqi fcqul li h&ga z§yi dl? Hal in shiribha rah nayim. Mi- 
hat it da hina \ Kuwa d&yir yidauwar 'ala huh. 



VII 

l/.a k "in ana qulti lak Le inn id diw&n ill ana fih ma iilislu- 
shughl lb enta betis'alnJ 'ala wazlfa? Sawa in kan jahhak 

walla in kan qaxibak. Ana inanisli "arif wala nia lui'ish khah.u 
in kanu 'auziii walla mush 'au/.in. Iijlil isb shahabik "a.-dian la 

yigi 'uf&r li 1 beM wala fcitkaasar 8 h&ga wala miht&ga. lntum 



1 For yishtirum. d j Pluperfect 

i »i v.; la ti- !'■ • ■ •'■ ' • " Better yitk 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 

lehl lima ma lna? Yinfa' ma yii I urdu 

ii yaba J Ex La l 'eah wi 1 malh ma kontdsl 

bfik yidra innak ghibte min il 
Qal liha : kunte aqul lu inni ruht aghtb. Binte in dihkil 

shams wi n 'aiyatit yir'ad ir ra'd we yimtur il □ 
kanit tis'al 'al( fcindabi 'aleya. In km huwa walla biya 

!an wi nnina ma shufnash il bint we 
ihna saddaqna q'Mik 'ala inniha kuwaiyisa. -ala hasab le i 
ma kunna&h ni'rafhum wala humma ma yi*rafunash. In idd I 
walla ma ddfitinish bardu wiail. Ma tkhafsl 
tikhtishi : ma fish hina ilia na w abfik wala ma fish 1 

erna. AJhsan in kuntu ti'milu ma'ruf wi tkhalluna li 
Una. Iza kamim yis'alum "an 'arabfy&t qui Inhum yegibu 
•ashanna hna. TaiyiK ana rayh addl lak kilina wahd 
ginSh; iza kan khallasak ma fish muni': ma khallasak 
ma yi'gibak baqa. Wadln qulti lak "ala 1 q81 if sahlh illi 

kalam. II khaJ 
walla ma yikaffokshe, wi tkun i alia ma tkni 

mabsut \ Ana ma kaltish minnu haga wala shiribl 
wala oahabte minnu Lamina 

;lu lhum : " da haram 'al§ku : Allah ; 
lu lhum: "haram halal, iza kan yi'azzil 
buna walla ma yi'azzibnash yibqa z§ye ma ya*raf yi*mil I 
we am ma intu ma lkush da'wa Una in kuni. 
In ma kanshe maugud lamftn baladl we yikun ma gash il . 
'n wala 3 

i, wi ykun waqtiha Lalya shi- 

minnu huwa. I/a kan ma Itaqnah mush kunte dauwart? In 
kan ma lhumshe khabar yi'milu §h baq 
ma yehimminlsh. Shayifah il kalh il maklub fi sikkil 
'rafshe yi'gibnl 6h. In kunte ma ntish n 
bakht wala faddan shatara. 1 Iza ruht ana tighdar ma truhsh 
inTa. Laa kunte a'lam inniha baftala lam kunte arghab ig 

'. 'Juki li kan le innak tibqa tfakkarni 'ala inni 
hum lu. Iza khuluate badri ruht. Huwa qal li qui innahum 
kanu naymtn mi't. Mush t&alna su'll bi 1 ma'ruf ! Zdye ba'du 
in kan sukkar walla in kan tn walla n k'mit kuiimii' 
shuftu hina kan min zaman. La yirham wala yikhalll rahmit 
Rabbina tinzil. La gih wala shaiya* khabar. [s'al megarrab 
• 



1 An ouna of luck b worth a pound of wit. 



346 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

VIII 

Ruhte rastabl tammart il husan. Qam sa'alni we qal li, 
"rayih fen ? " Lazim tifakkarni 'ashan abqa a'tik il mahiya 
bukra. Inta leh baqet ma gayib il niuftah li ghayit nahar ydm 
litnen ya'ni yibqa mbarih il hadd u yorn il itnen 1 Istannetu 
lamma dar u libis hidumu. Ba'den tanni mistanni lamina dar u 
gib. Llzimni gawab tiwaddih il busta. Ruh rauwah il husan 
fi rastabl wi bqa ta'ala 'al bet. Lamma yibqu yitlubfih aua 
bqa qui lak. Ba'den sabahum, tani yom nahar il itimn ir riggala 
gum. Baqa akhi ihna 'auzin nitla' foq minnu. Khallaha betimla 
min il bir. Qum 'abbi li ta'mira. Tigini 1 bet is sa'a 'ashaxa. 
II ginena di baqa lha talat sinin ma tfatahitsh. Rauwah ir 
ragil betu za'lan. Izzey li inni abqa ibne basha w arkab himar ! 
Ahsan ne'allim il bet we nisbah nib'at luhum. Rametu fen? 
Etametu 1 bahr. Baqet makrush 'ala akhir nafas. Hatta le inni 
baqet akhud sillimten talata fi kkatwa wahda. U ba'den gih 
abuh qam qa'ad ganbu. We baqat il 'arusa mirat il 'axis. 
Qamit itlaffit fi milayitha wi zzaivarit bi 1 izfir betahha we khadit 
ba'diha u tanniha qayma 'ala halha. 1 Qumt ana w ana bashrab 
il qahwa basslt laqet binte sughaiyara. 11 walad baqa mikhtishl 
qawj le innu yequm yakul waiyahum. Taiyil>. ana abqa ddih 
lak min ba'de ma khadtu min akhuya. Yalla, in kuntu ravhin, 
tinzihl baqa. Fi 1 ahsan dilwaqti lazim baqat nutlub ir ragil nafsu 
we nis'alu. Lazim ti'mil ma'rul' wi tqul Una baqat 'al il meqaula 
hlya kam qirsh. Yitannu huwa qa'id yighanni we humma qa'din 
yistimi'um il ghuna. Tanniha 1 mazzika tduqqe quddam 'arablyit 
il 'arusa hatta le innuhum daxum kullukum we rauwahum 'ala be1 
il 'axis. Baqa /. zagharit dayra fi s sikak. Rahitwakhda 1 mah- 
rama 1 qasab. In qultu 1 kalam kidb ha yibqa haram 'al&ku. 
Qam qal liba : "Yawliya inti ! " qamit biya siklit; qam qal 
liba : •• Inti ya hurma ma truddi 'aleya." 'asu 1 mahrama damm. 
Lamma yedur u yibrad. llli rah vitla' il higaz yiktib ismu fi z 
/aliti_\.i 'ala yadde mashayikhhum le Lnnubum khalyis ; <1 diyuD 
ma 'alehumshe haga. Ana basa'dak lagle inta. lamma yekun 
'.null haga, tibqa tsa'idni. khallih 'an nar hatta yedur u yistiwi. 
Baqat qadde gum'a shefa shughla ze'yi n nas, u baqal ti'mil le 

imiilia mala taiyiba. W'e huwa 'ala hasab Mighic sinnu nisi 

iimiiiu. Ana ma yikhallasnlsh tuq'udl bina waiyaya. '/.< \\ Hi 
yekunfl tahin il higaz. Fidlit tikhbat li 1 bab u tidrab l\ 1 
garaz hatta nizlum ahl il Int. Baqfi La talatt iyam ma stiliam- 
iii m. 11 l>al' da baql In khamastashar y6m maqful. Qam 

1 — inas|i\a duffhrl 'ala k<" t'ha. 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 347 

raqid 'aiyan. Ana rah a'mil saiyad. Nizil biyistad. Elan basis 
mish shibbak. Khabbaru 1 basha 'ala innina ma lqenahsh. 
Q'atdgj wala bwarrtni wishshak. Ma yehunahe 'al3h yisrif. We 
lau inniha tunitur. Lau ma kanshe basal 'uzre kunt>' ruht. 
Izakanil ki'lln- yingl kan is .sidqeahsan. Mush timsbi fi adabakl 
II futur musb hadirl Ewa hadir. Taiyib, inzil. II khera 1 
auwilaniya illi khtarha linsan hiya Hi ahsan. Min h'.su kan 
ana biddl anih. Min ba'de ma kanit batiddiha ituen gineh 
iddaha khamsa. Ma titgabbarush 'al§ya. Ihna hanitgabbar 
'alek il |h I II bab ma yiftahshe min barra. Enti nisiti 1 
wisiya illi wassetik l>iha. Kusub fi t tigara di maksab. lakin 
bahre t<'s. Huwa Hi sbammimni 1 kbabar. In nas yequlu inn 
akl il 'iruq biuV il figl il baladi bi 1 waraq beta'u yihsal minnu 
manf&'a li n nazar. Khalli sahbu yigi yutlubu minni. Baqa 
min il merauwalnn. Intarash tarsha gamda. Ana li muddit 
ydmdn ma shuftush. Iza beyitte 'ala sh shugbla di hatisbah 
f&di. Khushsh il 6da, Shilhum sli.jl wahid. Yakhdu 1 hagar 
in in il gabal we yinazziluh il bahr. Luh min 'ande Rabbuna 
kulle ydm righif. Ihna nhibbe le innak tekun mabsut minna. 
Taiyib, ya gid'an, bardu kattar kherkum. Rayhin nerakkibu z&ye 
ma hna 'aiztn. Eah 'arrafkum blya innl r&gil taiyib I 11 walad 
biyis'al il qahwagi biyequl lu . . . Itfaddal it 'ashaha. Kalum 
Htnen wi abasatum : ba'd il 'asba qal lu : " Ya akin inta min 
anhlbalad?" Inta sa'it ma hadaftiha li 1 btr ana stilaqqitba. 
Wi humma beyitfaasahum li 1 ginSna laqu goz hamam. B 
li uniiii il banat, gabba qal liha. U ba'den we hiya bitqul li 
kede wi btindah 'aleya qumt ana bahsib li inniha bitqul 11 ta'al! 
fuq. (iih li widni 1 kalam z8y illi hiya bitqul li. Simi'te hissik 
winti betindahtlt. MakhuIustishUssaininhinal Mushtisma' 
kalaml 'an kalam ddll Qabl il 'a?r bi yigl s&'a. 11 husan da 
kh&fiis; lazim tizauwid hi 1 ( allq. Ir ragil da Bbaqi nar. Ma 
yebunsbc 'aleya akul li 1 >•' t ghe*r be'tak. [zakan qaadte 
bona ganbj yibqa kuwaiyis. Taman it talagraf kliam.Mii sagh; 
kan 1'ih kilina migwiz. San'itu yebi' kar&si. Ma bSnl&h 
u li'iin haga. Kull.' kam y8m yi^ r i ? Betigrl Leh kuntl 
Kunna khayfin la tibrab minna 1 bint, Ddl wilad 'amme 
ba'd, Kull.- wahid minhum yequl kalam sihkl. 11 baga 'li 
ma ix'ii Zdd we 'ulnar we Raghib. 'ala kullan ahsan min 
!i. Gharramnah Qussen faiyibtn. Dabbar lu 'ala muta. 
Fadil 'ib&ra 'an khamaa daqa'iq kede. [hna lissa li 1 kalam w 
i oadab It, l/a kan tezid 'annl li 1 li'l> yibqa i&mak ghalab- 
tini. II qalam yizbuj 'an il 'aql. II ghina yegtb ifhab. Q6 
\ i 1 1 1 : i r : . • ii | g&b. siiuftulium 1 Ewa, tauwuhum fayttn 'aldnu 
Lam yizal li gbayit il &o biyifrif fulusu li 1 li'l) wi 1 qumar. I i 



348 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

dinya dalma kuhl. II bab yiftah bahri. Lihiqtu wagadtu fi 1 
"let. Ihna msafrin bukra. II arde di mazru'a batatis walla eh ( 
1)61 hagat taqribfya. Ma shuftish ilia tnen samraitbum ] lak. 
Mishyu min is sikka illi nahyit il gabal wara bet 'ali Basha. 
Gih fi 'enu zalata we lakin zalata mistaufiya qawi. Fidlit waiyah 
hatta leinnu gib fi 1 bet. II husan da huttu lu sh ahull lahsan 
yibrad. II wahid minna lamma yekun ma'naha ibne khan: 
shar sana. Taiyib ummal bitis'alni 'ala gawaz leh lamma ma 
ma'akshi flus? Ihna khaddamin lik we li bnak. Adi 1 kalam 
illi 'audi illi fi sarirti. 'adt il masriyin il usul 'andudum yigi 1 
qadi yiktib il kitab fi bet il 'arusa. II usul illi 1 maariytn yimshu 
'aleha. Baqat tequl li kede we tirga' tequl li kede ? Azrat min 
ba'duhum litnen. Kan masik rigleha tindirib. Bikhita illi 
hiya ukhte talta luh. 

IX 

Iddi kursi li s sitt tuq'ud fcistire'yah. Qa'adit hiya ; min 
ba'de ma qa'adit talabu lha 1 qahwa. [staghlit il mahr wi q&lit 
inn il mahre da ktir. Min ba'd ir ragil ma simi' kalauii. 
Humma 'auzin yista'rafu bkum \vi ntum keman mush 'auzin 
tista'rafu bhum? Ma qulti lish le innuhum in kanum riggala 
walla nisa. Min ba'de kulle wahid minhum ma nizil. Ana 
tli'te wi nta waqif fi 1 bab. Ray h in nlgibu hina yiktib lina 1 
gawab quddamna. Kulle ma gibt ana haga f be"tS taklmdha 
inta. Qal liha : " izzeye gdzik li innu biyishshakka minnik? 
Irkhi dri'tak gambe minnak. Ma ti'milshe karkaba min gher 
luzum. Hatshufu wi nta tali' wi nta nazil. Sikitna lu, dakhal 
l)i 1 huinar.- A'allinmk is sirqa. fcehutte idak ii gfibt. Qalbu 
mahruq 'ala hlu illi mfttoO lu. Kulle da hasal wi hiya shayfa. 
Fatah lu 3 dukkan. Luh ibn 'amme a&qis il man&khtr. Ya 
zauwidn! ya balftsh shughl. Blanish q&dir ar>i li 'ala hftga. 
Bidd! astaqrab sikka tkun quraiyiba. Ana haasdt biriglakwi 
nta mfishi. Qam abiih khatab lu bint, binte ragil (aiyib, u >harat 
•.il;i huh a, we qal hi we qal 1 ummiha kam&n, qal luhum . . . 
Yinkhiluh hil mankind. Akl il fig] in nili kuwaiyifl "an i* s.'t'i. 
It tuuala atwal min il kaiauvta. niarratrn ti t ti'il. It taU./din 
\ilal>hilu wi y. zamtnarin vi/ammanim. Min ba'de ma \inui 
nivit.n illi lniua iriwi 'alrha. Sla t ' al -h wa i'al kihir 

qawi, !«• innn iza kan hiiwa yiz'al \ikki lazim tUrili nti z za'al ; 
•a-han ir lagil yimkin yekun gkj ta'b&D min Bhuglu W« vimkin 

1 For >;liii ii n t hum. 

I ■ nch and : ell. 

• I . . li oaftu. 



EXERCISES OX THE SYNTAX 

yequl lik: q Mini, ya bitti, bati haga, tequm inti ma ttau'ib.-lie* wala 
kalainu, vinikin yekun ganbu 'aa&ya walla baga. yequm 
min za'alu yerub darbik biha walla baga ; ahsan bi 1 abjsan tek 
binti muu-a li gdzik. Ana yasidl, Babbuna yitauwil 'unii-ak, 
faqtr, ma yiaabbisb iimi adrab in nils wala sraq minbum • 
zallimbum. Ba'degum'a ana mush bina. Tequl lu ya 'amm ? Ya 
ritlia kaiiit darabitak. Ana bidd(i) akballi n nahar da y.-kun iswid 
•al 1 1 ab'ad. In naa il fuqara yifhatu Ihum nuqra fi 8da min il bet, 
wi yegibu qidxa fukbkbar we yiaurru fulus-hum fi bittit khalaqa 

ma, we yinnuha fiqalbbiqidia we yinazzilubi Hi fiLa 1 qidra 

fi n nuqra. we yigbattu 'aleha balata, wi 1 balata tekun min shikle 

balat il 5da, we yilzaqu 1 balata bi babbit izmint au bi shwaiyit 

Lamma tirad i<l dunya wi 1 barqe yibqa yubruq yequdu 

waqtiba lin-an yimkin iza kan yittillib min Allab yekun bab i.s 

li lelt ig gum'a, we yistigab minnu B 
Waqt il akl wi auwul ma yitqaddim yequl il ii. 
llab ir Bahm&n ir Bahim : " u lamma yiahba'um min il akl 
" il liamdu li llah Kabb il 'alamin : " wi n lias il!. 

Luab kede yequlu le inn Allab yinazzil li batnubum il 
wi yeqfllu le innuhum. madam ma sammusb 3 'ala 1 akl wala 
ham.i i lab Bab i yaklu min bina, wi 1 'afarlt ya,. 

1 akle min batnubum wala yibqasb basal 'anduhum qun'. 



Iza kan linsan mil yiabtirl baga min e 

b .'J Khan il Kbalih, yerub il w&bid li 1 bSyaV min d61, we ; 
waiy&b masalan sigg da walla haga, wi yequl la: " A.na 'a 
tninnak." Yequl lu : •• Taiyil>. j 
laba; da t 1 Una 1 baraka bik." il wahid 

yequl lu : " Aili b j i ik flk." Yequl lu : " Taiyib it: 
Hi nta 'ausu." W ma tl _' il in.-an 'al.i i ill; 

ir: " •Jul li da akhir taman." 

I lu : " II 'ii. ma tikhtishl h." i 

lu majsalan : " I nta qui li q . .la bi kain?" Mi 

buwa rah yequl lu : " Bi talatin j Yequm I innu 

lab lu lingau qabwa yequm yik b le 

innu rub yishtarl miu gberu bi sabab ahurbu ii 1 

n il qabwa, yequm yequl lu : " La', dilwaqt i ihi 
il balad . walla I I khalla§al 

maiii" ; ana ddl lak il kbai 
katlit il hagsil ill dchudha min ' 

1 tit&wi'ifa 



350 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

Yeqiirn yequl : " Tigi bardu tsharrafna, lakin ana ma ykhallasnish 
it tuman da ; ana biddi aksab, ma biddish akhsar." U ba'den 
il wahid yequl lu : "Taiyib, ana ddi lak sittashar." Yequl lu : 
"Yiftah Allah." "Taiyib, sittashar u nuss." "La-, yirzuq 
Allah." -•Taiyib, ya Shekh, khallasak sabahtashar ilia rub* % " 
Yequl lu t tagir : " Ya akhl, ma tuq'udsbi tnakit'm ; balash 
menakfa ; da mush shira dih illi nta betishtirih." Yequm il 
Wahid baqa, lamma hftwa yequl kede u yiz'al, yizauwidu rub*, 
\\ i yequl lu : " Khallasak bi sabahtashar walla la' ?" Yequl lu : 
" Baqa ma ina'akshe ziyada 'an is sabahtashar dul 1 " Yequl lu : 
" La', dol sharyin wahda fi 1 bit bi sittashar u nuss. w ana ddetak 
dilwaqti ziyada nusse ginC-h 'an illi 'andina fi 1 bit." Yequl lu : 
" Taiyib,' aqul lak ya ma yi'auwad : Allah yikaasibak ; batflfulus; 
khasran kasban nihaitu hadihna bi'na \vi 8 salam." 



XI 

1/a kan wahid khaditu sh shams, il ahsan yikhalli Wahid 
\ id'aku mill wustu wi yemashshJ ldu li qanayit dahru li raqabtu 
hatta yitalla' ish shams ; we hiya sh shams tibqa lnkabbiba li 1 

. /.< \ i 1 'inaba. V ba'd id da'k yihutbu 'ala 1 'inaba dl mandil 
we yiqrushuhabi snanhum ; tequm ish shams ti^aqqe wi tfarqa 4 
/.ryi 1 beda illi tkun fi n liar wi yekun /.ail 'al."ha B siwa. U 

ba'din yegibu shwaiyit moiya 1" fingfil qahwa, wi yidauwibu 
shwaiyil malh fi qalb ish shuwaiyil il moiya. u ba'ddn yihuttu 
1 insfm l li widinu min il moiya bi 1 malh; wi auwul ma 
vihuiiuha lu yingidi' 'ala ganbu sh shimal, we yihumiha lu fi 

1 widn il yemin ; tequm il widni fa-h:.t-h s€yi 1 babur, ti'mil 
shi . . . sh, an /.i'yi bids t^asbtash li b samn 'ala a nfir. Wi 
yequm min 'ala ganbu sh shimal, yifarragh widnn 1 yemtn ; 
tequm il moiya tissaffa min widnu; lakin waqtiha yequm yil«|i 
1 moiya ti tdu Bukhna oar, /< y'\ 1 moiya Hi tkun bitighll li balla 
•ala 1 kan fin, min quwwii 'azm Ish shams. \\ 
MMiam 'ala ganbu 1 yimln ; tequm titash^ash il widi 

1 auwilanlya ; we dim&ghu, ba'de ma kanil betubrtu 
bitliffe 'aleh, tequm beruq, wi bftwa yefuq li oafra. 1' ba'dftn 
!>fi lu shuwaiyil lamfin baladt, ya'nl lamuntin tal&ta baladl 
banzaher, yisbarrabuh, \\ i yenaiyimuh \\i 3 yequm 

yisbah f&yiq /• j i 1 husan, vm yeruh yis'a 'ala shughlu. 



I 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 351 

XII 

Yequlu ii oaa leinn it ti'b&n illi buwa 'amir il bel tul ma 
buwa qa'id fi 1 IVt ahsan bi 1 ahsan ihna ma n'azzihshe wala 
buwa kamfin ma yi'azzlnash ; leinn ihna inazzan&hau mauwil 
teqam wiliftu ti^'i masalan tilaqi halla ftha tablkh walla m 
yekun fih laban yimkin tekun tebukhkhe fth ; a waqte ma 
bakhkhit bi hanak-ha yimkin ishab il mahalk' yi'yum an hadde 
in in wiladhum ; we amma iza k .-in il ins&n ma yeqarrabshe bi 1 
'ummar illi bumma b sukkan illi bumma t ta'&btn, wala ma 
azztbumahe wala ma yimauwitsheminhum h&ga, bumma rukbrln, 
iza kan il akle makshuf, yekunfi mebafzic wala 

iralr.'i luli.-lic wala yebukhkhusb fill wala yi'milusb a/.iya ii 

1 bi'r abadan. We tul ma yuq'udum we yitauwilu ii 1 b§t we 
yif qisu we yulidum yif dalu 1 ( omre kullu mehaftzin *al§h. We 
fih uas inin nas il qudm yequlum dul 'ummar il biyut, we ahsan 
ina nkallimlniiii>ln- wala nidrabhumahe wala nmauwithumshe 
li'iiniuhum makhaliq, Jlabbuna kbaliqhum bi rw&h zeyina : 
yimkin bi aabab leinnina ma n'azzthumshe wala humma ma 
-h yimkin illi n&ye d61 yekunum ' qudumlium sa'ad 
'aldna, we yimkin ba'de ma okun fuqara Rabbuna yis'idna ( ala 
qudumhum, 

XI 11 

I. amma bwaladit il bint bashsharu abuha leinniha bint : qam 
abuha ri'i] Bhuwaiya leinniha b tnu q.'ilu In: •• Ya bnl 

i tit .i betiz'al 'ala shan Sh \ da 1 bint rizqiha l>i rizqen, s we amma 
1 walad l>i rizqe wibid." Hina r ragil, lamma simi' il kalam da 
toinhom, bamad Rabbuna we qal : •• II hamdu li llah Rabb il 
'ilamln, ihna mistardiytn bi Hi ddah Una Rabbuna.'" I' mba'dr 
wiladl il 1'iiit gabu 1 ommiha talatt igwaz firakb a fard, a ba- 
qum yidbukhu lha kulle yfim farkha, we gum il L r ir n yibarkhu 

Ilia; we lamma t unni i- subu 1 .'In Ilia Bhuwaiyit DUqle 'all 

k.ua >liam'a i kandarfinl, we yeqlbu lha santya we yehuttfl flha 

Bhuwaiyil moij . we yegtbti lha qulla (leinn il mauluda bint) 

{Aha fi qalb is saniya n talatt arba' Bham'&t, uq duhum 

u lia'tuljum hawalSn il qulla u tannohom qaydln lamma durum 

wi iifafum. We ii auwil l-'lit ina twaladit il bint, lii'" ;, lia d 
1 uik'il u lia/./itlia till niaiiat." n talat a. We t.inn il bint 

/ double gift from God, u Be will pi r hex 

■ 



352 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

nayma fi 1 ghurbal lamrua li s subu'. Hina sabahiyit is subu' 
gat id daya \vi ddu lha shuwaiyit malli we taqtaqithum 1 (ish 
shuwaiyit il malli) fi wust il hara ; u laminit laha saba' 
tamantashar 'aiyil, u baqum kulle wahid minhuin masik sham'a 
we yequl : " Birgalatak, birgalatak, 2 halaqa dahab fi widanatak " - 
qadde 'askar daqayiq wi 1 'iyal taffu sh shain'e, nafakkuk bi 
hnikithum, we kbadu kulle nianhu sham'itu illi f idu li uafsu ; 
we gabit id daya shuwaiyit nuqle miu nuql is subu' u farraqitu 
'ala 1 ulad ; we biya khadit il baqi u khadit ba'diha u tanniha 
masbya 'ala betha ; u tamnie baqa 1 wilada wi s subu' beta' 
wilad il 'a rab il fuqaia ; we dumtuin bi kber. 

XIV 

Yequlu le inn il 'irsa lamma tig! tulid tequm tifbar liba 
sbaqqe walla guhr, wi t'ashshish fib bi sbwaiyit sha're eSye 
diflra qadfma milli yiddaffaru bba n niswan, walla bi shuwaiyit 
khulqan 'ala sbwaiyit qutn ; u ba'den ti'arbid lilia fi 1 bet hatta 
ti'tar lilia 'ala zatuna walla meshakhlaqa walla halaq dahab au 
as.iwir fadda walla burqu' l)i 'arustu wi 1 'ariisa tkun min da 
bunduqi, we takhudhum 'andiha fi guhriha. We 'ala raw 
qol in nas le inniba ma tulidsbe ilia 'ala masagh min dahab au 
min fadda. We biya lamma tigi fi 1 bet tequm tisrukh sarkha 
wiskha bishi'a yitmili bha 1 bet kullu min fuq li taht, yequmu 
shab il bet yequlu lha : " 'andina Mhammad 'arts," yiftikiru le 
inniha tihrab min il kilma di. 



XV 

I /a. kan yekun ti'ban barrani illi ma ykunahe 'amir il bet 
gay yewishshe min il khala we qasid il mahall illi yekun lb 
sakin fiha, auwul ma yikrufu 'amir il bit min bi'id yequm 
yukbrug Eazi' 'ala 1 gharfb, wi yeruh mekarrashu min naliyit il 

; u ba'di n yirga' sidna 'ala guhru, we huwa 1 g oxkin 

min khofu, we huwa, gari yewishshe, yimkin yeful il g 
betahtu ; u waqtiha iza kan LLnsan yekun waqif webakhtu qayim 
yequm yakhudba wi i ti'ban yi qqe yemul 'ala shan il 

gukara illi kan tnashi 'ala nurha. Wi t bi'bi ig-har ma 

darshe yeshuf min gher il guhara; wi n fatitu 1 guhara di 

1 To keep <'IV the evil • 

- Notice that the masculine is maintained though the child 
is in this case a girl, the phrase being fped, but wi lanatik 

is sometimes sai 1 Birgalal is b nonsense word. 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX' 398 

yi'mu 1 bi'id 1 ma yshufsh. Wi 1 gtlhara di yequlu n nas iza kan 
Rabbuna vi-tiha li 1 insan we yakbudha we yeruh biha fi bStu 
we yegib habbit radda, walla b£ga, we vihuttuha fi wa'aya 
fukhkhar au habbit nishara kbashab, we yihuttubura fi lye 
m&'un iu kan yekun hadir, we yihutt il ins&n ig gflhara fi qalbu- 
hum we yirmi qirshe Bagh tabt ig gunara we yighatti 'ala 1 
iuaM'm weyikhalllh fi mahalle muhtakif 1 lagle ma yibqash 'ah'h 
rigl, yisbab is subh we vikshif il ma'un yeqilm yilaqi min ba'de 
ma kan hatit qersbe wahid yilaqihum '-' itnen ; wi n hatte hitia 
bi 'asbara yiiaqlba hittiten bi 'asharat, wi n hatte riyalen yilaqi- 
hum arba' riyalat, we tannu baqa fi z ziyada lamma yehutte 
wahid yilaqihum itnen. 

XVI 
Kan fih ragil we huwa lissa maugiid ismu Mohammad, huwa 
min Damanhur il Bihlra, u kan it'aiyin waiya 1 gesh il inglizi fi 
muddit barb is Sudan il auwilani, ya'ni min muddit khamastashar 
sana, we kanit waziftu gazzar; we qa'ad waiya 1 gSsh kulle 
waqt is safariya, u fidil ba'diba muddit talatt arba' sinln fi s 
Sudan. U lamina habbe leinnu 'yig! yisafir 'ala barre Masr we 
yirauwah baladu qani mishl fi sikka i\ wust ig gabal, u kan 
yetuhfiha; u kan yuq'ud mashi shahren talata lamina . wusul ii 
wftdl ismu wadi 1 kilab, ir riggala betu- il balad kilab wi nniswan 
betu'hum bani adam; u lamina wusil 'andubum qamumgarytn 
il kilab 'ali'li u latl'uin hawah'h; u wahid min il kubar&t betuh- 
hum abaiya' wahid mill taiafu li 1 malik betahhum leinnu yigi 
v. ishtif ir' ragil da 1 gharlb yitfarrag 'aleh, leinnu huwa ragil 
bani adam. We lamma gih is sultan itfarrag 'ala r ragil a sh&fu 
a babbe leinnu yi'zimu'andu; wi 1 akabir, illi bumma 1 'umad 
betu' il balad, kanu 'auzin rukhrin yi'zimun 'andubum. W ■ 
lamina s sultan talab yi'zimu 'andu hiiiinna fakhkhaiuui wi 
qalum : " min ba'de ma yikbla? is sultan min 'azumtu ibna kam&n 
niv.iinu 'aiidina." Fe rah ir ragil fi tilk il y6m wi I tilk il lela 
t'azam -and is sultan, B b sultan basatu wi dafu we ikramu 'ala 1 
ghaya ; u ba1 ti b§1 is sultan u sabah iitir is subh, u gabfl In 1 
qahwa, sbirib u nbasat, u gum il 'umad betu 1 il balad wi sab- 
',,.■,1,111.1 -.,- sultan we qalfl lu: "Naharak Ba'ld u mbarak, ya 
sa'dl is sultan ; ibna biddina nista'giz minnak leinnina nakhud 
id d.'f dih nedifu 'andina." te sultan qal Luhum : " [tfaddalti 
khuduh." We bumma kbadub \\<- d&fuh 'andubum in kanum 



587. 
inuhtikif (for mu'tikif). 
* -hum refei ring to itudn. 



354 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

'ashara tnashar nafs walla 'ishrin nafs min akabir il balad humma 
1 kull dafuh 'anduhum we harinihum humma Hi biya'rafu 1 
lugha beta' riggalithum, wi 1 kalam ill! yeqiiluh ir riggala humma 
1 harim yitargimiih li r ragil bi 1 'arabi. Tannu r ragil lamma 
qa'ad fi 1 balad yigt muddit shahr lamma li yom min eat il iyam 
ki'ui binte Wahid min in nas il kubar, w abviha ragil 'umda min 
dimni 1 balad, qalit 1 ummiha: " Ya umini, kull in nas 'azamu r 
ragil da wi hna kaman 'auzin ni'zimu." Qam ir ragil qal : " Ma 
fish mani' ; ihna ni'zimu." We huwa rah fi 1 bet illi kan ma'zum 
fih id def talabu minnu ; qal lu : " faiyib itfaddal khudu." 
U fi lelitha r ragil it'ashsha 'anduhum wi nbasat wi 1 mara mratu 
basatitu min akl u shurb u min kaffit kulle ashya. igrannu huwa 
r ragil da huwa gada' shabbe sughar we surtu gamila. Qamit il 
bint — bint ir ragil — 'ishqitu we habbitu, we babbit leinniha 
tgauwizu. U ba'de ma nam abuha w ummiha fi nuss il 111 
kan ir ragil nilyim fi mahall il madyafa, wi 1 binte qamit 
min in ndm mafzii'a ma baqash gayi lha n nom fi lelitha 
min hubbiha fi r ragil id def ; we qamit rahit lu, w abulia 
w ummiha khanminin fi 'izz in nom, we hiya khallathum fi 
ahlaha noma we §ahhit ir ragil we qalit lu: " Qum bina. \a 
ni'allim Mehammad." Qal liha : " Aqum aiuh fen V Qalit lu : 
" Qiim isha min in nom w uq'ud 'ala helak ; ana biddl aqullak 
'ala hikaya." Huwa r ragil qam min in nom u ?ihi u qa'ad 'ala 
helu we qal liha : " Inti 'auza eh, ya sitte ZbGda." Qalit : 
" Ana habbetak wi nta ya tara habbitni zry ana ma habbe'tak / " 
Qam qal liha: "Ana habbetik ketir qawi, lakin nianisk q&dir 
aqul, leinni kliayif min abuki we min unimik la yimauwituni. 
Qalit lu : " Y T a tara iza kan ana aqul luhum leinnulium vigau- 
wizuni lik tiqdar tuq'ud hina fi 1 balad W6 ilia la' ! La/.im thud 
li qablema aqul luhum, ya'ni in kunte radi walla ma ntash radi.'' 
Qal liliu : " Ana kliayif aqullik inanisli radi truhi tiftini 'ul.'va, 
wi n qulti lik ana radi ma qdarshe h-inni ughib 'an wiladi wala 

shufhumsh, leinni baqa li dilwaqta khamaa mtti bdIo B 1 ghurba 

wala Bhuftish wiladi; w adin qulti lik 'ala 1 1i:icj.j. wi i la'v 
illi ti'milih mashi 'ahh. Qalit lu : "Ana iji& 1 \\ai\ak w afut 

ahli w at'iii baladi 'ala ahanak ; innama ya gada', amanl Allah. 
ma tibq&sh tifarraj t'i\a fi bl&d il ghurba, ya'ni f baladak?" 
Qal liha : " Da huwa <la yisahh ya aitti Zbeaa i Ana ahtlik ruq 

rftatu ma li haraka ilia nti." \\ <• liumina 1 bint wi p ragil kliadu 

ba'duhum, we hat: it btya idha ti tdu we rahu g4bu ba'fcr ire 
rikbun wehattum kitt ti t (artq; u tannuhum mashytn lamma 

danim u wuslu li hadd il bain ; w i 1 binte kanit mi-t.dna-u 'ala 



a'flj i- (pronounce almost 



EXERCISES OX THE SYNTAX 3.05 

abuwaiyit zad waiyaha; taunuhuin yaklum u yisbrabu 6 1 'e&h 

illi gaybah il bint; we lamina wu&lum li 1 bahr il inalih, 1 we 
hlya 1 mesafa di muddit 'asbar itnashar yom min widy&n il 
kilab, nizlum fi merkib. We hina agrann abulia w ummiha 
lamina q&mn min in qodq baasum la laqu 1 bint wala laqu r 
id tl«"f. Darum yigrum fi 1 balad wi yidauwarum malqu Lhumshe 
rihawala gbubariya. ilattuin kitf we, agrannuhum hummamin 
'adit bum ya'rafu 1 gurra illi linsfin yekun mashi fiha, tann ir 
ragil wi inratu wi wladu subyan u banat sughaiyarin we humma 1 
kull rakbin gimal tannubum lamma wualum libadd il bahr, meaafit 
itnashar yom gabuha fi 'ashart iyam ; u iii/.lmn min 'ala gmalbum. 
U baqa r ragil yi'au'au 'ala bintu wi yindah 'alaha we yiqul liba 
la r lutan betakhum: "Ya bint irga'i u t'fiti r ragil il khayiu 
dib u ta'ali 1 ummik wi 1 abuki we li khwatik." Qalit: " Ti'ai- 
yatum ma ti'aiyatusli maniflh gaya." Wi humma rig'u akhir ma 
gbulbum, u rauwahum 'ala bladbum za'lanin 'ala shan il bint, we 
q&lu : " bi khatirha azinniha matit." Wi r ragil khad il bint u 
taniiii mashi min babur il bahr li babur il barr hatta wisil li 
baladu, Damanbur il Bihera, we rauwab 'ala betu ; we qa"ad il 

bint fi bit makbsus li wahdiha U katab 'abba wi ggauwizha. 
II inaia 1 qadlma talabitha hdnniha ti'zimha 'andiba ; qam ir 
ragil khaf 'ala 1 bint lahsan trsimmiha, we lmwa ma rdish yi- 
kliallilia trub 'andiha. U fidlit mabsuta u f hazz u nbir-at ; we 
kballifit minnu banat u subyan, we tanniha maugi'ida waivah li 
gh&yit il ydm. D tammit bikayit wadi 1 kilab illi humma rig- 
galitlium kilab u harimha minadmin. 

XVII 

Kan wabid Bhami t;'gir u wahid t&gir ma&rf; we kanu litnOn 
humma tburaJka waiya ba'duhum, we kanu biyisrabum G kailit, il 
bilad waiya ba'd, we yifdalura qaymln n D&ymto u waklin we 
aharblo aawa. < mba'de ma ktasabum min it. tig&ra we si'dum, 
we habbe kulle wabid minhum It- innu yakhud oaybu we \irga* 

'ala baladu, (jam i.sb .shaini kbad maiiabu illi tli' bi li | tig&ra, il 

makaab wi r riemal, u wadda 4 aabbu we qaJ Lu ; " Ya akin oahuf 

bak li kb'i ;" we sallimu 'ala ba'd, a kbadu ba'duhum bi 

1 budn, we da qaJ li da: "fjariq is lallma, usbuf wiebahak G 

Qui leinne, ya stdi, shsblmi khad ba'du u aim 'ala blad 

i.di Sh.nn, wi j maarl rigi 4 'ala Blair. U ba'de ma wuai] 

baladu t tagir Lab abami we rauwab bdtu we Ballim 'ala 'iltu «<• 

ptanu wi Btaqim /i d dai betabtn, nam 1, la min il layill 

1 So dujtinguiabed from il babj tli Nils, 



356 THE SPOKEN AEABIC OF EGYPT 

ganbu 'ala smakh widnu ; u ba'den we huwa nuyiin, lakin nayim 
sahi, qam beyiftikir it tigara wi 1 ahwal illi kan fiha waiya t 
tagir il masri, u beyi'mil kisbitu ; u kan beyiftikir leinne luh 
'and it tagir il masri maiyidi, we qam qui : " Allah ! ya wad da 
nta lik nieyidi 'and it tagir il masri illi huwa kan shirfkak ; ilia 
tqum dughri wi thutte kitfe 'ala Masr we tutlub il meyidi min 
shirikak wala tfutu luhshe abadan." Qam ir ragil qam min 
balad ish Sham, u gih mesafir makhsus 'ala shan yigi yakhud 
il meyidi 'ande shiriku. Fi 1 waqt illi rayih yetubbe fih ish 
shami fi Masr, ya'ni waqtiha huwa dakhil min bauwabt il hadid 
wi r ragil il masri qal : " Allah ! ya wad ; " wi ftakar fi nafsu 
we qal : " da nta 'andak meyidi li shirikak it tagir ish shami ; 
ana qalbi bidillini le inn ir ragil da yimkin yequm min bilad ish 
Sham we yigi yetalibni bi 1 meyidi illi 'andi luh." Wi ba'den 
huwa beyiftikir fi 1 mas'ala di, w agrann ir ragil ish shami tabbe 
quddam bab il bet. Qam il masri simi'u we 'irif hissu we qal 
li mratu : " Ya mara ana rah aqul lik 'ala mas'ala." Qalit lu : 
" Ya ragil rah tequl li 'ala mas'alit eh? ya fcara iyak tekun 
kher." Qal liha : " Inti mish 'arfa illi bikhabbat 'ala 1 bab 
da min ? " Qalit lu: "La'." Qal liha: " Ana 'irifte hissu, we 
'irifte huwa min ; da t tagir ish shami gay yakhud il meyidi illi 
•audi luh." Qalit lu: "Ba'den ma niftah luhsh il bab?" Qal 
I ilia : "La'; isburi lamina ahrab qable min fdq ia BUtuh." XJ 
ba'den qam ir ragil u harab u natte min fuq is sutuh. Qamit il 
mara fatahit il bab li sli shami, we qalit lu : " Inta 'an/, min I " 
Qalliha: " Ana'auzshiriki<fulanil t'ulaiu)." Qalit: " Taiyih. da 
t'ulan s.'ifir il Higaz." Qal liha: "Taiyih, w ana kaman waiyaya 
1 huinara betahti wildit ii s sikka, 'an/, abni Ilia madwid hi) a \\>' 
bintiha, f astanna hina li.Masr lainnia yidur u yigi.'' U 1 
sabaht [yarn bass ir ragil il masri laqa sh sham] lissa maugud 'andu, 
f e qal li 1 mara: "Ana ahsan rah a'mil 'aiyan, u ha'deii a'inil 
m@yit, u ba'de ma mut yiwadduni n nas it furba yidfinunl, u mba'de 
ma yidfinunl huwa rah yakhud minni §h?" l T ba'ddn ir ragil 

•ainal il hila di u mat, u uaddfih u dafanuh U gha'/u 'alfh u 
t'atiih, u taiinuhuni mashyin. U min climn in Q&8 illi kanu 
mashyin li mashhadu kan mashi bL shami Qal: "baqa ya 

wad rah tigi min bilad ish Sham wi tkallif nalVak we tisrif il 
masarif dj wetighramha? Ahsan bilahsan lamma yekhushsh 
d Itl we yehauwid teruh bakhud minnu baqqak." I> s&'a balata 
min il l.'l rah ir ragil 'ala halt if turha. u talla' .-ikkina min 
gdbu u qa'ad ganb ir ragil il m6yi1 we qal lu: "Ana lasim 
akhud haqql min gildak walau bitta min kafanak." Qam ir 

I Igil d ma-ri qam t'a/.i' hi 1 kafan U qa'ad 'ala h'lu, U fakk 

il kafan min nafsu a qal lu: "Baqa yi ragil tigi min bil&d 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 357 

ish Sham makhsus 'ashan mgyidi wahid?" Qam qal In sh 
Bhami: "Wi shmi'na 1 nta ya maarl lamma sini'tini khabatte 
4 ala bab betak qumte nattet min fdq is sutfih harabt we quite 
H ] I1,; "' :i: • : '" :l msafir il Higaz;' u lamma laqitni tauwilte 
saba' tamant iyam w ana sarih u mrauwah 'ala bgtak khufti 
tkallifnl 'ala nafsak bi haga? We lakin il masruf ill ana saraftu 
fi akl a f shurb garaftu min ggbi, wi nta takiiud ba'dak u tigi 
min fdq is sutuh wi ttubbe fi 1 bet tan! we ti'mil 'aiyin u ti'mil 
in." \ it. wi tkalli n nas yidfintik bi t turba bi 1 haya we da kullu 
'ala shan il mgyidi! Ana w Alh'.hi we lau akhud hitta min 
kafanak bidal il mgyidi beta'f." Qal lu: "Ya akbl'ana lani 
mutte wala gars' U haga; wi dilwaqti rayak eh? Qui IL" 
Humma fi 1 kalam u mitlu ilia gama'a haramiya agrannuhum 
sarqin khazlnit mal u miht&rln yeshfif ft matrah yiqsimu 1 mil 
f:li. we mush laqyin ; we tannuhum mashvin u harbanin bi 1 mal 
hatta wusln 1 qarafa il 1 i fiha fcurbit ir ragil il masrl. Fu 2 humma 
1 haramiya laqfi sham'a qaydafi t turba; qam wahid minhum 
qal : " ^ a gid'an ihna oinzil niqsim il mil 'ala ba'dina ii t turba 
1 menauwara di." Humma nizlum,in kanu 'ishrtn' walla tal 
bi 1 mil il 1 1 waiyahum. Qam il masri qa] li sh shami : "Ga lak' 
il farag; yalla ni'mil mgyittn wi anam ihna litnSn fi t turba 
lamma □ oas ddl yinzilum wi ashufhum rayhln yi'milu gh; iyak 
yekul » lina qisma fi 1 1 i waiyahum. U ba'dgn litngn namu, wi 
1 haramiya ni/luui blqassimu 1 mal 'ala ba'duhum; u mba'de 
ma bqassim il mal fidil waiyahum wahid naq'is min omlathum 
ma khadshe ni?lbu min il fulua. Humma mi'ahum Bef me- 
faddad yisawi manab wahid; qamum qalu li >h shakhs, illi 
huwa fa-lil dib ma khadshe manabu, qalu lu: " Ya (fulan) ihna 
'au/.in niddl lak is >;< dih fi manabak." Qam huwa Btarda ; 
qalu lu. "Taiyib, ya shatfr, niddl lak is sef fi manabak, lakin 
ishshuru! 'ala kede ihna biddina inta tidrab in nas il ifcnen il 
mgyitin illi naymln ganbe ba'de ddl." Qam irragil qal: •• Ya 
khwanna, ya tara ana drabhum we humma mgyittn? Mush 
1,L, ;" M 'algna?" Qalu lu: "Wi nta ma lak? Ihna shuru(na 
wary&k 'ala kede, wi n ma darabtuhumshe bi a sgf ma lakshe 
manab 'andina." Qam huwa qal: "We 'ala shan gh rah i 
Imn ghgr manab masalan?" Qam au'sik is sgf bi Idu we 

'■'la litngn il mgyittn rah yd drabhum. Qamu humma 
'■"" ,;il: ' ' haramiya, 'afratuhum. Tafashu humma we I 
1 "" , - Wr tl,i •'• kulle wahid giri i\ nahya. Qam il 

maarlqal li ahshamt: "Kede, ya a'khi. ahj gat min Allah, we 
Rabbuna 'tana kher bi zyada min 'andu \v.- gat Una bi d hi 

1 6ah mi'na. assimilation. 8 \, 



358 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

u gat lina 'at tubtab." Nihaytu 1 haramiya lamma harabum 
we giryum qam il masri qa'ad yiqsim il mal waiya sh shami ; 
qasamuh nussen ; kulle wahid khad nuss il mal. Qam il masri 
qal li sh shami : " Khud manabak we rauwah 'ala baladak baqa 
bi salama, w ana akhvid manabi w arauwah 'ala beti." Qam qal 
i.sh shami, qal li 1 masri: " Ya akhi, ana 'auz il meyidi btft'l ; 
ana ma futshe haqqi." Qam qal: " Ya akhi, mush mekaffik 
il mal da kullu, u lissa biddauwar 'ala meyidi wahid kaman 
minni?" Humma fi 1 kalam u mitlu waiya ba'duhum bassii 
laqii wahid min il haramiya basis min taqt it turba, we huwa 
waqte ma kan bibusse 'alrhum min il khurm beta' it turba qam 
il masri 'ala helu ; u waqtiha kan ir ragil il harami labis libda 
fuq rasu, we kan il masri rah khatif il libda ininnu. Qam il 
harami khaf u giri ; we kan il masri qal li sh shami : " Waddi 
1 libda fi 1 meyidi btfi'ak, wala tit'ibnish wala tit'ibshe nafsak, 
u adinta khuluste bi haqqak w ana khluste bi baqqi, wi 'tana 
Kabbuna kher bi zyada." U sallimu 'ala ba'd, u kulle manhu 
rauwah 'ala baladu. 

XVIII 

In nas yeqiilu 'ala 1 ihram fi akhir iz zaman lamma tqiim il 
qiyama yiqumum yigu 1 habash min kutruhum, le innuhum 
kutar zeyi 1 nanil, yigum bi salatinhum bi wuzarithum l>i 'askar- 
hum bi halhum bi mihtiyalhum bi hariiuhum bi 'iyalhum, yigu 
dughri 'ala 1 ihram ; wi 1 ihram tithaiya' lubum ti si rat dahab 
kasr; we humma yitkbanqu waiya ba'duhum fuq dahr il baram, 
wi yequmum 'ala ba'd, wi yidrabum ba'duhum ; wi da yakhud 
shuwaiya wi da yakhud ketlr, we yimauwitu ba'de ba'duhum bi 
ba'd, wi yei'uhuiii kulluhum fi sharbit moija ke innihum ghirqu 
fi 1 bahr, we ta'abhum yeruh min gher fayda. 

XIX 

II agrud huwa ill! yekun min gher daqn wala shanab we 
yibqa wishshu amJaa aa'im z6yi 1 harlm. Wi Hi yi?tibih bub 
yifdal tfd in nahar me'aknin wi yequl: " A.'uzu bi 11. di, da ragil 
sabahu wihish u nabah sabbahna 'ala s subh, ya Eatt&h, ya 'altm, 
l>i wishshu i- radl dih ; ya'ni bna sabahna nistil>ih ilia Li vri&hsh 
ir ragil da! Rabbuna yifauwil Bubhtyitu 'ala kh&r in nahar 
da 1'' inni ana bashshauwiui nnn wish ah i! agrud da! I.akin 
haiia'inil ' 6h baqa \ i-li Bharre maqdur." \\V 'ala ra*y il maaal 
1.' bine sabab il qurud wala 1 ' sabab d agi Id. 

For ni'iiiil. as the unper. a ( mi] sometimea for i'mil. 

ali in min. 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 3.19 

XX 

Kan fill w.'ihM ganaynl kulle y6m is subh kan yakul aj 
lamfina baladl banzaher bi qishruhum. U yum min dol kan ir 
ragil da maahl ti a sikka, we qablu wahid simmawi ; wi 8 simii 
<lih yequlu 'aleh le innu h^yibqa fi idu maqra'a grid min girid 
in nakhl, u maktub 'aleha sihr ; wi yequlu le innu auwul ma 
yikhbat insan •.da rasu Id 1 maqra'a di yitannu mashi warah in 
kan ragil au mara au walad. Hina lamina shaf ir ragil da 1 
ganeni mashi fi a sikka u shafu gisim simin rah khabtu 'ala rasu 
bi 1 maqra'a; qam il ganeni mishi wara r ragil is simmawi, we 
tannuhum mashyin litnen lamma dakhalum bet is simmawi ; wi 
r ragil is simmawi habas ir ragil il ganeni guwa 1 bet, u sakk il 
bab 'aleh u khad ba'd, wo rah yistad ghdru. Qam il ganeni ga' 
we qarasit 'aleh batnu mig gu' ; qam qal fi balu : " ya wad, qum 
dan war lak 'ala haga fi bet ir ragil da takulba." We huwa ma 
kanshe 'arif leinne da simmawi, wi le inne fi bctu till simme 
minshal ; u kan waqtiha laqa magUT fukhkhar, we huwa da'ir 
yi'arbid, wi 1 magur makfi ; qam 'an barf il magur bi idu, laqa 
tahte minim -.aim. wi f qalb is sahn haga misiina we yabsa ; we 
lamma sbafha misfirra wi t" 16n il "ads, lamma 1 'eah yissaqqa fih, 
qam min gfi'u qal: " ya wad, madam enta ga'an adi ata Iaqet 
tasqiyit 'ads ahe" quddamak; kul minha lamina tishba' walla 
knlha knllilia in qidirte 'ahdia we sit.tin Sana sahvn ydm huwa 
rayih yigl yi'mil lak ."di ^ Iza kan rayih yigl we yidauwar 
•all ha wi yis'alni, ana <|id lu min gu'i akaltiha." Qa'ad ir ragil 
kalha kulliha wi nhasaf ; wi agrann IT ragil is simmawi gih 
t'atah il bab we dakhal hi r riggala wi 1 'iyal wi n niswan illi 
huwa g&yidhum min barra, qam qa"adhum li mat rah, we 
habas-hum. D ba'd§u <|al li uafsu: "ya wad, qable ma tish- 
tighil, shut' il haga illi ata shlyilha." Rah yidauwar taht il 
magur 'ala s sahn; qam laqah gahne ma lhuah, zeye ma ykun 
maghsul bi 1 moiya; qam oadah li r ragil ig ganeni, u qal lu : 
■I da. ya ragil, hina." Qal Lu: "Na'am,'auz haga?" Qal 
lu: "II magur fen?" Qal: " Ana, ya sidl, ana wallah min gu'l 
kaltiha." Qal lu: "Ya ragil, kaltiha izzey? di haga tmauwit, 
u Exdye kaltiha?" Qal lu: " I >i ma mauwititnish ; da na 
laqitha hilwa wi haibtdha t'attit 'ads, qumte kaltiha." Qam qal 
lu: " Enta kunte a&lak jan'itak edi?" Qal lu: "Minsughrl li 
kubrl li ghayil il an w ana ganaynl, we kulle y6m, ya stdt, ana 
aqul lak il haqq, aghaiyar ir rlq 'ala rbe'tn tamuna benzaher." 
Qam qal lu: • i ir, naf adte bi 'umrak dilwaqt ; ana qa'adl 

ahauwish tul is sintu ddl kam shahr au wi a sana 1 illi 



1 au kam aana ; 



360 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

lammetha fiha adi nta kaltuhum fi sa'a wahda ; yalla, ya gada', 
tariq is salama, ruh fi halak ; Allah yihauwin 'alek ; baqa nafadte 
bi *umrak." U ba'den qal fi nafsu s simmawi : " rayih tuq'ud 
ti'mil eh baqa fi 1 balad di madam illi hauwishtu fi sana aim 
rah fi daraga wahda? Ahsan teruh terauwah baqa 'ala baladak." 
XJ seyib in nas illi kan gayibhum, u qal luhum : Ruhum intfi 
kaman li halkum." We khad ba'du u mishi 'ala bladu. Wi 1 
ganayni lamma rauwah 'ala baladu qam qal il mas'ala di fi 1 
balad betahtu; u wahid yequl li wahid lamma knll id dinya 
kliadit khabar bub. Wi 1 qol da yequluh il wilad is sughaiyarin 
min muddit Efendina Isma'in Basha. 

Wi yequlu n nas lamma s simmawi yakhud in nas we yidakh- 
khalhum fi 1 bet beta'u we yighfil 'alehum, yekun mehaddar qazan 
kibir nahas, wi 1 qazan yikhud lu qadde qirbitSn moiya, we 
yekun mewalla' nar taht il qazan ; wi yegib in nas yi'allaqbum 
mir riglehum, ya'ni yikhalli riglehum li f6q we radium li taht fi 
1 qazan; u waqte ma yi'allaqhum bi s sifa di yequlu n nas min 
sahd in nar yeqfim yinzil is simme min ban! adam min dufre 
rigleh li ghayit slia're rasu fi qalb il qazan ; wi lamma yissaffa 
yeshilu wi yegib ght'ru yi'allaqu. Wi yeqfilii le inn is simme 
dih illi beyikhrigu s simmawi niiu gittit banl adam yequlfl le 
innu yiwaddih li s sultan beta'u; wi huwa mgiyu fi Masr we 
akhdu s simme min in nas bi amr is sultan. 



XXI 

Fih nas min id darawish il wahid minhum yimsik sdf min in 
nahyiten bi ideh litnen we ba'de ma qal : " bi smi llali, Allahu 
akbar," yeruh yidrab nafsu bi s sef 'ala batnu, walla 'ala kitfu 
we yigi 1 khalifa yegib wahid darwtsh 'ala yemtnu u wahid 'ala 
shmalu ; wi r ragil illi i tdu s sef yenam ii 1 ard wi yehutt is 
s' f 'ala batnu, wi yigi 1 khalifa j istinid bi id.' h lit urn we yehutt* 
idlh kulle id 'ala kitfe wahid, we yitla' bi rigleh lit urn f6q dahr 
is srf we yittakka bi riglih l>i quwwitu 'ala akhir*azmu, wi 
yibfiyitguwa ba^n id darwtsh ; d ba'dSn yequm 'ala heiuyebussu 
ii nas la yilaquh kharre damme min gismu wala hasal lu fa 
we auwnl il Khalifa ma yitalla- Is B§f bi Idu yebilli >l>a'u bi 
riqu min hanaku wi yemashshih 'ala hatn id darwtsh 'ala matrah 
is srf. \\"i 1 wilad ig ^ughaiyartn vrhuttu lhuin shish ti hanakhum 
we yinalliduh fi sid&ghhum nahyitSn, wi yehuttu Ihum lamuna 

fi tail' ish shlsh min nahyit.'n J wi minhum wilad il Wahid 

minhum yimsik qarraya walla qandtl fi id.'hum we yeruh dughrl 
<|itiini we z&ghit, il qizaz fi kirshu. Wi minhum nas min rig 
kubftr bi dqun, wi 1 wahid mil hum yimsik it ti'ban bi id. hum 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 3C1 

litn&n we yitannu yiKjtum we yiqarqash fih bi hanaku bi lahmu 
bi 'admu bi halu wi yibla'u fi batnu ma ykhalli.-h minnu hfiga. 
U minhum nils yimsiku 1 hittit il wil'a, ya'ni hittit fahma 
miwahwiga, kulliha hamra, wi yeriihu dugbri balghinba 'ala 
tub 

XXII 

II fallahin iza Bhfifu binte min banathum bitkallim walad 
yikun shabb u baligb u biya kman baligh yequmu marratfin 
talfita yinabbibu 'alGha abulia u ummiha wi yequlu lha : " 'eb ya 
bint ! Ma timsbi.sh waiya bni flan ; " u inba'de ma yinabbibu 
'alfiha wi yesbufuba mishyit waiyfih tani, au waiya gheru, yequm 
ir rfigil abulia is si'idi dib, yequl liba : " Ya bint il manbush, 1 
ana 'amma qui lik marra u itnen u talfita ma timshish waiya 
bn il medaffisin ; inti ma 'am mash tisma'l kalami K'h ? lakin 
khudi bfilik u rauwahi 'al id dar." U ba'den il bint kbadit 
ba'diha u rfihit 'ala dfir abulia, we ummiha qalit laba : " Inti kutti 
ffin ya bitti ? " Qalit liha : "Ana kutte 'amma mla moiya min il 
bahr fi zarawiye, w abfii 2 ragabni 3 u giri warfiye u gatalni 4 u gal 
Ij rauwahi 'ala d dar, u gibt iz zarawiye u g§t agrl karsh 'ala d 
dar." Qalit laha ummiha: " Y"a sabiye w ani ma gulti lik 
la truhlshe timli min zarawiye walla hfige min il bahr. Mfidfim 
inti ma smi'tish kalami alio abuki yigtilik wala yikhalliki ; aho 
yibga 8 bi kefn 'fid ya bnaiyiti." We hina r rfigil lamina Bhfif 
il hint talat arba' marrfit, walla khamas sitte marrfit, zimiq 
minha we qal liha : " Ana 'amma gul lik 'al kalfim wi nti ma 
'ammfish t i .- 1 1 1 .• i - i iuinni ya bint is subaiye, 7 ana la khalli 1 
aghribe wi t tiyar ma yshimmfl lik rfha wala khalli lik asfir 'ala 
wishsh il ard." II binte aysit, kharagil min id dar a rfihit waiya 
1 walad illi kfinit bitdur waiyfih. Hina ahafha baqa, u qal liha : 
" Inti bardlkj 'amma tduri waiya s .val.i ilih w ana 'annua 

ib a 'ahki ii ah Bherg 8 a G 1 gharbe ma 'ammfish alfigi 
ii ha'ih'n adin ragabtik u shuftik dilwak&t." n U ba'den ir rfigil 
kan waiyfih furya, u kan biyi'zaq blha fi 1 ghf-t, u <jal li 1 bint 

' I •innini hnili. 1 -' ana 'auz aianuih 1:: nia'aki d dfir." 11 binte 

na ma k&nitshe 'arfa, a, lagle akhir 'umriha we agalha, 

1 A mother will call her own child bint il kalb, l>int ish 

sliai'Ili'Va. &c, 

1 abuya, 3 raqabni. * qatalni. 

6 (|al. i yibqa. " pabiya. 

■ atraqqab. " aharq. 10 alfiqtld. 

11 dilwaqt. < If. Syrian hal(|. t . 

, - hina. t'i. Syrian hontk. irauwah. 



362 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

qa'adit fi 1 ghct lamma gih abulia we gab it turya, hattiha 'ala 
kitfu u khad il binte fi idu we hatte kitf 'ala 1 khala, we tannu 
masbi lamma rah taht talle 'all ; u fahat taht it tall bi t turya, 
u gab il bint u rah daribha bi t turya, mauwitha, n dafanha fi 1 
birka illi fahatha taht it tall, u ramaha fih u radam 'aleha ; u 
taune mashi merauwah 'ala betu. U ba'den, lamma i-ah il bet, 
umm il bint sa'alitu we qalit lu : " Ya bne flan, ya'ni min waqt 
il binte ma rahit tiwaddi lak il 'esh fi 1 ghet, ya'ni dilwaket 
imsa 1 lei wi 1 binte ma gatsh." Qam ir ragil qal laha : " Ya wliya 
inti ha tug'udi 1 tegurri 2 we tigrugi 3 wi tzinni 'ala shan eh ! Iza 
kan inti ma ntish rayha tikhfi di s sira * (sirt il bint) ana fut lik 
il balad di b illi fiha w atanni masbi." Qamit qalit lu : " Taiyib, 
ya t'ulan, ana baz'al 'ala binti wi nta za'lan 'ala shan Oh ? " Qam 
qal liha : "Nihaytu ana rayh agiil lik 'ala kilme wahde, 6 wala 
tgurri ' aleya wala tigrugi 'aleya wala haga ; il bint khamas sitte 
marrat walla saba' marrat ana shuftiha waiya 1 wed c we btya 
mashya waiyah, qulti lha: ' ya sabiyiti ya binti irga'i ma tigturish ' 
waiya 1 wed dih ; ' hiya ma sim'itshe kalami ; ana, akhir ma 
ghlubte minha, khadtiha fi idi u ruhte fi 1 khala u darabtiha bi 
t turya u fahatti lha birka a Lagahtiha* fiha bi kbulganba, we 
danneti mashi u get 'ala d dar ; w adin gulti lik 'ala mas'alitha 
we shufi nti kef rah ti'mili eh baga." Qalit lu : " We k6f, ya l>u 
'ammu, gataltiha u mauwuttiha ,? " Qal liha: " Adingataltihawe 
mauwit t ilia hi t turya, ya'ni dabahtiha, wahfya rahit li halha ; 
shufi kef a ti'mili baga." Qalit hiya : " 'ad, ya bu 'ainmii, u k.*f 
ma zmagshe 'ala bitti ! " Qal liha: "Tizmagi ma ti/.magish 'ala 
kefik ya subiye." ba'den il mara min za'alha 'ala bintilia 
sauwatit u sarrakhit ; u kan waqtiha t t6f maugudts ti 1 balad u 
simi' sinkh il waliya ; we waqtiha r ragil min za'alu huwa kan 
rah yiqtil il mara we yidbahha 'ashan hiya kanit biteauwaf u 
bit&arrakh; u ba'd§n Lamma sauwai.it gum il ghufara, wi r ragil 
kan bidur 'ala sikkiiia lamina hiya garrasitu bi b sirikh betahha, 
ii f waqte wugud it tauwafa (abbum'ala r ragil we qafaahuh ; u 
rahum dayrts kitafu, ya'ni dauwarum id&h wara ktafu a kattifuh 
l»i table til qinnib (biyi'miluh bizzift bequm tilaqth /•"> il had id). 
we ramti li rigleb q§d hadid we garruh litndn, wahid min 'ala 1 
\iiniii u w&hid min 'ala sh Bhimal; we huwa baqa f wua^uhtun 
ir ragil illi huwa sahib il 'amla ; wi 1 mara mratu miahj it warahum 
we bumma wakhdia ir ragil, u tannuhum lamma waasaluh li 1 
hukuma u sallimuh li 1 bulla betaV il mudii 

1 tuq'udl. ' tii|uni. a taqruq 

* i.> sira di. •■ wahda. ' ; wad. 

: t iqturtsh. B 1 iqahtiha. 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 363 

XXIII 1 

Kan fi hikaya 'an hurma ti bilad ir rif le inniha Icuuit 'andiha 
shabbit baqara; qam talabha Bhfikh il balad le innn yeshagh- 
ghalha 'andu fi 1 mihrat au fi 1 gum Rukhra. 2 Qamit il mara 
khafit 'ala baqaritba, q&lit lu : "Ana ma ghdarshe addiha lak, 
dt bit'aiyishnl u bit'aiyish 'lyali, u waraya 'iyal yutama." 
Qam sh<"kh il balad ma smi'she minba u talab minha ir 
rusum beta* il miri. Qalit: " Ma hrltish." Qam khad minha 
1 baqara bi 1 ghadre 'anha, u talab wahid gazzar u khalla g 
gazzar dabahha; u kauwim il baqara kwam, u talab naa il balad 
qadde talatin arbe'ln khamsin sittin nas 'ala qadde miqdar 
likwam; u kulle wahid minhum khad lu k< K >m bi t taman 
wi 1 k.'im lii riyal, ya'nl qui sitttn koin bi sittin rival, u khad il 
fulus darabhum fi 'ibbu. Qamit il mara 'aiyatit qalit lu : "Ana 
•au/.a taman il baqara btahtt walla baqarti bi nafsiha leinn il 
liaqara btahtl tisawi lha mtya a 'ishrln riyal." Qal liha : " Ya 
wliya ma lki.sh 'audi haga; rflhi shtikt matrah ma tisfitiki." 
Rahit 'and il uiudir wi shtakil ir ragil illi hflwa shekh il balad, 
wi q&lit lu: "Ya hadrit il mudtr shekh il balad (il fulanlya), illi 
liiva baladt, talab minni rusum it tin; qulti lu: "ana sahbit 
'iyal it.iin wala ma mi'lsh fulus dilwaqti; lamma yigini.' Qal 
li : ' ma yimkinshe ; ma ghdarsh at'akhkhar 'an fulus il miri.' 
Qam zalamnl we garre baqarti minni l>i 1 gabre 'annl we haddar 
il gazzar, u dabahha we kauwimha kiwam, sittin kdm, kulle k6m 
l.i ryal." Qam qal laha 1 mudtr: "Ya wliya, ummal baqartik 
tisawi ti t taman kam?" Qalit lu: " Ya hadrit il mudir, tisawi 
niiva u 'isbrin rival." Qam il mudir talab shekh il balad we 
hadda il mara we haddar in oaa illi shtaru 1 ikwam min lahm 
il baqara wi g gazzar ill! dabah il baqara bi oafsu, wi □ oaa 
kulliha magmu'a, we amar bi lamme meshayikh il bilad kul- 
luhum, we haddar q idi 1 mudlrtya we Ba'alu, we qal lu : " Eh il 
. ya hadril il q&di, illi oi'milu fi r ragil da z§ye ma zalam 
i\ mara d! i\ baqaritba?" Qam il q&dl qal li 1 mud r: " Yilzam 
leinn il gazzar yi'mil li r ragil da zcye ma 'amal ti 1 baqara 
l.t.ilit il mara, ya'ni yidbahu g gazzar we yiqassimu kwam we 
yifarraq likwam 'ala a sitttn Das illi humma khadu kwam il 
baqara, kulle kdm l>i riyalen, yibqfl miya we 'ishrtn riyal, hukme 
ma talaliit, il mara tamau baqaritba, 'an amr il q&dl we amr il 
mudtr." Gum il masba'ltya kattifu r ragil illi huwa 'umdit il 
balad we ramuh fi 1 ard, we dabahu 1 gazzar, u kauwumu kwam 
we farraqu 'aa sittto oafs, kulle kdm bi riyaJSn ; we amar il 

1 This Btor) La told bj Lane {Mod. Egyp., chap, iv.). 
erbially. 



364 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

mudir leinn il gazzar yakhud ras ir ragil f ugritu zeye ma khad 
ras il baqara fi dabhiha ugritu. Wi 1 mara khadit il fuliis taman 
il baqara min id il mudir, we da'it li 1 qadi we li 1 mudir le 
iunuhum khallasu lba tarha min ir ragil. 

XXIV 

Kan fih bint, binte bikr, 'andiha 'ashara tnashar sana, we 
laba mirat 'abb, we mirat abuba kanit tamalli mkhalliya 1 binti 
di dayra fi 1 khala wi tdiir tiqashsbisb laba 'afsb u hatab lagli 1 
khabiz wi t tabikh. Qamit yom min zat liyam il binte mashya 
laqat taqa maftuha zeye nuqra fi 1 ard we laqatba betidwi 
zeye Ion il fadda ; we kanit tinzil il binti b maqtafha, malit 
il maqtaf bi 'enu, u shalitu foq rasha kbaditu wadditu 'ala 
lirt abuba, iddatu limrat abulia wi qalit laba: " Ya mrat 
abuya, khudi." Qamit il mai'a shafit il maqtaf we 'irfit illi 
fih le innu mal. Qalit laha : " Ya bitte gibti da min en?" 
Qalit laha: "Yum'm, gibtu min il khala; lnqrt nuqra w ana 
dayra baqashshish, qumte malet il maqtaf wi tanni gaya." Qamit 
qalit laha : " Ummal ruhi hati kainan ndba lagl aghaddiki 
ghadwa hilwa." Qamit ii bint, maskina, khadit il maqtaf wi 
rigi'it tan! lagle tama* mirat abiiha fi d dunya 1 fanya. Qa'adit 
il bint timla 1 maqtaf min il matlab ; wala kal lihash ilia 1 mam 
1 auwilaniya lagle qismitha we qadar 'uniriha we agalha ; qam il 
matlab inqafal 'aleha wi 1 binte halakit min il 'atash we hiya lissa 
haya. Wi f waqtiha kan abulia rauwah il bit min barra barm 
sa'alha (miratu) 'ala bintu we qal liha : "Fen il bint, ya 
(fulaua)?" Qalit luh : "II amre mahu ka/.a kaza wi di d dor 
il auwilani illi gabitu we shSya'tiha tegtb dur tani." Qam ir 
rdgil zi'il 'ala bintu wi qal laha: "Ya wliya f ani hitta rahit?" 
Qalit lu : " Fi 1 hitta (1 fulaniya)." Qam rah yidauwar 'ala bintu 
fil hitta illi qalit lu 'aleha 1 mara; qam simi' hisse bi'aiyat; 
laqah hisse bintu, we 'irif taht il arde bit'aiyat. QaJ liha : " N a 
bimi ya (fulana)." Qalit lu: "Yaba 'afshdna : isqtnl," marrat§n 
talata. Qam fahat 'aleha tuh'n talata, ma talhash, wala Bmi'sh 
ilia 1 hisse min bi'id 'ala tul mesafa ; u ba'il'n qal liha : " Ma bi 
1 yadde hlla ; ha da ami- Allah hakam 'allkl weqismitik hakamit 
'ala qadde kede we 'ala qadde ma lik -r.-h li «1 dunya." We 
tarak 'awadu 'al Allah. We qal: "Allah yibrl dimmitik u 
yisamhik." I' ba'd§n bana Ilia sbil fuq minha, we kulle y6m 
yimla moiya li d naa yishrabO minnu, li r rayih wi g gay. 

\\V 

Fi daqqe yeduqquh in nfts 'ala dri'ithum. In k&o yekan 
gada' min ddl 'ashiq wahda bint yikhalli 1 flql walla 1 man 



EXERCISES ON" THE SYNTAX 335 

yiktib Lsmiha 'ala dr&'u we yegtb mara ghagartya we yequl liba . 
" Duqqi li 'ala dra'i 'ala 1 ismi da ; " fe hiya tduqqi lu. Wi 1 mara 
min d<M tisrah li 1 haw&rl min ddl, wi tza"aq wi tqfil : " NibSyina l 
zen we nadmura ' z>'n wa nduqqe zen wa ntahir il ban&t zen wa 
nkhutte b il wada' zen ; ill i luh raqaba - yiduqq walla yittahir walla 
yidmur walla yeshuf bakhtu." We minhum min niswan il 
ahrar fi blad il fallahin yeduqqum 'ala daqnuhum talat khutut u 
nuqta an talat nuqat fnq qurithum 'a.dian iz zina lagle tibqa 
hilwa u ti'gib ir ragil yimkin yihibbiha ziyada 'ala shun id daqq. 
Wi 1 bint il bikr tiduqq 'ala dra'ha sb shimal dira (bi shikle 
tadwtrit dirs ia saqya) u 'ala quritha : we waqtiha lamina yibqa 
d daqqe fi idha tahte khunqitha we tibqa labsa 1 asawir il fadda 
fi ideha, wi a sigha fi raqabitha wi 1 balaq fi widanha we tilbis 
liha qamis iswid we tahte minnu gallabiya b£da tibqa 1 hagat di 
mibe'yinaha leinniba hilwa. Yeduqqum keman 'ala aidr il insan 
'ala shan il buhaq. Leinne kan fih wahid haaal lu 'aiya, wi 1 
'aiya dih baqa yi'attashu ktir we yikhallih yishrab moiya min 
gher qanun, u baqa yakul il akl it talat taqat we ma baqash il 
akle yimri 'ah'li wala yinfa' ; u ba'd&D ahawir 'aqlu we qal ahsan 
as'al wahid min in naa il mitqaddimin fi s ainn ; fe rah sa'al 
wahid 'umru yitla' sab'en sana, we qal lu leinnl, ya 'amme fulan, 
ana haaal 'andi 'aiya kaza kaza ; fi huwa qal lu : " Yimkin ya bni 
leinnak kunte y6m min d61, walla haga, wiqifte 'ala t'urn wi 
ddaffSt 'al§h we stahlSt id dafa, we yimkin aalak kunte bardan 
Lamina kunte w&qif quddam il furn ; fe yimkin waqtiha 1 fume 
dili yekun ia sabab a&liha mara tekun hartit taw&gin samak fi 1 
furn wi nta ma khadtisb fi nafsak wala 't.'t. 8 leinne da aalu yekun 
fi 1 turn, we bi aabab qillit fikritak khallSt riht 
is samak t i lt i 'ah'-k min il furn we hiya Hi 'aiyitak ; walla 
yimkin kutte 'at&han u kassilt u nimte bi 'ata&hak wi nta 'arif 
aafaak leinnak 'atsh.in, we lakin min tuqle dimaghak ghalab 
'al$k in ndm we nimt, fi 1 'aiya haaal 'andak bi sabab il 'afash ; 
ti 1 ahsan teruh 'ande wahda ghagartya tikhalUha ' tiduqqi lak 
•ala sidrak." We huwa daqqe zSye ir ragil ma qal lu, u ba'ddn 

khail. 

X X V 1 

Fih D&a yimshum S b aikka we yithadditum li wahduhum we 
humma yekund yimkin beyiftakaru li 'ib&dit Rabbina we mash- 
ghulln fih, w>- yimkin yekunu labsin budum qud&m meahani] 
an meraqqa'ln au yimshu 'iryantn; in n&a yequlu 'aldhum ddl 
magftntn au magazib au auliya. We amma min 'adl il wall mi 

1 For oiblyin, uidmur. - / ■ . 'umre | 

» - iftal « g l 



366 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

yakhudshe min hadde fulus wala yiqbalshe min hadde haga ; we 
iza akhadu haga, fulus au hidum, humma yifarraquhum li n mis 
il masakin ; we yimkin iza akalum walla shirbum yimkin yakh- 
lum bi guz'e min il fulus illi tgi Ilium, wi 1 baqi yifarraquh ; 
we lakin ma haddish yighdar yisbufhum biyakblum eh walla 
biyishrabu eh wala haddish yighdar yeshufhum biyenamum wala 
ma binamush, ya'nt Rabbuna huwa Hi 'alini buhum. Wi n nas 
yerilhu. 'anduhuni yezuruhum iza kanum yekunu hayin. U 
mba'd in nas yuq'udum quddamhum, wi yekun il insan 'auz 
yiftikir fi nias'ala yiftakarha fi 'aqlu min gher ma yequl luhum 
bi 1 hanak, humma yequlu lu iza kan fiha nafa' yequlu 'aleha ; 
ma fihash, yequlu : " II mas'ala di ma lhash nafa', wi s sikka di 
au 1 mishwar dih au 1 balad di au 1 giha di ma timshish fiha." 

XXVII 

Kan lela min zat il lay alt kan fiha khatmit Qur'an 'ala shan 
farah ; wi 1 farah da kan fih tuhfir walad, we kan fih fiqi beyiqra ; 
wi 1 fiqi da sotu kuwaiyis, ya'ni missaiyat fi 1 qiraya, we kanit 
in nas malmuma qa'da betisma'u ; we kan wahid yifizze min nas 1 
illi qa'din, we kan yequl : " Ya salam u sallim ! amma sot il 
gada' da gamil illi biyiqra." Waqtiha kan abu 1 fiqi hadir ; 
qam simi' kilmit ir ragil, u qam 'ala helu wi kan yeruh darib 
kaffi f wishshu. We kan il walad rah sarikh, we kanit in nas 
tequm 'ala sarkhit il walad, we qalit luh : " Leh, ya ragil, ala 
slum eh ? Haram 'alek ; darabt il walad il kaffi da leh ? " Qal 
luhum : " Nihaytu nafad is sahm, wi 1 hamdu li llah hasal kher 
'ala kede." We maqsud abu 1 fiqi darab 2 il kaffe 'ala kede 
'alashan khayif 'ah-b min il 'en, ahsan yinhisid, u f darb il kaff 
ma hasal lush haga ilia kull il kher. 

XXVIII 

Lamma yi'ya 'aiyil sughaiyar yequm ahlu yequlu : " da 
yimkin fulan hasadu walla fulana hasaditu ; " yequmu yegtbu 
shuwaiyit malli yitacjtaquha lu ; u yimkin yakhdu hittit klialaqa 
min il khulqan il qadima, hittii pughaiyara medauwara qadd il 
qersh, yequ§§uha I >i 1 maqag; we yakhduha, ma yikhallush ^adde 
yeshufhum, we yrbakhkharu bha 1 'aiyil, ya'ni vcwalla'uha waiya 
1 inalh ii D nai' waiya hittit shabba /.ifra min 'and il 'attar, wi 
yedakhkhanfih ' ashan ir riha lagle ma _\<>hiiniuilia il 'aiyil ; u 
tauwu ma bakhkharuh bi r raqwa \ « • ' i 1 > . 

1 Contracted from min in nas. Stiv.-> is laid uu the min. 
s =fi darb (nahw. li ki'mu darab). 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 36; 



XXIX 

Iza kan yekun zir maugud fi bet min biyut wil&d il 'arab. wi 
z zir da masalan malyan moiya walla haga, we gih iz zir wiqi. 
min 'ala 1 hammala betahtu we tabbe fi 1 ard, teqiim il mara 
tiz'al we tinwihir, we qalbiha yetubbe, wi tqul : " ya tara rah 
yigra <'h fi 1 bet?" U ba'den yimkin tequm tequl fi nafsiha : 
"ya bitte rayha tiza"ali naf sik leh? Yimkin hatihsal 1 nnufba 
walla haga, wi tkun asliha nazra walla nifs walla haga min ragil 
walla min mara, yekun hadde dakhal guwa betik we shaf il farsh 
wi 1 mat rah mehaiya', we yimkin, lamma dakhal, shahaq wala 
qalshe 'ma sha' Allah,' wala haga, fi 1 mas'ala di hasalit min 
kede we lakin il hamdu li llah illi gat 'ala kede." 



XXX 

Iza kan il 'aiyil ibne talat sintn walla khamsa sitti snin, we 
'auz il insan yi'inil lu taswira yihraqha 'ala shan in nazra, yegib 
hittit waraqa we yigib ibra walla dabbus, we yimsik il hittit 
il waraqa bi idu we yiqussuha bi 1 maqaaa we yirsimha 'ala hasab 
rasme ta$wirit baniadam,we yikharraqil waraqa bi 1 ibra we yequl : 
"fi 'en fulana u flan u flan u flana," we huwa beyikharraq fiha, 
ya'ni n nas illi huwa zanin Leinnuhum hasadii Lbnu \\ alia l>iutu; wi 
mba'de ma yikharraq il waraqa khuruni khuruin yegib 'ud kabrit 
we yimaik il waraqa fi tdu we yikarrarha, ya'ni yisaddar il waraqa 
quddam wishsh il 'aiyil we yi walla' ha we yidaniha li 1 hawa, 
teqfan il 'en teruh min il walad. Ya immatan yakhud qataru, 
ya'ni in kan bint yakhud niandilha min 'ala rasha iza kanit 
'iriqit Fib we biya 'aiyana, walla iza kan walad yakhud taqitu illi 
'iriq fih, we yiwaddu 1 qatar 'ande wahid min il fuqaha illi yekun 
ya'raf yeqla il qatar \\i ykun yi'raf yiktil) higab&t li 1 'ival ; we 
huwa tauwu ma qaa il qatar yequm yi'raf il 'aiya illi 'aiyan buh 
il 'aiyil we yiftah il kitab we yi'mil hisab in oigm we yiktib il 
higab 'ala hasab muqtada nigm il 'aiyil, we yiktib li 1 higab ftya 
min ftyftt il Qur*an Lab Bharlf; we umm il 'aiyil takbud il higab 
min il fiql bi qabul minim bi nlya khalsa, we takhdu tigallidu 
bi hittit gilde sikhtiyau ahmar walla jfar walla khdar, z§ye ma 
tkun, we td1 lu qarafae ta'rifa walk qerahe sogh ugrit it tagltd ; 
we takhdu ti'allaqu li 1 'aiyil li raqabtu bi hittil qtt&o walla 
sliirit wi tt'auwit fi lu min tahte batu sh shimal; we tauwu ma 
kbaff il 'aiyil 'ala 1 higab teruh il mara tiwaddi r raahwa li 1 
ii(|i 'ala hasab ehuruthum waiya ba'duhum. 

1 Bee § 1<J'J rein. 



368 THE SPOKEN" ARABIC OF EGYPT 

XXXI 

Hina f Masr iza kan il wahid yegib hittit battikha au ratlcn 
lahma yekun sharihum li 'iyalu wi yekun dakhil buhum 'ala 1 
bet, yequm iza kanit mara walla ragil ruin in nas illi humnia 
able hasad we 'enehuru betakhud wi betisrah fil 1 insan, yequmit 
yequlu : " ya salam da fulan da kulle sa'a beyishtiri hagat wi 
yekkushshi bha 'ala betu ilbatti Hi zeye dih mahu 'ala maksab 
ikuwaiyis willa 1 fi kbidnia kuwaiyisa 'ande gama'a frank walla 
yekun fi sraya beta'it bashawat turk." We yimkin fi waqte ma 
humma yuq'udum yikkalliruu wi yequrru wi yzinnu yequm il 
insan yiddi 1 haga li mratu we hiya tkun gayba shuwaiyit bamya 
walla shwaiyit mulukbiya we tigi tqatta' il hittiten il lahma, wi 
tkun mekharrata 1 basalten we ramya lhum il babbit is samn fi 
'arr il halla ; we tauwu ma ramit il hittiten fi qalb il halla, we 
waqtiha tkun il mara qa'da quddam il halla, wi tbussi tlaqi 1 
halla nat^it wi nshalit min foq il kanun li wahdiha wi truh mak- 
buba li wahdiha min gher ma hadde yezuqqiha wala hadde yigl 
yammitha, we tauwe ma kkabbit il halla yekun ir ragil kharag 
u gih min shughlu, tequl : " Ya bu (flan) ma tiz'alsh, ihna k;d- 
lifna 'al halla 'ashara tnashar qershe sagh, we lakin hiya naiad 
fiha s sahm u nkabbit li wahdiha." Y"equl liha : " Ya (fulana) 
ana kunte dakhil min bab il bet u shaiitnl (fulana u fulana) we 
lakin il hamdu li llah illi gat 'ala habbit it tabikh wi kkabbit, 
u nafadit 'enehum fiha. 

Wi za dakhal wahid bi battikha walla eye hagt in kiinit illi 
ykfm shariha li 1 akl wi yekun mara walla ragil shafiih, we huwa 
rakhar shafbum, yiftikir leinne dol yimkin nas hasvidiyin wi 
yequl : " ya ritna ma kuntish shuftuhum wala shafuni ; yimkin, 
ya wad, madam dol sbafuk tuqi' minnak il battiklia li wahdiha 
tinkisir wala nakul wala nishrab minha." Wi n ma kkasaritsh 
il battikha yimkin yikhaniq miratu walla wihulu ; we tauwe ma 
hasal il khinaq walla ba'd il insan ma yinfadde min il khinaq wi 
yerfiq yeqiil : " W Allah ya (fulana) iz za'al illi hasal lina dih 
da min 'en (fulana) illi shafitn! w ana dakhil bi 1 battikha." 

XXXII 

Wvigvid il hamam fi 1 b«*t hii-ze li 1 (ilad, ya'ni 1 bdt illi 
maugtld fth il hamam ma tkhushah&sh wilad il gan il ashqtya 
we da ye(|illu le innu bi sabab tamalli 1 hamam yizkur Elabbuna 
we yiwahhid Allah wi yeqftl: "ya Ki'ilf!" Illi yeqtU "ya 

1 m we ilia (*.6. walla). 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 369 

Ra'uf " huinma 1 hamam ir rumi 1 abyad we huwa fi rigleh rish, 
we luh shuwesha rish fi rasu ; wi lit yeqill " Allah ! Allah ! " 
huwa 1 yamani 1 iswid, sughaiyar 'an ir rumi wi nhif fi gisniu. 
We amma 1 baladi yizkur Allah rakhar, we lakin il ginsen dol 
yizkuruh ziyada 'an il baladi ; wi 1 baladi bid menaqqatin 
nuqat nuqat, ahmar 'al abyad. U fih firakh baladi minhum dik 
ismu dik me'ushar luh fi rigleh 'ashar sawabi', wi huwa abyad 
khalis fi 1 Ion ; we yequlu le inne huwa rakhar hirze fi 1 bet, wi 
1 bet illi yibqa maugud fih yibqa murzaq we mus'ad, we lamma 
yi'uz yiddan yisma' dik il 'arsh we yiddan warah. 

XXXIII 

II kalb il agrab lamma yigi quddam bet il insan yequni il 
wahid ma yilzimshe leinnu yidrabu wala yi'zih ; ahsan bi 1 
ahsan yihsin 'aleh bi luqmit 'esh wi yekhallih yeruh bi 1 ma'ruf ; 
ahsan yimkin yekun il kalbi da yekun wahid min ikhwanna 1 
gan yitla'um fi n nahar au fi 1 lei fi sifat kilab walla f sifat qutat. 
Wi za kan il mara min dol walla r ragil min dol yeshuf il kalbe 
dih au il qutta di wi yeruh yegib 'asaya yidrabhum yequm il 
mara au ir ragil yiltibis fi dra'u walla fi riglu, au il mara yiltibis 
gismiha kullu, u ba'den il wahid minhum yi'ya. 

XXXIY 

Iza kan wahid we huwa beyistihamma fi 1 hammam yikhabbat 
bi rigleh, walla haga, fi 1 ard, we yekun waqtiha wahid min il 
g&n ti I mahall illi huwa khabbat fih dih, yeruh waqtiha yiltibis 
ish shaklisi da, u waqtiha. bi sahab ma libsu 1 gan, yibqa 'aiv;in 
fi gismu, wala ma yefuqshe min il 'aiya bta'u ilia n kan yeruh 
yezur shekh min il mashayikli ; we yimkin ma' kutri zyartu fi 
1 mashayikh, yinsirif minnu 1 'aiya ; we ilia fih nas min il fin (alia 
min in na.s il 'alimin, illi yekun 'anduhum ma'rifa taiyib 1 l>i 1 
kitaba, humma yighdarum yiktibu lu higab ; we vihniilu li nat>u. 
we yimkin, hi sabab ham] il higab dih, Rabbina yakhud l>i yaddu 
we yishfih we yinsirif minnu r rih dih. Wi 1 harim rukhrin i/.a 
kan wahda minhum navma masal za'alana min guzha ikminnu 
miggauwiz 'alSha, au yekun 'aiyil min 'iyalha mat au min hadde 
yekun yiqrab liha, u f waqtiha tequm min numha 9 mafzu'a, u.- 
yimkin takhud moiyit ghastl wishshiha au ghasil id^haau rigldha 
wi truh hadfaha fi bdt ir raha wala tdastaxshe, yequm yilbiaha i 



1 Adverbially, for- faiyiba. - odmha. 



370 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

rih walla 1 ginn ; we lamma yifhamum ahliha leinne di 'aleha 
rih yeqiimu yakhdfiha we yizauwaruha 1 mashayikh, wi sh shekh, 
illi tistiraiyah 'ala zyartu, tamalli tzfiru lamma yinsirif minha. 

xxxy 

Suknit il gan tekun fi 1 hammamat au fi mahallat biyiit il 
adab au fi mahallat niahgura ma haddish yekun sakinhum, ya 
tkun suknithum fi 1 khala, ya'nl fi 1 gibal au fi 1 magharat ; u 
minhum min il ahmar u minhum min il iswid. Wi za kan il 
insan yekun nayim fi bet mahgur me'aggaru, we huwa r ragil 
da yimkin yekun 'azib li wahdu — we ilia n kanit mara tkun 
'azba li wahdiha — we li sabab il bet da yekun inkagar we min 
gher suknit nas adamiya yimkin yekun il gan yiskuniih. We 
hina n kan ir ragil ma yekunshe 'arif inn il bet dih maskun, 
yeaggaru we yi'azzil 'izalu ; we yimkin min auwil lela ma yebat 
fib, we da bi sabab ma ykunshe waiyah 'aiyil wala mara, yeqiim 
lamma yenam yequm yisma' takhbit fi 1 bet we huwa nayim fi d 
dalma ; u min khofu yequm min in nom yiwalla' lamda walla 
sham'a ; u tauwe ma walla' il lamda yibusse ma yehiqish takhbtt 
wala haga. Wi za tafifa, we yinam tani marra, yimkin yebusse 
yilaqi t takhbit dar tani ; yequm yiwalla' il lamda, we yetannu 
qa'id 'ala helu tul il lei wala yshuf in nom bi 'enu lamma yedur in 
nahar we yitla' 'ala kher. Wi za ma walla'she yimkin yigi lu 1 
wahid minhum fi sifat kalb, walla f sifat qutt, walla f sifat sab'e 
walla dab'e walla arnab walla haga min il wuhush. We yiqdar 
yizhar we yigi ii bani adam fi sifat kvdle ashya min il hiwanat au 
f sifat bani adam. We hina tauwu ma zuhur li r ragil au li 
1 mara yequm yihbishu bi idu au bi riglu ; yequm il wahid 
minhum mafzu' min nomu ; u waqtiha iza kan yekun yi'raf 
yiqra, yimkin yequm yitwadda we yisalli rak'iten u yiqra b 
Samadiya talat marrat, we ayit il Kursi marra, wi yenam : we 
waqtiha iza kan fih sukkan min il gan fi 1 bet il mahgur yihbaqu 
kulluhum. We amma iza kan wahid masalan 'auz yekhushshe 
m.ihille bet il adab walla bet mahgur yequl : " A'uzu bi llahi 
min Lfib sh^tan ir ragim ; " u waqte ma dakhal ithafaz 1 min 
kulle haga l)i sabab le innu ista'az bi llah min isli slirtan u min 
kulle gan ; fe yWW sagh salim ma yigra luhshe haga. Wi f 
shahre Ramadan, ya'nl bi sabab is siyam wi 1 adan f6q il mawa- 
din we qirayit il Qur'an fi 1 biyut kulle waqt, we tanniha 1 qiraya 
dayra fi 1 gawami' — fe hina bi sabab kulle ealik, we 'atiyit iz 
zika kamaii, yifdalu 1 gan inasgi'min min auwul rainadan li akhru, 
li ghayit il 'id iz zughaiyar. 

1 § 473 c. 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 371 

XXXVI 

Iza kan wahid mashi fi 1 khala li wahdu fi blad il aryaf 
nahyit ig Giza au nahyit lihram au gherha, illi flhum nas 'arab 
min qatta'in it tariq beyiq'udum tamalli fi 1 khala 'ashan yilaqu 
wahid yistafradu bu we yimsikuh in kan waiyah hittit humara 
walla hittit humar walla gahsha walla gamal walla qa'iid ; iza kan 
uas min d61 yilaqu wahid mi'ah min il hagat di in kan min 
hiwanat walla min fuliis walla min malbils, yakhdfiha minnu we 
yiqtiliih, wala yisma'u minnu kalam lamma yequl luhum : " Fi 
'ardukum, seyibuni ; madam khadtu 1 haga betahti,'' ilia n kan 
yinikin 'umru tawil ; wi n kan 'umru sughaiyar yeqiilu lu : " Ya 
ihna nse"yibak izzey 2 Yimkin teruh tiftin li 1 hukiima 
au truh tukhbus li ahali 1 balad beta'tak, u ba'd( A 'ii il hukuma tak- 
hud khabar, u humma yigum yakhduna wi yewaddtboa 1 karakon 
we yisaffaruna 1 bahr il abyad au yewadduna fi luman ig Giza 
au f luman Tura. Ahsan bi 1 ahsan ihna mu>h lazim nekhalli 
lak ghubariya." U ba'den humma yidbahub we yidfinuh we 
yirdimu 'al<h we yeffltHh. Hina tauwe ma tatilh yuq'ud yom 
talata arba'a 'ashara, 'ala zeye ma yuq'ud, u ba'den yitla" 
'afrit, yibqa f sifat humar au arnab au qutta au kalb au sab s au 
dab' au nimr au asad au qird au nisnas, ya'ni fi kafiit kulle 
ashya; we iza kan wahid mashi li wahdu fi 1 khala, we huwa 
• fi sifat humar, yeqimi ir ragil yequm yirkabu we yequl fi 
'aqiu : '■ 'ala kulle hal il humar da yiwaddinl li hadd il balad 
beta'ti ; " we lakin ma yi'rafshe leinne da 'afrit; yequm baqat 
huwa wi v ragil rakib f6q minnu yequm fi 1 auwul yibqa tul 
mitr, u ba'den yebnss ir ragil yilaqih baqa tulu talat arbat 
imtar ; u ba'den ir ragil iza kan yekus mi'ah sikkina we 
yitallahha min gebu, we yitalla' is silah min il b6t beta' idu, — 
we humma min 'adl il 'afrit yekhafu min is silah we min in 
nar, — wi 1 'afrit lamina shaf ir ragil talla' is silah min glbu ij.iin 
qal li r ragil: " I'mil ma'ruf ma bidrabnish \\ ana waddik li 
hadde ln'-tak." U ba'den min ba'de ma kan tul arba't imtar 
baqa fi tul mitre wahid u wafsal ir ragil li hadd id dar beta'tu; 

we yiqa uiiiias z.'yi 1 liuiu.'ir illi yckun saliili we yequl : " N'a 

ragil, lau makanshe waiyak is silah dih ana kunte tauwihtak we 
kunte dihikte 'alek." 

D ba'ddn yekun huwa r ragil da walla wahid gheru mashi 
fi 1 khala u mi'ah baruda mi'ammara, wc- yitla' lu 1 'afrit da huwa 
nafsu, we \i'j\ lu f yifat dab' au dlb, wi c ragil yeruh dirib fih il 
baruda yibqa 1 'afrit naarid, we yibqa tulu 'ashara bnashar mitr; 

wi /.a kan wahid yiqdar yiqra 'ah'h ayat il Kursi walla s 
Saiuadi\a, taUW6 lua ijaiiha waijtiha 1 liiaiid \idimilH' tfllu we 



372 THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 

yeruh fi halu. Wi 1 marid ma yiqdarshe yintiqil rain matrahu 
zeye ma kan 'afrit auwul ; l we tauwu ma yidrab wahid fih 
wishsh, walla wishshen, yequlu n nas leinnu yibqa fardit 
bartiisha qadima. 

XXXVII 

II kalbe lamma yuqaf we yi'auwi quddam Lara min dol 
walla quddam bet min dol yequlu n nas ill! yisma'tih yequlu : 
"Ma lak ti'au'au? Ya tara rah yigra eh?" Wi yequlu li 
nafsuhum : " yimkin hadde rah yemitt hina fi 1 hara walla fi 1 
bet illi huwa waqif quddamu." 

XXXVIII 

Waqte wilad il kuttab ma yitla'um we yekunu 'auzin 
yerauwahum biyuthum, sawa n kan fi Masr au fi 1 aryaf, auwul 
ma yigu khargin min bab il kuttab, yimkin yekunu wilad il 
gan is sugaiyarin il ashqiya waqfin mistanniyinhuin ; lakin fi 
sifa tekun makhfiya yekiinum humma shefin bi 'enehum wilad 
il kuttab we humma tal'in, wi 1 wilad ma yekunush shefinhum : 
we hina dol yigum yehibbum yishankaluhum we yequmu wilad 
il kuttab yedusuhum tahte riglehum yimauwituhum. 

XXXIX 

Iza kan mat wahid wi ndafan yimkin lelitha yibqa beyin 'and 
ahlu fi 1 bet illi huwa mat fih we yithaiya 1 luhum, leinne ruhu 
lissa mauguda fi qalb il bet. Yequmu ahlu yegibum itnen 
fuqaha au wahid fiqi yiqra 1 Qur'an, u f wust it talat layali 
humma yimkin yeshufuh fi n ndm, u mba'd it talat layali ma 
yeshufuhshe la fi z zahir- wala fi 1 batin : - a ba'dfc] il Fuqaha 
yakhdu ugrithum we yeruhti li halhuni. We lakin il fikiv <lili 
illi beyiftikiruh in nas — leinnuhum yequlu yekun maugud 
khiyal ii 1 ln't -fi 1 q61 dih yekun min in oiswanau min il 'iyal iz 
zughaiyarin : we amma r riggala yezinnu leinn il fikre dih da'if. 
We amma iza kan ir ragil yekun qalbu khaftf wi yequl: "ami 
shufte wahid khiyal," we yequl ilq&l da li wahid min il muqriytn 
au il Euqaha an il 'ulema, humma yequlfl : " il khiyal da ma 
yekunshe maugtid min il maiyit illi mat: da maugud min ([able 
ma vinut il maiyit;" we yisbitum leinne huwa dih iah sh 
beta' wahid kan itqatal ti 1 mahalle min qable s&biq.' 

1 As he could when he was an afreet before. 

- /.. . w bet her awake or asleep. 

3 Only the spirits of those who bave met with a violent death 

are generally believed bo roam about the earth. A Bedouin of 



EXERCISES ON THE SYNTAX 373 

XL 

Lamma n nas yeshufu nigma we hiya nazla min is sama 
yequH 'aleha leinniba nizlit 'ala shetan haraqitu ; Ave amma 1 
qol il masbut leinniha tinzil 'ala z zar'e yimkin tihraqu, ya fi 
gnena tihraq il fawakih beta'itha au is sagar betahha an tinzil fi 
1 ard u tintifi. 

XLI 

II mezeyara fi awan waqt is sef lamma tqum titla' ba'd id 
dubr fi 'izz il qaiyala lamma d dunya tibqa msahhada wi me- 
walla'a zeyi n nar, we tibqa lak il arde sukbna zlye sharart in 
nar, tibu?si tlaqi 1 mezaiyara di titla' lak 'ala wishsh il ard 
titnattat, u ba'den tibussi tlaqiba labsa izar abyad u labsa abyad 
fi abyad ; u fib minbum illi 1 insan yilaqi lba wilad qa'din gan- 
biba walla f hudniha walla yekunum dayrin yil'abum hawaleha 
wi hiya qa'da ; u ba'den, ya akbi, tebussi tlaqiha hatindah li 1 
wahid bi ismu illi huwa masml 'aleh, wi tqul "Ya (f ulan) ! " 
bi hisse 'all qawi ; yequm il insan verudde 'aleha 'ala hasab le 
inniba nadahitu bi smu ; u sbuwaiya vebussi ylaqtha meqambara 
we metainbila, ideha rakhyaha ganbiha, wi tqul lu : " I la n 
ummak ; ma tkbafsh ; " yequm il wahid yiqarrab 'aleba yilaqlha 
'ammalii J titniqil min matrahha wala timshlsh 'ala rigleha 
tilaqiha / ara 1 manfukha : wi 1 wahid, iza kal lu agal 

we'umi'u tawil, yequm yequl fi 'aqlu ; " ya wad, da taiyib we 
hiy ummak kanit gat fi 1 khala ti'mil eh? Da lbatte, ya wad, 
il mezaiyara illi d nas yequlu 'aleha li." Witbussi tlaqi gismu 
ii-i.i-.il. wi rta'ash we gittitu kulliha 'as'asit. I" ba'den yakhud 
ba'du u yigri; wi tauwu ma giri titnattat warah zSyi 1 kura. 

iza kali htlwa y.iTat' yiijia > Sa mailn a walla ay it il Kur>i, 

we (jul tauiiu yiqra Rha we yigrj lamma yedtlr we yinfid minha 
bi qasabtdn talata ; we tauwe ma laqa nafsu bi'id 'anha yequl: 
" il hamdu li llab Rabbi] 'alamiu illi Elabbuna naggani minha 

•ala kln'r." Wi z.i kaii Wahid ma nat'adslie minha biqulu n na- 

yiqba - lha bizaz hadid, we yibqa Ilium shuwak wi t termisa 
beta'ithum z§yi 1 ibar; wi tauwe ma qarrab 'aleha linsan we ma 
yigrtah minha tequm tedummu 'ala sidriha, wi tbussi tlaqi Bh shu- 
wak dakhalil min sidru til'it min dahru, u ba'dSo yuqa' yemut. 

told me he met in the desert the form of an English soldier 
who fell while climbing one of the Pyramids. The eyes, he said, 
w ere " mewalla'ln z6yi □ nar." 

1 g ! 1... 

ibqa bj transposii i<m. 



THE SPOKEN AEABIC OF EGYPT 



XLII 

Fikr in nas lamma wahid yidrab wahid bi slab, ya'nl bi sef 
au bi sikkina, we yiqtilu yequm ir rih beW il maqtul yizhar fi 
s silah we yikhabbat fib yequl : " qatalni (fulan) " ; wi n kan is 
silah fi betu yequm till il lei yikhabbat fih yeqille n.6m ishab il 
b('t ; yeqiimii yishshakkvi li 1 qatil illi huwa r ragil betahhum wi 
yequlu lu : " Is silah beta'ak da till il lei ma ykhallinash lienam ; 
hatqille numna leh? Ma tshil silabak min hina, absan yigi 
wahid def 'andina wi yenam fi 1 lei fi qalb il bet, ya'ni yequm fi 
1 lei we huwa nayim yisma' takhbit is silah we yimkin il 'afiit 
yequl le inne fulan qatalni ; fi 1 ahsan bi 1 ahsan timna ; silahak 
min 'andina, ahsan id def lamma yisma' kalam ir rih yeruh 
yikhbir il hukuma. Nihaytu shuf lak tariqa, ya tirmi a silah da 
fi 1 bir ya fi 1 bahr ; il maqsud shuf lak tariqa timsh! 'alSha eye 
tariqt in kanit, ya immatan tegib baruda wi t'ammarha wi 
tidrabha fih yequm yitla* ir rih hittit bartiisha, wi 1 bartusha ya 
nwalla' biha furn, ya nirmiha fi 1 khala, wala hadde wala mahdud 
yequl 'alena haga wi n'ish salatin fi nafsina tul zamanna." 



VOCABULARY 



TO THE WORDS CONTAINED IN THE EXERCISES 
ON THE ACCIDENCE 



Part I. — Arabic-Exglish 



The following abbreviations are used in this vocabulary : — 



a. 
ad. 

c. 
col. 


stands for 


adjective 
adverb 
conjunction 
collective 


pr. 

prep. 

s. 

V. 


stands foi 
w 


pronoun 

-ition 
substantive 
verb 


comp. 




comparative 


v.i. 


5) 


verb intransitive 


f. 




feminine 


v.n. 


» 


\ erb neuter 


m. 




masculine 


v.t. 


n 


verb transitive 


part. 




participle 









Augab approach (time, season) 

ausakli dirtier 

auwil, auwiluni first 

abadan never, not at all 

abb father ; abuh his father; 

abftya my father 
abuk&tn lawyer 
abril april 
at&bi now, assuredly 
atwal longer 
agftza leave, holi>/ay 
agdad newer 
agrumtya grammar 
agzagj chemist 
aghuffufl august 
ahamsD more important 
aid it l».*t family 

■JlMD /■ ' 



178 



adS see here! adtnt, adiu hen I 

addi / give, "-ill give 
adwiya drugs (sing, dawa) 
aradi, pi. of ard 
axba.' four ; l 1 , (§ 110) 

ard i arth, [I run in I 

ardiya floor, g 

ark has chi "/■■ I 

azan li permit 
ast'alt asphalt 
a>t.iiil stable 
aaghar smaller 

'gin, original I 
aabshar mark (v.) 
a'd.'i i a, mies (pi. of 'adu) 

a Tad A/7. ; 
a'ina /.//««/ (a.) 



376 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



aqall less 

aqiil J say, will say 

aqum / get up 

aqwa stronger 

akal, kal eat 

akubb I pour, shall pour 

akun I shall be 

akbar larger, older 

aksab I gain 

akkid insist, impress 

akkil greedy, gluttonous 

akl eating ; food 

i i k was prettier, better 

akh fie ! 

akbir (a.) Zas^; (v.) Zreep back 

akhiz blame 

akbras deaf aivl dumb 



akhkb brother ; akbuh his 

brother 
akhkhar postpone 
alzam compel, hold responsible 
alf thousand 
al'an more accursed (mal'un), 

worse 
allif compose 
amar order, give orders 
an arrive (of a season) 
ana 1 

ani irhich ? what ? 
anis enteriain 

anliu, enbu which? what? 
a wan season, time 
ayis n'sA- (v.) 



E, eb what ? 

esb what ? 

efendi gentleman, sir 

emta when ? 



E 



en where; min 6n (minen) 

//■hence 
rwa, aiwa yes 
ey, eyiba whichever 



Ibrlq jug 
ib'ad remove 

iblagb inform. ; come of age 
ibn sow 

ibwab (pi. of bab) '/ot> / - s 
it'aggar 6e /e£ 
it'agas 6< annoyi d 
it'akkid be convinced 
it'akhkhar bi late 
itbauwish suca > d to 
it iiahis discuss 
itbarik be blessed, fortwnaU 
it 1 ■ .- 1 1 • t .- 1 1 be bribi d 
itbassim smile 
it I'.is-a- cala) play the spy 
itbashsbar be blessed with, 
lucky in 



itba"ad be removed, keep oneself 
away 

itball be wetted 
in.;>:il reach 

itt;\(|il 'ala sprak roughly to 
i 1 1 ,'i k i l b( <aten 
ittakbid be am ■ 
ittakhir stand back 
itiallit look with disdain 
it t a will, ittaub yawn 
it.'iwil. -ala assault, (d'use 
itgarr be pulled 
itgarrab In tried 
[pallid bi bound (l>ook) 
itgama', iggama' / up 

itgharbi] be sifted 
itffhasal /<< washed 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



.-.77 



itghasir be bold 
itghalab be conquered 
itgh&miz wink at one another 
ithauwa be aired 
ithabb be loved 
ithatt be put 
ithaggar be harsh, rough 
ithaddit chat 
ithassar regret 
ithash be kept off 
ithaffaz be in safe keeping 
ithaqqaq be verified 
itkakk be scratched 
ithamaq be quick tempered 
ithamal be earned 
i'hammil bear malice 
itrabba be brought up 
itrattib be arra 
itra<M In: />>// to (door) 
itraddid l aA& frequent (v.) 
itrazil 'ala blackguard (v.) 
itrafad, itrafat be dismissed 
itrat'as be kicfa d 
itrafa' In- / 

i, i„- riddi />. ■■ 
itrakkib be put up, fixed ></> 
itrama be thrown away 
itramm be repaired 
itrawa be irrig 
itsliataf. ishshafaf be chipped, 

broken off 
iteharab, ishsharab h irunk 
it'abad be worship \ 
ir-;iT;i In- given 
it'araf be knoum 
it'azam be invih d 
it'asbir aseocii 

tt'afra{ behaix Ufa '"/■ /"'«"S8ed 
it'allaq i« guspt nded 
it'&j i<i / In HI: "it- « if 'i dandy 

itfatah l»- <>p< n,,l 
itfahain //< tin 
itfadda] pray 
itfarrag i» $hown, A-"/.-, ■ 



itfassah take a walk 

itfassal be cut out (suit) 

itqaddim be advanced 

itqafal be locked 

itqala be f 

itqalab be upset 

itqalla be fried, scorched 

itqan perfect (v.) 

itkabb be spilt 

itkhabat be knocked, bumped 

itkhadam be served, waited on 

itkhasim waiya ha ence 

with 
itkbafa hide om 
itkhaffa disguise oneself 
itkhaniq quarrel 
itkhanqu they quarrelled 
itlamm be gatht red, colh cted 
itrnarragh roll (v.i.) 

- k be seized, caught 
itnaddaf be cleaned 
itnaq; 1 
itnen two 

itwagad be found, I 
itwaggih be turned (towards) 
itwahaa get 

itwahal I I, stuck 

itwahhash 

itwarib h slanted l put to (door) 

itwazao be weighed 

itwasaq i» laden 

itwaasal act as a go-h fireen 

itwalad bt born 

itqalab ask for oneself 

i\ tarrab i > com red, tilh I, with 

dust 
igtama' collect togt thi r (neut.) 
iggaddid be rent 
igga'maf bt puffed up with 

pride 

,.<• /„ collected 
igradd g I fa U d 
igwai doubU ( v. | 



378 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



igwaz (pi. of goz) 

ighriba (pi. of ghurab) crows, 

/Vn/,:-< 

ighmaqq become dark (colour) 

ihtag, ihtawag beg 

ihtar, ihtar l» j bewildered 

ihtaram honour (v.) 

ilit iram respect (s.) 

ihrima (pi. of hiram) blankets 

ihsan, ahsan show charity 

ihmarr turn red 

i 1 1 ri . i we 

id ha 

idda he gave; iddant he gave 

iddat she gave 
iddahdar be rolled 
iddarwish nsh 

idda'a pretend; idda'a 'ala 

accuse 
iddakhil interfere 
iddan tall to prayer 
iddawa be treated medically 
iddayin min be made a debtor 

by, ouh 
idd&yiq be pressed, \ 
i<l'l-'-t /, you, gave 
i'Mini give me 
idddh they gave it, him 
idyar (pi. of d§r) convt nts 
irl aga' min n noun 
irtadd be put to (door) 
irtada consi nt 

irta'ash tremblef be frightened 
irtafa' bt raised 
irtakan 

irghifa | pL of rightf) loaves 
irmadd </< / ophthai 

iriai Ihmir (imp. ) 
i/a if 

i radd g< t flush* d 
izraqq becomt blue 
izzahlaq slip (v.) 
izzey h 



izhar bring to light 
isbinsa, sibinsa pantry 
istaulid beget generations of 

children 
istabda liegin 

Lstabrak be blessed, find lucky 
istab'ad find too far 
istatqal consider heavy, severe 
istatwil nafsu hold one's I, 

high 

Lash consider a donkey 
i pab be astonished 
istaghraq be drowned 
istaghlib ■ red 

istaghmar consider a donkey 
istahza' make fun of 
istahil dest 

istahsio food 

istahfaz 'ala protect, guard 
istalikim dorm 
istahla find <iceet 
istahmil last, ■ 

istadrag 'ala ■/> t i nd 

istarzaq get ont 's U 
istar&ad li waylay 
istarkhas consider cheap 
ista'/.iu at -ion 

istazraf o . ■■>od 

Istas iiil fin ■' ■ asy 
istasma 'an inquirt nam* 

?ghar a 'ill, too 

small 
LBtaahbid ■; t n at 
i>ta-ta take {drinks, drugs, <yc.) 
vs\ /gib ■'• ast ■■ i ' 

i.-taT.i! ■ '/iiittntar 

istafhim inqn ■ 
istafragh omit ; find empty 
istaqbil n 
istaqrab find, 

istakiuil /• fin 

istakhbar ;/•/ m we from 
istakbdim bt ■ mpl 



ARABIC-EN< JLISB 70< SABTJLARY 






istak j \.) 

tstalaf bo 

[stambfll Stamboul, Oonetanti- 

istamlik acquit ■■■ of 

istanzi] dedud ; * 'an) rem 
istanna • 

ipe, he 

roo/:> d 

ike priso 

•'nt 

Lsl ihaqq d 

a oath, (h 
istihamma take a bath 
istihbab chumming together 
istidall inquire 
Lsti'add idy 

istiqan 
istiqall, istaqlil 

ill 
Lstilaqqa catch, 
istikann seek bTu 

i-tiln : 

i 

■ IjH ,1 

i — .- » 1 - : 1 1 1 lord it 

'' /• let go, • - ■ 
[gkandartj Iria 

Lskandaran! ' sham' 

■ null* .< 

Lakoshrakil racquets 

ism n 

Lsman by ■ 

iftwadd turn bl 

igw&q j j-l. of >'';<) | 

iswid 

ooi 



issadif chance to rm ■ t 

isaaraf be apt nt 

isfarr turn //• UotD 

isinarr turn bl\ 

ishtaghal be busy, work 

ishtara buy 

ishtarak tnership 

LshtarSt / bought 

ishtai u //<< ij bought 

Lshtiri buy (imp. » 

ishtirinna ( = ishtiri Una) buy 

for us 
isnshahid aj pon ntly 
ishshahin wra 

[] 
ishsharmaf bt turn 
isii.-li.'ikil quarrel 
i'tazar meself 

mad trust, n ly . 
i'lan, alai 

i'mam pL of 'amm) 

it'tah ojh n (imp. i 
iftarad /•• ■'■ . 
iftaqar &< c 
iftakar imagvm , th 
ifrangl A'»/-.y 
ifqai 'sh 

iqtad '//// 

•'' (imp. i ; /''//' (//<•/,• /) 
iqfij shut (imp. ) 
ikram, akram //■<<>/ trt'fA Ac 
ikkal]imu they tall 
ikmiiiii 

ik lit ar. iklit.-'ir chOi 
ikhtalaf be contradictory 
ikhtamar i -■ {dough) 
Lkhtiyar old 
ikliklii pugh .' ugh .' 

ikliw , 

ikliw.'iu broth* 
Libia put mi (imp, ) 
iltafal ati 
iltamm /■ gat) 
ilia e/ j \ 



'.80 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



illi vho, which 

ilwan (pi. of Ion) colours 

imbeiator emperor 

imratu his wife 

imkan, amkan be possible 

iubabat 'ala gaze at 

inbadal be changed 

inbarasb be pulled asunder, 

split; sprawl 
inbarib, imbarih yesterday; 

auwil inbarib the day before 

yesterday 
inbas be hissed 
inbasat, inbasat hepleased (min ) 

' "Joy 
inball be wetti d 
inbana be built 
inbisat, inbisat enjoynu nt 
intaqab he pierced 
intaqan be done with \ precision 
intaJa, imtala be Jill* d 
intafa be > x fin gui shed 
intawa he folded, bent 
ingadal be "plaited 
ingarah 6i wound* d 
ingarr tab oneself off 
ingazz be shorn 
ingazar, ingazar be slaughtered ; 

/>, tortun d t mentally) 
inga'ag /</>///</<• 
ingama' h, colli cted 
ingharaf be dislu d up 



Ingliz English 

inglizi English 

inhabas be imprisoned 

inbaras be guarded 

inbasha he stuffed 

inhasbsb he mourn 

inhabit he loved 

inhalab he milked 

irularr feel oneself injured 

Lnzad inert ast . rise 

inzalat be swallowed 

insabagh /»_ dyed 

insaraq he, it. mis robbed 

insawa be cool'" I 

insarr be pleased 

Lnshal be carried away 

inshirah g ■ 

in'araf be known 

inqatal be hilled 

inqalab turn over (neat.) 

inkabb bepourt'/. -<jiilt 

inkatab /» written 

inkasar hr broken, he hw 

inkasaru they wen broken 

inkbabaz be bo. 

inkbadd bt fright- 

inmasak, immasak 

inn that (c): innulnun that 

tic y 
innaiiia '.'■••> j>t that, only that 
i\ak that 

iyain. iv/un (pi. <>t' j 





' .'. 1. 1 room 



his 
ugar (pi. "t" ugra) 
ugra /-'.v. hio 
inltu, udtu ( oditu) hit 
(Jrubba Kurojn 



urublia\'\i 

limp.) 

uqai ttoj < imp, > 

uq'ud sit, imp.) 

nkt 



AJRABU ENGLISB 70CABULAKY 



38! 



akra d 

nkht - 
ukhtu 
fila Jhtt (f.) 

uiniii n <>ther 



niiiiiii //", 

uwad, awad (pi. of 

TOO 



B 



Baaw&b •/■ 
bauwar /< ace /<//• 

ghi 

J'"' 

li.itii 

bahlaw&D prettier 
liter 

Ualil • //; 

bahr - 
li.iliri north 
bada I 
badrl 

. 
baha'im, l>.ih;'iviin 

pencil, Ac. ) 

i 

baraqit // liyh ' 
,i- (pi, of barq 

1..11.1U. pi of b 

li:'u id cold 

b&rik li congratulati . barik ti 
barbai t, berber 



bargiii 

bard cold (s.) 

barda'a d 

bardn 

barra out ; bil&d bai i 

barr&ni i 

barrik rnafa / 

I y/'// | 

barwiz/, 

v. ) 

ba.-k.c. 

. 

bash 
bashbisb • 

" 

li.'i'u • 

ba'd after; ba'de bukra ///<• 

■ 

ba'd 

. 

1 >.'u i i 
l)a«|(|a! 
I 'a kht /;/<•/, 
Kaklikli .-, 



382 



ARABIC-EXGLISH VOCABULARY 



balakdn, balkdn balcony 
balta axe 
baltu overcoat 
ballas, ballasi jar 

hi Hat />are 
balla'a sink, drain 
ballon, balloon 
ballu /-(?//, '/-/• 
ban appear 
bana A?///-/ 

banati (pi. of bintu) />>ij>o1eon? 
banu ///- // /'«/// 
bantufl, banl ulli >7//<y" rs 
bantal&n trousers 
bank //a///,- 
banna builder 
bayad "■///'• . «ZoMr 

bayin, bf-yin a/j . appar- 

ent, appan ntly 
ouse 

ging to, of 
lirli (pi. behawaM ) 
b£d ej7.^8 ; b$da a»i 
berstm, barsim ctow r 
beyikkallim A- /■< speaki 
beyic (baiyin) explain, ■ xpos( 
bi, be, l'u. j'n, //■////. A// 
bitt ( bint) : /<V/, daughter 
bitshawish -•A/-/' constable 
bitqul 

bitna (b£l oa) ">//• fa 
bighal (pi. of baghl i mules 
bidal rVw/< ' 
bid pi. of abyad | 
l.iiltri, for I. .'.li'.'n (§§ 11. 17, 



blr a well 

blra ; 

birid gretf eo&Z, eafcA cold 

birka pomi, /"/,•> 

birwaz picture frame 

bizr si 

bisilla /" is 

bi'ld/ar, distant 

bi't 1. 

blqul A' s 

l>iki ,. 

liikhil rft» 

bilad(pl. of balad) founts, a'-' 

bilyardu billiards 

bimb - •'/ 

binaya building 

bint _'////, daughU r 

biyut (pi. of 1" ' 

buda' 

burtuqan onw 

burda, burda 

mostly in Upper Egypt 
burqu* > // (s.) 
burners fori 
busa{ '-'ifj'-t 

luitlVh .-7</< htninl 
lmki 

bulls, bul - 
bulla) /,■ 
bunduqiya </'./< 
buya patnJ 
1 »i- i t i — , berii 
burnittak 
11, 17. 
bifid fi bilad 



T.niw ib ceutsi ' 
tali rap< ni 

ta| 'iui va Hnation 

erchant i <•<>»>- 



■ 
• 

ta'hu •: 
taliu U / 



ARABIC-ENGLISH V< K A I'.TJLARY 






tarabfea I 

■itei-pret 
targumai) m/< rpreU r 

ta/.k i 

tiizyir clothing oneself in 

Tasu iva -•<• 

taalth 

■ 

tashrli •_ monies 

(imp.) 
' 
ta"ab 

itely 

"!'• I'M 
'"J 
takhu : 

tikliinin : hi t tiklnnin at a 
i imately 
:. talata, thr& 

• ligraf telegrai 

. 

talmiz .- •/. 

■ 

tamalll " 

■ 

tamn 

•In (pi. <»f tanbil) 

tanbil, tanbal . 1 * i 1 /<> 



tangtd carding, making 

tresses, .. 
tandtf cleaning 
tannu, tannita / 

tanniha, &c (§ 218) 
tawahan wool gatJu 
t»'ki'm you wiU be 

•.\ </•>// if. will be 
tenam 
tibqa sfu 
titakhbtt >■ 

_ 
tigharbil si 

1 Lhassal .»•/,. 

lira 

ti'il> 

ti'lian snah 

ti'raf, ta'raf you kn 

tiffafa apples ; tiffaha 

beqtl a 

tikliiii -//•(*'/• thick 

t i 1 i 111 get >'/ nut 

tilt n thiol 

tiwaddj ■<!>■ 

tiyatru ///■ 

t6b -// 

tul ilia lt> r 

Turk bil&d it 

Turk / 
fcnq'ud you fit 

tukliaii (pi. of t ik hi ii ) thick 

tumn mi eighth 
tramw&y tram 



turn* ii 
taliakl 
taliikl lish 



■ 



584 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



tasa howl 

tabbii 'ala they fell upon, at- 
tack'.* I 
tata bend down 
fcarabeza table 
tarak bear fruit 
taraq knock 
tarawa /'/'> 
fori fresh. 
tarbush ft z 
taza fresh 
ta'us peacock 
ta"am vaccinate 
taffa, tafa extinguish 
taffish drive away 
taqtaq explode 
taqni suit 
fcal n acJi 

talabu they demanded 
talib asking 



tall overlook 

talla', tallah he took out, away ; 

imp. take out, away 
t alia 'it she pulled out 
tallaq he dirorced 
talyani Italian 
tawa fold (v.) 
tamar bear fruit 
tawil lon<j, tall 
tayir flying 
tili' ,'/o o«f. w_p 
tiLu they went up 
timi' fi oo 
tt'ir /'//// 

tuba the bill Coptic month 
turshi pickles 
till height, length ; tul il the 

whole 
tulu' ascent, rising, departing 



G 



ga', gih come 

ring 
gabit gfte brought 
gabti //Vy brought 
gabbar <v>/< / 
gabbis ;//■'"'• /<•>/-■/. ;/'•/ hardened 

gat >//' C077W 

gahiz ready, r<-<vly 
g&hil ignorant 
gahhiz /'/• < 
gada' fine ft How 

ighbour 
gara // /"'/</<■ 
garah mmthi < v.) 
gar '-. garaz ft< // 
gardal fctcfa / 
gam "'//,•<■ /•//» 
garnal publish, w\ . fa a 

gary a rimming 
«_r . \ x. : i punish 



gazz »7iear 

gazzar, gazzar butcher 
gazma pair '/ feoofe, sAoes 
gazmagi sh 
gass sound (v.) 
ga'an, gi'an }tun</ry 
gakhkh £o2Ac ///</, I 
galsa sitting 
gallab slam 
gallabiya gown 
gallid bind 
gamal camt / 
gain ill hard, strong 
garni* 

gamfls buffaloes . gamfl 
buffalo 

tin>) 

gammas ; \ffal 
gammal vmel d 
gammid h i 
gana'in, ganayio i pi 



AKAI.H ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



385 



lener 
ar 
tad 

■ '■:/■ 

gawamls (pi. of gamfls) 

geb p 
g / 

vrmy 
<ribt /. you, brought, have 

light 

<_'itt:i 

gib he ra. . 

giha 

gid&p foundation, low nail 

gdild, <_ f edid new 

gidri • 

gid'an (pi. of gada') 

giri run 

gizamati eh 

gisr 

gild leather ; gilda , 

/' '///^ /•. 
gilgil small bell 



gimla, gumla total quantity. 

nun 
gimid get hard 
gineh pouwl (money) 
ginena go. 

ginninfa ;/■ ru ml (<,.) 
gdz husband 
oalnuts 
goza 

itn. gum M<e>/ c«?/?6 
gudad, gud&d (pi. of L r i<lid) 
gurual,/" 
guztu his 

guzha her husband 
gu' liuihi' r 
gu'r&Q .«-'irab 

gumudiya, bardic - ^ss 

gumruk custom-house 
guinruk-lii eustom-houi 
gam'a 7 >ek 

Lri'nva in, * 
guwar environs 
gninl _ niti) 



(ill 



( ihabbar th 

(a.) 
ghadS /"/."'A 
gharb, gh 
ghasaJ eoosA 

.It /. you, washed 
ghaal] 

}_'lia .;/' 

ghasl 
gbala 

ghall 

juer 
i rally 



ghalwa, gbalya a boiling 
gbaxtag 6< >A//. 

rich 
ghanna sing 
gbam 
ghaw 
gh&ya - W 

^'lirt //'</'/ 

miii gher without 

ghtt&D (pi. 
ghiriq 
ghirqum ' 

L'liili 



ARABIC-EXGLISH VOCABULARY 

be conquered, 



ghilib, ghulub 

worsted 
ghiyar a changing 



Hat bring (imp.) 
hah HUle,feio 
hadad a demolishing 
hadd demolish 
harab /fee, ran away 
harabti they fled 
haram pyramids 
liana lni/,yiness 
liidi heroine docile 



ghurilb west 
ghulut err 
ghuna a singing 



H 



hawa wind, air, atmosphere 

hidiya present, <jift 

hidma garrm nt 

hilik parish 

hina here 

hiya she 

humma they 

huwa, huwa (huwwa) lie, it 



Ha, ha sign of future 
haiyar perplex 
hauwish hoard up 
habara kind of <-/nak 
habas imprison 
habb /or" (v.) 
hahl i-'ifn' 
hatta i uere, //«/// 
batt /////* 

for batita putting (f.) 
h;itt;ii> icood-outter 
l.i.'tf (<'t A i/ou, put 
hattu ///< v /<>// 

haga thing, something 

hagar stone 

hagg pilgrim 

bagg V "// pilgrima 

hadaf throw 

b&diq >'///, /■/■ti>-/:>*h 

hadd sol - wftty . lihadd 

a 1,1 i I 
haddid bounds limit 
badu . (pi hadrtn) 

haddai 1 prepare, bring 

liar //"/ 

haraq /<>//•// 



haram wrong, 

ha rami robtier, i 
bariqa ///r 
harba /a/zee 
harbiya //•<//• o$ce 
hair //<<//, fatf 
hazz ' ///.<< 

hasab ; 'ala hasab ae ■■<>nlinij in 
hasana charity, alms 
hasib .<'///'' //•//// ; (imp.) fan 
mind 

hasal //'/y///- R 
hasira ///«/ 
hassal /•• ,/ -h 

hash /' 

hashish ;,- 

haslish ./// gran, >>Wir 

hashwa stuffing 

liat'a -/ .■•-;/;/ ; 

liatiz look a 

haffad moJa loam byhetsri 

baqtqa //•////; 

baqq t uth, right 

haqqaq verify 

hakim 



A i: A UK-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



38; 



halan immediately 

hala wiiii • r 

lialla pot 
hama pr< 

hamilt mother-itirlaui 
hamar red, Hour 

hamaqa fu Jishness 
ham >yns 

ham.] 

hammar donkey-hoy 
1 lain main bath 
hammil load (v.) 
lunula load (s.) 
halia 

Lanak mouth 
hantur victoria 
hannin cause to pity 
hawal squint 
hawali'n around 
haw 

hawit surround 
■,ill 

chat ever 
hekimdar commandant 
hilir ink 

( pi. of hitta) 
hitta piece of land 

'.' 

>tli 
higgag (pL of b 
hidashar, hidashar, 1 l_i ■ 

ih'larihai • 



hiilir appear 

hiziu be sad 

hisab account 

hifna handful 

h\h. , :. protecting 

hikava .-terry 

hikma wisdom 

hilw e 

himlr (pi. of humar) 

himu heat 

himm& fever 

hinnlya compassion, 

lawful animal 

hdd tank 

hosh enclosure 

hubb Zor<? 

hutt jwd (imp.) 

hugara (pi. of hagar) 

huduqiya go&ti 

hurras (pi. of harisj 

dians 
'hurma woman, lady 
huaaj [far 

lius'tu forae 
hu si- 
ll ufra liole 
hukuma govt m 
hul (pi. i if ahwal) .-■jiiiii'- 

huxn&r, him&i donkey 
hunrad </■ t sour 
humr (pi. <if ahmar) 



J> 



1 >a this 

lai)in charge wi&i a debt 

r, dauwar turn ; ('ala) 

dabbiafa / tch rubble 
dabb nng 

ilabdar roll (v.t.) 
dahhal 

ilk about 



'ass 
h dt rvisJi 
dashsb crushing 
dafa' . 

dafi' ('an) protect 
daft 
daffa 
■ 



388 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



daqq heat, pound, mash; play 

(music) 
daqn beard ; chin 
dakbal enter 
dakhalu they entered 
dakbkbal he brought, put, in 
dakbkhan smoke (chimney) 
dall (*ala) indicate 
'dawakh, dauwakh make giddy 
dawaya inkpot 
del tail 
dt this (f.) 
yWhhkn. flies 
dihik laugh 
dibk laughing 
(lira' arm 

disambar December 
diqiqa minute 
dikka bench 



dilwaqt, dilwaqti now 
diinagh brain, head 
diwan office, ministry, compart- 
ment 
diyana religion 
dob ; dobak, ya dob scarcely 
d.61 these, those 
dubara siring 

dugbri straight, straightway 
durg drawer 
duk-bamma those 
dukkar dog-cart 
dukkan shop (f.) 
dukbul - idnj 
dulab, ddlab cupboard 
dun low 

dungulawi native of Dongola 
dunya, dinya world ; weather 
dra' = dira' 



D 



Dab' hyena 

dahr back 

darab he struck, beat, rami (a 
bell), fired (a gun); darab 
biiya he painted ; darab balta 
he took a stroll 

.I: ir. i bit she struck 

darabu they stroke 

darabnah we struck him 

darb striking ; blow 

darba a blow 



darr injure, hurt 

da'if weak 

da Sla' waken 

daman guarantee, insure 

def guest 

dirs molar tooth 

dimn among 

divui (pi. of diM) 

diibiV (pi. of dab') 

(lu'f weakness 

(lufr fimji r-nail 



li 



Ra'a 

ra'af be clement, ex 

. ill go away 
rabat tie, hind 
nili.iiu they fasti ru I, tied 
rabdh plane 
rabb Lord, lord 
rabba bring up 



l;il»t:i 

i-'lmI man 

i 27) 

light back, re- 
tur 
ragba 

raghwa froth . 
, r&hii 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



- 



rah he went 
they went 

radd give back, return; put to 
(a i 

radaw.-i depravity 

razaq pon, bless with 

rasm tax 

ras head; ras is sana New 
Year's day 
bl = il astabl 

ia>ras tn mble (from cold) 

rassas place in a row 

ra'a t- ttch ; chas- 

tise 

i.i -a 'lit it thundi 

ra'ra' ;/■ / fresh and green 

rafagu they kicked 

rafraf splashboard of carriage 

rait' .-//• //■' 

raqaba neck 

raqabiya collar 

raqad lie down 

raqaa <ttnce 

raqid //////;/, //,<>. 7 *7/ 

rakil' 

rakk TOMJ (v.) 

rakha 

rakhrakh too 

he tlir> w 
1:1 in it s?u threw 



ramu ///<;<// threw 
rami xarcd 
ramm repair 
rani] m?'/ (v.i.) 
rawa water, irr 

r't ; ya iV-t would that I 
rigi' fte returned 
rigi'na we retu 

(pi. of ragil) 

lit (§33) 
rig] /ootf 
riha s7/2e/Z (s.) 
ridi accept, '■••n*ent 
ridlt / consented 
rizq mst< nance 

risi reach; come to a/jreement 
rif vittagi . country 
riq saliva 
rikib /•/</'■ 
rikliu /7*?y rocfe 
i-ikliis cheap 
rubat fytw^ 
rubb&wi European 
ml)' quarter 
rulit /, yo», iflettf 
ruzz 

rus (pi. of 
ruffif (pi. of raff) 
riikn 



Zatra ' ■■• (v.t.) 

in, Baba'in (pi. of 
zabtLn) 

•, c7t< rri 

i '/// 

■ ■ ■ 

'li:i, /.iralilia ."■ .-•""• -/ 
/a'nl 



zaketta ja 

/i man A)/-./ fl^O 

• i ml m1 basket, ham \ 

•propi rlij 

/.irfi'at CTttpS 

/i'il ■!< t angry 

I I 



390 



ARABIC-EXGLISH VOCABULARY 



Zabit officer 

zalrir clear 

zahr flower 

zabra Hue (for washing) 

zalani ivrong (v.) 



zann tMrik 

zubbat (pi. of zabit) 

zughannan, sugbattat tiny 

zubiir (pi. of zabr) 

zur force, forgery 



S 



Ba' harm (v.) 
sa'al ask 
sauwah tourist 
sabab reason 
sabat basket 
sabiq race with 
sabt Saturday 

sab' //on 

sabqa ram 

saggan c/aoh r 

sagh; qirshe sagh tariff piastre 

sadd A/*"-/,- (v.) 

saddaq 6< / 

saraq sfeoZ, ro& 

saraqfi ///< y *fote 

sarg, serg saddle 

sa'a strive, help 

sa'a watch; sa'a . . . sa'a .- 

fames 
sfi'ati watchmaker 

S.'l'i'l //>//, 

safar jbum / (s.) 

safir //■" y. »tar< 

sa£b t /, //"", //•'?/• //■ d 
safril •-■//- //•'"•' Ked 

sat'rA ///'// //vf- //. ./ 

saqqa* watt r-ca 
eakar mate drunk 
Baku overcoat 

sakk A)--/,- (v.) 

sal /^'"' "' 

;//«, ///;</ , w i | 
• </// 
>.i 11 it' /. //•/ 



sallim deliver ; sallim 'ala sa- 

sallimit sfte eft // 

saxaakJisJi 

samih pardon (v.) 

sana year 

sanadgi trunk-maker 

sandiK| 

sawa togetfu r 

sayasi (pi. of slsl) 

sayia groom, manage 

sryalj, saiyali 

seyibu, they It t go 

seyibt, saiyibt /. you, I 

Bibtl fountain 

sibtimbar S 

sitara curtain, window bUnd 

sitt lady, grandmotht r 

sitt, sitt: i six 
sitra coat 

cigarette 
da i-aipet 
Bign / 
sid A*/-./, w 
sMi'ri fraM 
sirlr b ■/■*■.'• 
sirdar, sidred&i 
cWe/ 

Bifartya jounu y, Wp 

sikak (pi. of sikka) 
Bikil 

sikir »/'/ d 
sikin 6e /';///■! 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



391 



sik!-: 

.sikkin, sikkina knife 
sillim steps, ladder; sillima one 
step 

(s.) 
simih bright, smiling 
siini- hear 
simin grot 
sim'u they heard 
Binls (pi. of .-ana) 
Sinn 

tin 



subft' (pi. of sab') 

a sixth 
sftd (pi. of iswid) ■ 
suq market 

sufra dining-table 

.; table-servant 
sukkar sugar 
sukkaiiya sugar bat 
sukhuna, sukhuniya/erer 
sukhn A"/ 

D sultan 



B 



Saiya'l, s.'-yVl fisherman 
pabl youth, <i. , 
sabbar 

pagara a tree 

^atiin / •'/?■ r ; sabb 

ili) il l><'t landlord 
snliili //(/ . 
salulia fru& 
sahli 
sahh . 

1 
sar.ikh gftrti k (v.) 

■dt 
kiI; (v.) arrange 

prayi >■ 

■ra "■//)'/ -room 

salili 

yalla prop 

8.illat in 



sallah />e repaired 
pallahu //i^y repaired 
tray 

si'-f summer 

sihi to 

sihir (siliir) .<// ?//•, >ratrh 

- 

>ulia' finger 

subh imirniii'i ; is subh 

>ulyan (pi. - ) 
sutuli 

pugunda a 

sujiiiiyar .-//<«// 
pughr '7/// 

suiainati cobbler 

siirui- 
sufra • 

su.pit faU (v.) 

suinr (pL i 'Town 



thin 



SB 



IMA (v.) 

:i. si i .'vali for - 

>liai ■ 



slial'.ili r- 
slialiaka in f 

slmlili young 

slial.i 



392 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



shatam insult (v.) 
shatim insult one another 
shatir clever (pi. shuttar and 

sbatrin) 
shagar trees; shagara a tree 
shag!' bold 
sbahid witness (s. ) 
shahhil hurry (v.) 
shabr month 
shahat beg 
shadd he pulled 
shara.1) stocking, sock 
sharat tear (v.) 
sharad run away 
shari' street (pi. shawari') 
sharik take into partnership 
sharba draught 
shart condition 
sharr wickedness 
sharraf honour (v.) 
sharqaw! native of the provina 

of Sharq 
sba'ir poet 
sha'r TiazV 

sha'lil /'///•>•/' info flames 
sliaf Tie saw 
shaqi unruly 
shaqq fissure, crevice 
shak§ta /ac/a / 
shakftsh hammer 
shakk cheque 
shakwa complaint 
shal />■' carried, took away 
shalti ///< v caj 

Sham : bilad ish Sham SynVi 
Bhamasl *>ui.</i<i<1>\ umbrella, 

shutter 
ahambanya chanq i 
shams (f,) sun 



sham'a candle 

sham'idan candlestick 

shamm s?rae7J (v.t.) 

shammam water-melons 

shanab moustache 

shanaq Twrea 

shanta &aa, portmanteau 

shankal hook 

shawahid apparently 

shawish constable 

sha'if, shayif seeing 

slir thing 

shgtan Satan, <levil 

sbeya'u they sent 

shibbak wi 

shitwa, shita winter, rain 

shihid mtn< --■ (v.) 

shidld, shed id violent 

sbidda viol 

shiddiya robustru ss 

shirib drink 

shirik accomplice, partner 

Bhiribt /, you, drank 

sbivbu they drank 

shHr barley 

shil take away (imp.) 

shQf a 

sh&ka fork 

shugh] work, business ; shughla 

shuhhad (pi. of shahid) 
shurh drinking 
Bhu'ara < pi. of sha'ir) 

slmft /, //<»/, MM0 

shuqay (pi. of shaql) 

Bhukall quid trr% I- 

slnill horse cloth 
Bhuwaiya a ; t>le 



'aiya E/niM 

• ii\ i' [ft ■ p 

n /// 



•aiyid 'ala 

'ai\ il <•/(//»/ 

'.■mi/, 'air wanting 



ARAIJK '-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 






'an- t ,/in (v.) 

'auwart you damaged 
'auwaq ! 

• lishonour, be dishonour 

':il>l,i/7'// 

Vila it 

in thirsty 

•le 
ins 
yiz (pi. of 'agfiza) 
■1 dough 

■ igfLza old woman 

'ada cust 

'adda cross 

'add fee bit 

'arabi Arab, Arabic 

'arabtya carriage 

*arag, 'urug ; - la 

yis (pi. of 'arfisa) 
'arid broad 
'firid 

/e) 
'arik ///? 

'azab tor 

'azzib tortun . punish 

ir (pi. of 'askai i) 

'aakarl .-•<//,//, ,- 

7,- (pi. 'i: 

>// ////•</, spat r 

■ 

'asl for, 6eca 

■ashwa dinner, supper 

. 

•al-li /</;/•,' 

•aql understa 
'ala ik (il) 



•akis annoy, tease 

<al ^ 'ala il 

• .1 /v-ry good, first 

'ala o?;, fo, a/, o/, a&owtf 

'alam /'<7rZd 

'all //''////, /owd 

'alig A'"//, attend 

'aliq, ; a 1 Tiq /ocfefer 

'alqa a thrash 

'allaq 7?a«f/ wp, ptd /o. attack 

'allim teach; ('ala) 

'am x//7//; , 7? oa£ 

'amal fa '//•/. made, has done, 

'ainalha i 

'amalt /, yaw, 

'amil £rea£ 

'amm paternal uncle 

'amma paternal aunt 

'amnauwil last 

'an from, than ; = 'ala ii 

•and a£, Ay • 

'andak //"// have 

'aii<li / //• 
Miikabut q 
'anwin </>/,/,'.<.•< (v.) 

'a win .■ 

'avir reproach 

'6ah /'/-ea</ 

■ 

vyar /•''/••/ o/ basket 

•il'\ (pi. of -al'aya ) 

'itir stumble 

' i t T : i 7no<^ 
'itU <neeze 

xtival, holiday 
'irif //• 

nu 
•irit't /. you, /,7/« //•, y 

(pi. nf v • 
'irshan (pi. of Parish) 

'isbrtntya ?i 



394 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



'ilm knowledge 

'imi qet blind 

'iwadma instead of (with verbs) 

*iyi get ill 

'oza need 

'utaqi robbler 



'uturat perfwn 

'flga, '6ga (f. of fewag) crooked 

'urban (pi. of 'arab) 

'ukkaz crutch 

'uniad (pi. of 'umda) 

'umr age 



F 



Fa, fi, fe but, however, and 

fairwit hi pass 

t'jt j iss, leave 

fatab open (v.) 

fatahu they <>i>imed 

i'atit she passt d 

tatih opening, open 

la 1 ma I In // passt 'I 

fatla piece of airing 

fatatri pastry-cook 

fagr dawn 

fabbim give to understand, in- 
form 

fakm coal 

F&di empty 

Fadda w7»< r 

fadl : min fadlak A// gfOW /■ 
kindly 

far mouse, ra£ 

farab wedding f .-•// 

Far i'_'i poulten r 

faraq separati (v.) 
1 1 empty 

fariq part from, /■ • 

Farrag 'ala s/ 

Fai i mi • /,--/■ 

Farsb /" • /, 2x dding 

I'm kli:i 
fas (f.) 

ib ///^/,-' , 
(v.t.) 
fasqiya/o 

• «l -•>// .-«/ (elol 

t'a'il workman 
faqti j 



fakahani fruiterer 
f;ik-h& f)*uit 

fakk unfasten ; (s.) untying 
fallah cultivator, fellah 

fan el la 

fanus /«//// /// 

fayavnia ()>1. of favumi) 

f&yit passing 

t'avuin ;/' f//e .Fay 

frll /// 

fi, fi «'n 

fibrayir February 

fitir ;/- / /»/'/'/ 

fitir break the fast, breakfast 

fitibc pastry 

fih in it. Him, thert is, an 

fihim vii'lrrstand 

fidil n main 

l'nur a /• - /'/';/ 

firaii (pi. Of f;'ir) 

li'l d 

fikr i 

linik phenie (add) 

finu _////•■ 

F6q on, up, 

FoqanJ hi 

fui t /. . />ft 

fl'lta / 

fin ur /'/> akfast 
futt.-n For fi 

17) 

furnina i ur <>i>en 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 






fusha 

fulan such a one 

fulus mot 



fulftka skiff 

Fran- 1 
'suit 



Q 



Q: i hail seize 

qabil 

qabilt / 

qabb 

qabbil go -<ntth 

qabl be/on ; qablem 

(with verbs) 
qatal hill 
qa| ict 

I 
qat ; cutting, cutting >>fr' (s.) 
qah&wl (pi. of qahwa) 
qahwa 

J/7W (v.) 

qadir 

q 

qu'lil limit, 

■ 

qada do, / - y 

qftdl / 

qadlya affair, ■ 

i (v.) 

qarili 

/ hi/ 
qarl f saddle 

qarrab apj . • «*•■/< 



qafil shutting, shut 
qafal gfcd 

qila/V// 

qala 4 £a&e ojf, extract 

qalb ^ar# 

qal- extruding 

qal'a efta 

qalam j* /<■ ; qalamha /<■ 1 

qalam ruga? feod y • 
qam & /-ose 
([•uiiar, qamara //e-orm 
qamis sfota 
qamfis dictionary 

ra bridge 
qawam quickly 
q.'iwi w /-y 
qawil 
qibaf (pL of qibti) 

qibil -( 

gil.ri ' 

qibli - 

qidir At- << 

qira\ ■ (s ) 

qirsh, qersh jTuufr qirshgnat 

vriff piastre (2yd.) 
qixasa botth 

qilla .-farcify 

qtma amount, aafa . 1 

qiniiib tirinr. In m/> 

qiy&m starting, departun 

iti<m 

in (pi. of qu llm) 
qudan 
qudum 



396 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOC ABULA 1 1 Y 



quddam in front of, before 
quda, qudah (pi. of qadi) 
qurus be stung 
qusaiyar short 
qusad opposite 
qu'ad sitting (s.) 



qfil say, suppose (imp.) 

quit I, you, said 

qumash stuff 

qunsul consul 

qunsulata consulate 

quwa (quwwa) strength, power 



Kabb pour 

kabbar naisu give oneself airs 

kabrit matches 

katab write 

bt 1 wrote 
katabna we wrote 
katib clerk 
kattar increase, make much : 

kattar kherak thank you 
katm concealing 
katma closen ess (< \ f a ir) 
kahh cough (v.) 
kaddab liar 
kaddib give lie to 
karat' 

kartin 'ala put into quarantine 
karsba hurrying (s.) 
kaza so and so 
kasar break 
kae irfina saua pan 
kasarti tJu y broke 
kassar break to pieces 
kasflil grow lazy 
kasban losing 
kashaf 

kalam word, talk 

kalftn lock 

kalb dog ; kalbu ft is dog 

kalbitfin 

kalt /. you, " / ' 

kaiu how mttch / how many} 

kaman, kemAo too t also, still 

kamiii 



kan he u-as 

kanabe sofa 

kanas sweep 

kanit she was 

kanu th> y 

kann cover, shelter (v.) 

kaniln not 

kawalini locksmith 

kawalingi 

keinn as though 

!• much, very : k( •;nna 
kede so, f&vs, /usi 
kelubb eZ«o 
kibir grow big 
kiblr, kebtr A/-/, "/</ 
Id tab A.,,./,- 

kitaba writing (s.) 
kdtabkhana ///< 
kit f sAou2 

kidb/ false 

kilab (pL Of kalb) 

kdm 

kuliar (pL of kibtr) 

kul> i 
kubb 
kubr 

kutbt ( ■ r 

fox kuut 

kulil (a.) 

hip 

ku- 



AHABIC-ENGLISH V0< A i . t T, 






kul r 

kull all : kulle min kan every 
kullf manhu tohOi 
kull- whenever 

kulluhuni 'ill of them 
kumbai puny 



kuiumitr.i . immitraya 

a i 

kuiiT / ,ou were 

kunna ice were 
kuwaiyis pretty 
kuwar (pi. of k 



KH 



Kliaiii (f. khairiya) charitablt 

khaiyat tailor 

khai': rappiivj (kht:>h) 

khauw&f timid 

khauwif, khxawai frighten (v.) 

kli.il >• ' /\ thi y knur,, 

khabaf, khabl 

khai 

khabl 

'ike 

khadil 

kha 

klia'i' ,' 
khai | 



kha — 

khaahab /rood; khashaba 

I, board 
khasl 
kh&i/ear (v.) 

khafa 

khaftf light, slight 
khafi . 

/tele 
kha! 

khalat 

khai 

khai dy 

khalif 

khai bat mis 

khall 

khalla 

khai] 

khai! 

I 

kham / 

khallili. r . 

khanaq tl,. 



398 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



khirfan (pi. of kharuf) 
khizi be eclipsed, be shy 
khilaf ; bi khlaf contrary to 
khud take (imp.) 
khudar gn ns, vegetable* 
khudari greengrocer 
khurug going out, exit 
khuruf he impaired (intellect) 



khurs (pi. of akhras) deaf mid 

dumb 
khurm hole 
khusara, khisara pity 
khulali q nick -tempered 
khulus be nnislied 
khulsit is finished (f.) 
kbulj temperaau at 



La (particle) expressing surprise 

(§ 246) 
la' no 
la, la not 
lau, 16 if; Ian in even if ; 161a 

', but for 
laban mill; 

l&bis wearing, having on 
labb&n milkman 
lagl, leagl that, in ordt r thai 
Laghwa language, diah >i 
lahsan It si ; /» oause 
lahm meat ; Lahma bit of 
la/.im necessary (pi. lazniin. 

§ 33) 
lafghar Eor il asgbjff 
I a 'ili play with 
lift fold (v.) 
laqa, Ifiqa find 

it'i't /. you, found, have found 
laqu ///■ // found 

lakin &ld 

1 a k 1 1 1 > 

laiiifin lemon*} laiuuin ,[ 

/■ tnon 
lamba la 
lamda l'im/> 



lamm pick 

lamma wJu n, until 

lawa 

leinn that, in order I 

l.'h why? 

li. le, lu to 

l'l. 1 'la night ; il h'la tn-nijht 

li. liVa fo 

Libia cZolfc , put on 

■ i me 
LigW&Z for il igwftl 
lihiq r take 

still 

li'll ;, 

liqlya a find 
lingUz, for il ingliz 
16h board 
16z a 

I6n eo2oMf 
lugha 

lull (0 /</ 

luqma ; </W 

lukanda /'. 

Lvuidura, Lundoim, Ltmdm 
Lou 



Ma, in. i which, "'hut 
J J i : i i \ it, li. 



M 



Ill.lIlL' 

inaiiM 



AitABlC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 






mauwitti they killed 
mabra I fi 

rn.il.' 

ixa ii.it ■. im rain 

t ruined 
matbakh kite 
mutrah / 
maghrib sunet f 
magh&hflab fa 
mabiya salary 
mahl, '.ila mahl slowly 
iii.ilni 

vtion (railway, 
mah&kim (pi. of mahkama) 
in.-ihtiV / 

mahsan, ya d • ly 

mahfa lio 

1 1 1 .- 1 } i k : 1 1 j i -■ l court, tribunal 
madad sh tch i \g, ■->■"/■> 
madam t g thai 
mad . 
madra 

Ldina) minart t 

■ woman 

mai bk\ ! 

> >i 1 

III : 1 1 / all 

' VTth 

maczika music, band 
I, correct 

pit 

■ "ii 

■in i 

-,. .1 

imi/iifi ,1 



in.i-iiii no 
masnid back of a 
masarwa ( pi. of ma 

•mi 

I ill I 

M:i>i i / 

ada trap 
bal carryi 
mashayikh (pi. <>f sbekb) 

mashgbfil busy 

ma&bh&r n 

maabsba mala to walk, iraJI. 

mashy a walking 

ii in' with 

ma'addiya /'• rry 

ma'ana with us 

ma'isha a living 

ma'rifa acquair, ! 

ma'laqa 

ma'l in known ; no doubt, of 

cot 
mail 
mafra loth 

■ 
maqaaf 
maqdara , ility 

]iiai|!'ul ci 

ma'kfil eaU n 
maktab writing 
maktab il bu< 
maksfir i oh u 
makhddm nu 
makhisan a 11 how . 

in:ikli/;iii I'liii ,'i\\ l 

in a train 
in .1 propt rty, 
mala fill, 
malik king 
malika ■, 
malh salt 

• 

ln:il\ •/ fill 



400 



ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



malyaii full, loaded 

mandll handkerchief 

maward, or moiyit il ma ward 

rose-water 
mawaslr (pi. of masura) 
mayu May 
metallim blunt 
megfba, migtba a bringing 

, megiya a coming 
mebandiz i ngineer 
mebibb loving, friend 
medauwar 'ala looking around 

for 
uierasla messen 
merakbl boatman 
merkib boat, sh ip 

ying, starting, a 

visitor 
me'ashsbish nesting 
me'allaq hanging, hung up 

liic'.illil;. 

meqauma r« sisl 

mekhalfa a contravening, police 

menaggid upholsterer 
mittaki] i aten, gnawed 
mitr 

uwiz married 

mililia witl 

midlna tuirn 

mir inin ir (il) 

mirwah a going, departun 

mis inin is (il) 

misik 

mistaqrab li a\ 



mistakbdim employed 
1 1 ii waiting for 
misri', musri' hurrying 
miskfi they ?Hzed 
mistini'/o 
mish = min ish 
niisin walk (v.) 
misbtara, musntara a huying 
misbwar walk, errand 
misbyu they walked, went on 
mi'i with m* 
mi'za 

mil == min d 
milaya sheet 
mill! = min illi 

min from, than : mill 'ala 
from off; minba from her 

It 1 1 ! 

minsbar 

mint'akh belhjics 

moiya wah r 

niui death; exceedingly 

mdz bananas 

mutative a bowing, bending low 

mulisin charitable 

mudda . time 

MuskJ name of a .<//• I 

' ro 
M aalim Mu.<.<<tl>n<in 
musmar, musmar pumI 
Musyu .l//-. 
mush mabuwash 
mushrik polyiheiiU, i'lo* I 
musb'aranl /<•■ 
mufl 
uin'mi 



N 



nai\ im lay 'I, urn 
eap (\ ) 






Al; \l;l< -ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



4 «.)1 



nahya direction, in the direc- 
tion of 

naiiali rail (v.) 
nadaht / called 
! ./• ecending 

nazzil bring, >!ra>r, ■/ 

nuzar eyesight 

■ 

Nivii'mi Christina 

n&ahif dry (a.) 

nashr tawing 

i.. i in. 

iiatar ;•• non 

natakli Mow (v.) 

naffad thahe, duet 

D&qifl irantinij 
naqqa r/<<, 
nakar deny 
Ham /c .-•/'/<?, EA nt ' 

naiiii'i- moequitoet 

iianuiiar tm, ni- r (v.) 

oawil hand, /■• • 

na\ ni>r 

nayim lying, sleeping 

II go 



WabAx boat, train 

"i in l 
. n ; (▼.) hurt, ) a 
m add love (v.) 

u.ihicl (f. waliila) 

v. ali<lu, li wah' hi /"/ /</ 

Wahcll '/■■ ' 

wahl 

il.nl 

(pi. of widyan > valley 
in /<<• brought, led 

w i ■ 1 < 1 l"l // ■ 

I /"/" »', - 



mint, Debit uwu 

niliaitu finally 

oidif cfcan 

oidim r- j>ent 

nizil f/o, '"//<.', •/ 

uisa Moyiu /' 

nisi forget 

nisit /, you, forgot, h-n 

■ ■■■II 
niswfin loomen 
oishif oeJ oVy 
ni'iui «/< / .-<,irt 
Nil A7A< 

iiiint /, yon, gfepl 
niinr ti'j- r 
Nimsa .1 uetria, I 
nimsawl (f. nimsawiya) . I >.■-•- 

tnan, German 
aiy&ba /•!•<■>,■ <iti<m 
1 1 in .-A i /< 

IlUZl',1 

nu>s half 

nuijiis g\ t h h 
Qofambar A- ■• mber 

nuinura (pi of niinr) 



\Y 



u ard .'"-■• 4, fto\ 

wardinarl ordinary, common 

In nr 

I /ml on fa 
warrl cAoto (imp.) 
waraha workehop (pL irirash) 

u.i/all Id /<//« 

wau met'fo 

• ( u Ofj >ni) 
(v.) 
k lia dirt 

W .«1 jv,-. (/ 7 ( |,1 W :i ■oil.it ) 

2a 






ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



\\af14 agree toith 

wash wish whisper 

waqif standing, stopping 

waqt time; waqtiha at that 

time 
waq'a "battle, fight 

u;i(|i|,r to lit fall. <//■<>/> 

waqqal stop (v. t.) 

wakil agent 

wakkil make rat, feed 

walad boy 

walla or 

waanis console, keep company 

wij we, 11 and 

wclaii 1 Vi n If although 

wids (f.) far 

widy&n (pi. of wa<li) 

w 11:14 (I 1 '- "*" wwaq) 



wirie titfa 
wirim moeZ2 (v. i.) 
wisq load 
wisikh dirty 

wisil arrive 

\vi>iya cfa 

wisul. wusul arrival 

wishsh /'are 

wi r lit ."//'■ arrived 

wiqi' fte, it, fell 

wiqiM /, ;/.».. /'-'// 

wiq'um /A. ///', // 

wiqif stop (v. i.) 

wilid /";/'/, give birth to 

wugud presence 

wusul arrival 

wust middle, <■■ 1 

wust&nl centre, middle (a) 



Ya 0, 0* 
ya - itht r, or 
yatim orphan 
ya'ni that is to say 
y&qa collar, 
yakul be eafa 
\aiu\ir January 
yebl'ti ///'// •-'-// 
yetalla'u ///<■;/ tfrato cm/ 
yegtb he brings 
yebibbu they love 
yeljushti they keep off 

li he [!'<• s, will <j'' 
yeruiti tht 
yeshfld th , carry 
yeshuf he look -. 
yeshflfu /A- y 
\ eqfl] It 
yeqfilu //<-•// •-"// 

m he, //, stands it/, 
yekhafO min ///' y ft ti> 
yelimmO tht y pick up 
yewaddi h( takt . 

\ i • 1 . 1 • '. • \chfS 

\ 1 • 1 . 1 . \up 



yiiru ttey com* 
yihkumu they judge 
\ idrabu they si 
yizkur /<- mentions, speakt 

"/ 

visalliinu ' : 

\ iskunti they I . 

yisallahu they 

yisiif he q 

3 ishbiku they entai 

yishtighilu, yi&htaghalti they 

yisbxab he drinks 

\ i-r 

yiknllim 

yikkalliinu tin 
yilbiau ihe\ 

\ im.-liu tht 7 n alk 

\ imkin it 

yimlu they fill 

'in 
yuq'udu the\ 
yulya July 
yunya Juntt 



VOCABULARY 

TO THE WORDS CONTAINED IX THE EXERl [g 
ON THK ACCIDENCE 

Part II. — English- Akaijic 



A wfyid (§ 247) 

aWilin maqdara 

able gddir . be able qidir 

about | oearly) tiy i taqi 

abovi- 

abroad j: bildd barra 

were absent ghilma 
(v.) thatam ; 

rik 

_ • 
. 

acid " 

aequai make 

acqu 
add g added 

i an', igga 
addreei i €uuoin 
advance qaddim ; be adi 

Idim 
affai 






o! 



Dt ten/: U 

ree with mhlj ; &£ 
together is/'tira 
agreement ; come t<< agrees 

air /< MM ; ^'ivc- oneself aira 
feabbar w/tu; be aired 
tihauiDa 

vriya 

alive //"/'/;/'// 

all fcuZZ ; all day /<;/ in . 
all of them Intlluhuiu 

almonds 

alms //.;• 

alone waljdu, livafydu ; live 

alon< 
althoug /;z /«, nwc 1 

in 

• llw.l . 

a ml .It- (v.) itnthirin 
among/If, a 

amount -y////,/ 

i ma 

anil «■. , tent*, « 



404 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



animal hi wan 

annoy l dkis ; be annoyed 

it'asar, ittdkhid 
another tdnl ; Tcamdn wdhid ; 

one another ba l d, ba'dina, 

4re. (§§398seq.) 
apparently bd'in, bdyin, beyin, 

shawdhid, ish shdhid 
appear bdn, hidir 
apple tiff aha (eol. pi. tiffdh) 
apprentice sabi (pi. subydn) 
approach qaiTab 
approve istahsin 
approximately taqriban, bi t 

talthmin 
April ah ril 

Arab '■Arab (pi. 'urban), 'arabi 
Arabic 'arabi 
arise qdm 
arm dird* 
army '/'Wi 
around hawalen 
arrange rattib ; be arranged 

itraitib 
arrive wisil, (of a season) cwj 
arrival wisul, wustil 
ascend till 1 
ascent tuhl i 



ask sa'al ; talab ; ask for 

oneself itfalab 
asking (s.) su'dl, (part.) tdlib 
asphalt as/alt 
assault ittdwil l ala 
assist sd'zd, 'a ta'n 
assistance ; call to assist- 
ance istigdr 
associate (v. i.) it'dshir ; be 

associated ishshdrik 
astonish ; be astonished 

istaghrab, ista'gib 
asunder ; be pulled asunder 

inbarash 
at 'and, 'ala 
atmosphere hawa 
attach l alhi<i 
attend ilta/at ; (medically) 

i dlig 
August Aghmfiu 
aunt (paternal) l amma ; 

(maternal) khdla 
Austria Niinsa 
Austrian nimsdtc! (f. mmad- 

irhja) 
awake (v. t.) sahha ; they 

awoke ta/.'/td 
axe balta 



B 



Bachelor 'azabangi 

back (s.) dahr ; (of carriage) 

mcumid ; stand back ittdkhir 
bad ball"! 
bake khabaz . be baked inkha- 

baz 
baker farrdn 
balcony bcdakdn, bcdk&n 
ball fcHra (pi. /./mar) 
ball (dance) ballu 
balloon bcUl&ii 
bans (col. pi. 

band (music) ma 68fa 



I iank 6anA 

barefooted : a going bare- 
footed !■ 

barley shitr 

barrel barmil (pi. bar i mil); 
(of gun) masdr.i 

basket >//«(/ 

kit h hanundii' . (v.) utiha 
Itatt le ,.;r./\i 

bazaar tUq (pi. Mtodg) 

/// . 1 shall be 

w dl We t, hi'm . I was, mi 
were hunt, we were kunni , 



ENGLISH -ARABIC VOCABULARY 



40J 



were Jatnu ; there is, 
areft,fVi 

bear (endure) istahmil 
beard </</<//< (f. ) 

wild beast wahglia 

(col. pi. I0OA«A) 

beat darah ; Jagq 

because 'tV/ sfato, 'askdn, 

la/^-'i/), /■ fan, il;iniit/i 
Income boga 

bed /arsft .■ <:<> to bed ndm 
Bedouin bcvl" 
bedstead rirtr 

before qabl, gable ma 

beg thahat ; ihtaimy, iht&g 

beget unlid ; beget generations 

of children istavlid 
begin bada, ist 
beginning amoU 
beguile gh 
behind wara 
I »t*l i*'\-.- taddaq 
believer mu'min 
bellgriras, garaz ; (small) gQgU 
belonging I pi, i» tir) 

bello \kh 

bench dUcka 
bend linwi 
bending (bowing) down (s.) 

unit 

Berber, oath e of Berber, >•• r 

beside, beside him, her ganbu, 

gnainha 
besides ghSr 
'. upon /• 

beware (imp.) "•<', //■/.*■//, tydk 
bewilder; be bewildered *///</'/. 

ilihir 

Ucv W, bih (pi. bihaw&t) 
bicycle, 'agala, buiklstt 
. kibir (pi. kul 



billiards (U'b) il bUyardu 
bind raba{ ; (books) g 

bound itrabaf ; xtgaUid 
binding (cover of books) gUda; 

(books) tag! "id 
bird (large) fSra (col. pi. ter) ; 

(small) 'asfdra (col.pl.' 
V)irth wildda . give birth to 

■ ■/'//,/ (f. tnldit) 
biscuit ba&kaiotta (pi. hn.<L<ur?) 
bir Atfta (pi. Iiitat) 
bite" (v.) w/ 
black /-•//•/</ (f. .-•<<'/'/, pi. 

turn black iswadd 
blackguard (v.) itr6 
blame dkhiz 
blanket baffdniya, liir&m (pi. 

ihrima) 

Irikfi ; bless with 

be blest istabrak, itbdrik; 

be blest with itbathshar bi 
blind (a.) a'ma ; get Mind •/ n i 
block (v.) a .././ 
blow (s. ) A//-/. a . (v. i nafakh 
blue ./•.,•-// ; (for washing) 

i . become bine izraqq 
blunl (a.) metallim , get blunt 

/////// 
board (s.) WA 
• gakhkh 
boat merkii 
boatman /<- ra&ftl 

•. 
l»<»il (v.t.) <//<<*/./ (v.i.) <//(// 1 
boiling (s.) ghnlun, ghalya 
bold sling!* ; be bold //./'. 
book . 
bookseller /.-«//'/ 

hole) kharaq 
born : !»•• born iftoa 

buttle <// 

i ' \ . ) /. ' 

1 down i / 



406 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



bowing (s.) mutdtiya 

bowl tdsa 

box sand&q 

boy iralad, wad (pi. loil&d, tfUdd 
ualdd) 

brackish hddiq 

brain dimdgh 

bread l esh 

break kasar ; they broke 
fazsarH; break to pieces 
kassar ; break the fast fitir; 
be broken inkasar ; they 
were broken inkasaril 

breakfast (s.) futur ; (v.) fitir 

bribe (v.) hartal; be bribed 
itbartal 

brMe '■arilsa (pi. 'ard'is, l annjis) 

bridegroom l aris (pi. Hrsdri) 

bridge qantara 

bright (person) rimih 

bring //'"'A, wadda ; I, you, 
brought gtbt ; she brought 
ijdbit ; they brought gdbH ; 
bring it Adta ; he brings, 
will bring yegib ; bring in 
dakhkhal ; bring back ragga'", 
bring up talla' (imp. talla'), 
(educate) rabba; bring down 
nazsril; be brought up itrabba 

bringing megiba, tahdtr 

broad 'arid (comp. a'rad) 



broken makstir 

brother akhkh ; my brother 

akhuya, akhi ; his brother 

akhUh, 
brown asmar (pi. sumr) ; be- 
come brown ismarr 
bucket gardal 
buffalo gamilsa (col. pi. ga?nd<, 

pi. gataamU) 
buffalo-drover gammds 
build bana ; they built band ; 

be built inbana 
builder banvn 
building (s.) bindya 
built mabni 
bull for 
bump khabat fi 
bundle rah fa 
burn (v. t.) haraq ; be burnt 

down inharaq 
business skugJtf 
busy mashgh&l 
but h'lkin, fe,fi ; but for VAA 
butcher gazz&r, gaxxdr 
butter eibda 
buy ishian (imp. i^hfh-i): 1, 

you, bought they 

bought i-',f'ir"i 

buying (s.) mwAfaru 
by mtn, »; 'and; (in oaths) 
ict 



< lairo Afofr 

caliph ///" 

call (▼.) nadah ; T. you, called 

nadahi 
camel gamal 
c imel-driver gwnmdl 
canal I 
candl< 

candlestick sAam't&ki 
captain yw '.bdnhi 
(v.) naggid 



carding tangid 
carpenter nag 
carpet eiggdda, 6uady 

cari Lag 

carriei 

.i- 1 \ . o my away tfcU (imp. 

>•///*/); they 

they carry yenhUd ; b 

i ied i ''•' <•»/ .- b< 

.■ ui ie I i way in.«)hd 

cat i y in - 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



40; 



kffair) qa 

ft, 1 

cellar 

ft '> (*•) ' 
( pi. 

my : master of re- 

moiii 
chair i 

champagne thambanya 
chan . ■/'//' 

chang< be changed 

i/'/A • _ 

chang fyoV 

charge assa 

charity fyuana ; show charity 

to ihtan {ah/tan | 
charitable mu^Mfl : /.''<■> 

khnirvja) 
charlatan /.vc 
■■tea 

comp. arkhaf) ; 
find cheap islar/ 
chemist 

'"' 
drawers) /<«/•<'// 
child • 

child! 'hr 

<-)ii]t, l»- chipped ithsha 
cholei 
choose na . ikhfdr 

church /■ •' 
chumming 
cigai Ira 

. 1 naddaf . 

cleaning i ■ 

1 .- • 
clement ; be clem* 



clench I; I, 1 

clerk / 

clever sh&fir (pi. gkuffdr, 

,<hatrin) 
cloak (woollen) 'oMya(pl. "toy) 
dosed magfuJ, gafil 
closenee 
clothes hid,'/, /t 
clover -eller of clover 

faramtl 
club kelubb 

bman Vrr6a<7» 

■<//■'.< 

cobblei 

cockroach sirsdr 

<• >ffe< 

coffee house qahira (pi. 7 

cold (s.) /■?/•'/ ; (a.) 64rid ; (of 

persons) '•'/ ■ get col<l 

•'.- catch cold akhad, khad, 

bard, hhadu ! 

t-ollar 

collect yama' ; 1"' col 

ingama't itlamm, 
ran 

(••■lour l>'m (pi. '/"" 

come ;/■('. /'// ' imp. : 
(pi. td-nhi) ; 1 came 7< ' 
came, baa oome goJ ,• fchej 
came 7-/, 0ttfn ; 1"- comes, 
will come j '■/' . they 

WD >i ir.il 

coming (a) 1 

( parr } gay 

command 1 I 

mder-in chief 

oommi 

men 
comm 
company / keep 

company 



408 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



compartment diwdn 

compassion hinniya 

compel alzam 

complain ishtaka 

coin plaint shaJcwa 

completely tamdm, klialis 

compose (book, &e.) allif 

concealing katm 

concern khass 

condition sharf 

confectioner halawdnt 

confess qarr, idiqarr 

confuse lakhbat, khalbat ; be 
confused iticahal 

confusedly ; talk confusedly 
bargim 

congratulate hi'trik li 

conquer ghalab ; try to con- 
quer ghdlib ; be conquered 
itghalab ; own oneself con- 
quered istaghlib 

consent riiji, irtaija ; I con- 
sented riilit 

con x ilr dn%s t irannis 

conspire issdwa 

constable shanfish; chief con- 
st a I ilc bitshav/tsh 

I lonstanl inople Istanbul 

consul gwiful 

consulate qUHSUldtU 

oontented mabs&t 
cunt.-iitment inbisdl 
continue istimarr, tann ($ 2 1 s) 
contract; give contract x^qdwil 
contradict, khalif 
ci/iit radictory ; be conl radic 

tory ikhtalqf 
conl rar) to bi khldf 

COn\ ''lit ,!,'■ (pi. i'/i/ilr) 

convey wadda 

com Lnce ; I"- emu [need l tamad % 
ifakJdd 



cook (s.) fabbdkh (f.), fabbd- 

kha (v.) fabakh ; be cooked 

insawa 
conking ta8wtya 
Copt Qibti (pi. Qi&af) 
corner m&fl 
correct (a.) mazbHf j be correct 

sahh 
costume libs 

cough (s.) kuhka ; (v.) WJ/ 
country bildd ; rif, irydf 
countryman baladi 
court mahkama (pi. mahakim) 
cover (a ) ghafd 
covet tin"'- ti 
cow baqara (pi. hw/ar, ba- 

qarut) 
crevice shaqq 
era ted l aioag (f. '<3 .-</. pi. 

crops zird'dt 

v. ) 'a Ida 
crow ghurdb (pi. i'jbriba) 
cruel gabbdr 
crush dashsh 
crushing dashsh 
crutch Uil:li'\z 
cucumber khiydr ; bed of 

cucumbers, imi/dtii 
r\\]> ji in/tin 

cupboard dtildb, dUdh 
custom '■' 
customer :ui>itn (p' 

custom-house gutnruk 
custom- house officer 
rti&oA I 

cut '/<«.'"' (imp. /, 

cut out (cloth) /">■>•' 1 

you, out qafa't, 

be cut out 
cutting, cutting off (s.) '/(/r 



ENGLISH-ARABN VOCABULARY 



• 



D 



I 
damaged 'auwati 

dance (kill) baliu; (v.) raqas 
dandy ; think oneself a dandy 

lyiq 
dark : become <lurk ighmaqq 
daughter bint, bitt (pi. bannt) 
dawn 
day ;,■'■>.' (pi. tydm, i>/"nt). 

nah'ir ; New fear's day 

rtb 
dead m^ti (mai'ytf) 
• 1 <-.• i f ; deaf and dumb akhra> 

(pi. khitr.<) 
dear (price) ;/•' 
death //"'</ 
debt '''-'/( . charge with a 

debt 'i'li'/in, dSyin 

he made ;t debtor 

idddyin 

declaratio] 

deduct tanztZ ; 1. 

yon, deducted </<it<rt. ■. 
deed . //"'/ 

deep ;/ ; ' 

<n 

delay (\. i.) ifaihkhar 

deliver §aliim 

denuu ;V>.- (v.) 

they demanded fa 
demolish tad / 
demolishing 

den} miLiir 

dep 11 1 •'>///• 

dep - n, /«///' 

deprai n 

me a 
del ■■ 



descend ni-Jl 

■ ling (a.) rwedi, 

descent >>•■ 
describe i 
desert (s.) khala 
d — i v.- istihaqq, isi 
devil tlt't'in, 'afri( 
dialect bi<jlar<i 
dictionary go"; 

I .- they died 
difference farq . have a differ- 

different bcuhqa 
difficult f 

diffuse t'iir',1 : be diffuse fatttti 
dine ifcuha 
dinner 'ashd, 'athwa 
direction gi/ia, nakya ; in the 

direction of . . . nahyit . . .. 

be turned in the din 

of Utoaggih li 
dirt uxufikha 
dirty wisikh (comp. 
discuss it I h\I; i.< 

w ith die lain 

disgui - 

. fabikJi . be dished 

up 
dishonour (v.) '46 
dismiss ra/ad I be du 

missed if rani' I 
disol • 
distance 
distant 1 
dividi 
divorce fttliat/ 

'nl % tj&fa I . you, did 

docih 



410 



EN( JLISH- ARABIC VOCABULARY 



doctor hakim 

dog kalb (pi. kildb) 

dog-cart dukkdr (pi. dakakir) 

doing (s.) i amalu/a 

domineer istahkim 

donkey himdr, humdr (pi. 

himir) ; consider a donkey 

istahmar, istaghash 
donkey-boy Jiammdr 
donkey-saddle barda'a 
door bdb (pi. ibicdb) 
door-handle ukra 
doorkeeper bauivdb 
double (a.) migwi::, (v.) igwaz 

(agwaz) 
doubled matnt 
doubt (s.) 8hakk ; no doubt 

ma'h'iin 
dough '■agin 
drain balld'a 
draught sharba 
draw out tall a' ; they draw 

out ye tali 'a' d 
drawer durg 



drawing-room sola 

dress (s.) libs, tab ; (v.n.) libis ; 

they dress yilbisu 
dressmaker khaiydta 
drink shirib ; I drank ehirtbt ; 

they drank shirbu ; he drinks 

yishrab ; be drunk (water, 

&c.) itsharab, ishzharab 
drinking shurb 
drive sd<j, rikib ; be driven 

Urakab 
drop ica/]'ja l 
drown, be drowned gkiriq, 

istagh ra q ; they were 

drowned ghirgum 
drug dawa (pi. adwtya, idtotya) 
drunk sakr&n : get drunk rihirj 

make drunk sakar 
dry (a.) ndihif ; get dry nish&f 
dust tur&b, purdb; (v.) naffad; 

be covered, filled, with dust 

iffarab 
dye (v.) sabagh ; be dyed 

insabaijh 



E 



Ear '/■/</« (f.) 
early /w/W 

earth a/v/ (f.) (pi. anfcff) 
easy ; find easy inta»-h%l 
eat afarf, /,<// ; I ate /a//, he 
ydkul ; make eal wakkil 

eaten ma' kill, mittdkil ; beeateD 

iUdkil 
eclipse ; be eclipsed khizi 
effervesce ra gha 
effervescence raghwa 

(col. pi. ! 
Eg; pi M'isr, bam M i 

Upper Egypt 

v/ 

Bgj pi ian 
eighth (>.) /u^/* 



either ; either ... or ya 

. . . ya 
elbow Lu'C 
eleven hidashar, hid 

ihdashar, dtdashar 
embankment gitr 
empen 

employ khaddim 
employee mutakhdim 
empty fddt, farigh 
enclosure //<W; 
end (a) i 

endure istahmil, zaman 
enemy Wd (pi. <cdd) 

engim ■••//.: 

English (s ) i (a.) >*,//<"-.* 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



411 



enjoin ira?.sa 
enjoy | min 

enjoyment inbi.<>'i(, ha:: 
entangle ; they entangle yifih- 

bQeA ; get entangled itwaAas 
enter dakhal, khashsh ; they 

filtered dak?, 
• dukhUl 
environs g 
err gkuluf 
errand mishwdr 
escape 
Europe I ' 
European ifrangi, ruh> 

{untSbi 
even hatta 
everybody kulle min t&n 



exactly • 

d ; for example 
mn 
except (ad.) ilia; except that 
innama 
- l-i.fr 
excuse; excuse oneself t'tuzar 

•ing maugHd 
explode taqtaq 

expose 'Arid : (make clear) 
. (to view) 'drid 
extinguish tatfa ; be extin- 
guished into fa 
extract gala' ; utakhrag 
extracting 
eye 'en 

.it nazar 



Face tcishth 
fade igradd 
faithful hiiimin 
full >r 
false lcidb 
falsehood lcidb 
family oJ 

Ear ''ii'l; find too far istab'ad 
••n rabat . they fastened 

min 
t'ath.-r abb ; my father 
abUy 1 : hi- father ab(Ui 

'<> the >h.t t. ni of) 

am, man from the Fayoum 
■via) 
f; (v.)kh6f (ij 

the'. 

filrr&yir 

t.-.-l 

ftUoH | 4 t2;j) 



imma (humrnn 
S ;/ l:hu n'tya 
few g&tftMitya, &am, 7i/iA 
fez fa 

fie -7/7/ 

field ghjf (pi. qhUdn) 

fight (battle) y. 

they till /,;'//</(< . 

be fille<l intnla (imttda) 
filling (s.) maly 
finally mhaUu 
find (s.) liqiya ; (v.) Im/n. 
a, found 
found fagd ,• be • 
jtaa 
fine /I 

■ 

finish ; be finished khulus 

(f. him ■ 

• . 
■ 



412 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



fish samaka (col. pi. samak) ; 

(v.) istdd 
fisherman seydd 
fissure shaqq 
five kliamas, khamsa 
fixed mazbut 

flame; burst into flames shotlil 
flannel fandla 

flee harab ; they fled harabUi 
fleeing, flight firdr 
float l dm 
floor ard, ardlya 
flow down sal 
flower zahr (pi. zuhur); ward a 

(pi. ward) 
flush izradd 
fly (s.) dihbdna 
flying fdyir 

foam (s.) raghwa ; (v.) ragha 
fodder 'a^g-, 'a/w? 
fold (v.) taraa, tabbaq, tawa 
foolishness hamdqa 
foot ?-j</Z 

for l aJa slidn, i ashdn 
force zur, qwca 
forged tuistini 1 
forgery zur 



forget nisi; I, you, forgot 
nisit 

fork shoka 

forward qudddm ; bring for- 
ward qaddim 

fountain fasqiya, (drinking) 
sibil 

four arba\ arba'a 

frame (s.) birwdz ; (v.) banciz 

France Fransa 

Frenchman fransdid 

frequent (v.) itraddid l ala 

fresh tdza, tart ; get fresh and 
green ra'ra 1 

freshness taraira 

Friday {yom, nahdr) ig gum 'a 

friend sahib 

frighten khauicuf ; be 

frightened irta'ash, inhhadd 

from min ; from her miuha 

front ; in front of qudddm 

froth (s.) raghwa, (v.) ragha 

fruit frdta, fak-ha 

fruiterer fakahdni 

fry qili ; be fried itqala, itqalla 

full malydn 

fun ; make fun of istaliza' 



G 



Gaiety imhir&k 

gain kusub, Jdsib ; I gain <7/,-.n7/7, 

game //'/. 

gaoler eaggdn 

garden ginena (pi. i/aini'i/i, 
gan&yin) 

gardener aaneni 

garment hid ma 

gate />"/' 

gather ; gather together (neul .) 
igtama* ; be gathered to- 
gel ber itlamm, iltamm 

gaze at i id a ih at '(da 

general (-.) ijiiiitiin'ir 



generally ghdliban 

gentleman r/iinli 

get; get up </'n//, (imp.) '/ 

I get up ih/iiiii 
giddy ; make giddy dawakh, 

dawwakh 
girl bint, bitt (pi bmnit) 
give /'/■/'/ ; 1 give, will give, 
.//./;. give me fe&ftnl; he 
gave me idddni ; they gave 
him it idddh ; she gave 
/V/,/.// ; I. you, gave, /-/'A'/ ; 
give back ragga\ radd ; l>e 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



413 



<:l;iss qizaz ; kubbdya 

gluttonous aklrU 

gnawed mittdkil 

go rah ; I, you, went ruht : 

she went r&hit ; they went 

rdhH ; he goes, will go 

yerdh ; we go, will go nerith ; 

they go yeruhu ; go away 

rauwah ; go out fill', kharag ; 

they went on mishyu ; they 

go up yithc'i 
^o-between, act as a go-between 

Utoassaf 
u">ing (s.) mirtcah ; going out 

khurug ; going through /of 
goat ?7ii l za 
good taiyib ; find good istahsin ; 

istazraf 
goods budd'a 
:"ivcrnment hukuma 
gown fob, gallabiya; her gown 

tuhha 



grammar agrw 
grandees nas kubdrdt 
grandmother gidda, eitt 
grass hashish 

greedy akk'd 

green akhdar 

gi >engrocer khudart 

greens khuddr 

greet sallim 'cUa ; they gree^ 

yisallimd l ala 
grocer baqqdl 
groom (s.) sd'is, sdyis, (v.) 

st'iyis 

ground ard (f.) (pi. arddi) 
grow ; let grow rakha ; gn »w 

up hibir 
guarantee (v.) daman 
guard ; be guarded inharas 
guardian /tan's (pL kurrdf) 
guest rf^* (pi. diyuf) 
gun bundu'i'nja 



H 



Hair a/uzV 

hairy nzttsVand 

half /mss 

hammer tJiaJtUsh, qadvtm 

hamper zanbtl 

hand (s.) W; (v.) mf //•/'/ 

handful ////'//'/ 

handkerchief iwui'lU 

handle (of door, &C.) «/./" 

handwriting Lltatt 

hang ■-■/i'iri-1'/ 

hanging (s.) ehanq; (part.) 

me*ailctq 
happen fcztaZ, gara 
happiness //"«'< 
hard g&mid ; get hard gimid, 

gabbu : hard ap ma i ;tlr 
harden (v.t.) gammid . (v.n.) 

iness, hardiness gwnudtya 



harm (v.) f/a/v, sa' 

haste, make haste itfa'gif, 

hasten shahhil 

hat burnSfa 

haunted rnasfctbi, malign r 

have, I have "<//"/t ,• von have 

he huwa, I 

head rds; hold one's head high 

ietafivil nofou 
headman (of a village) 'unohi 
heal '(>//./ 

hear wW ; thej heard - 
hearii <r 

heart ya/6 
heat //a/v, $tmd 
heavy Hgil ; consider h. 

istcUqcU 
height fiil 



414 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



help sdHd ; be helped issdHd 
hen farkha 

here hina ; see here ! adt 
hide (v.t.) khafa ; hide oneself 

ikhlafa 
high 'dlt 
him -u 

himself nafsu 
hoard hauwish 
hold misik 
holding (s.) maska 
hole khurm, hurra, kharq 
holiday agdza ; 'id 
honour (s.) ihtirdm, (y.)sharrqf, 

thiamin 
hook (s.) shanked 
horse husdn ; horses khel 



horse-cloth shull 
hot hdr, harr ; sukhn 
hotel lukandd, Itammdra 
house bet (pi. biyi'it, buyut), our 

house bifna 
how izzey ; how much ? kdm 
however it be meihma ledn 
hunger <ju l 
hungry ga'&n, (ji l dn 
hurry (v. t. and i.) dhahhil 
hurrying (s.) iareha; (part.) 

in /'.</■{', inusri' 
hurt (v.) dan; (pain) waga* 
husband </6z (pi. iijic&z) ; her 

husband guzha 
hyena dab 1 (pi. dubu') 



I ana 

ice tain 

idea fikr 

idle ; leave idle (on one's 

hands) bauwar ; be left idle 

(on one's hands) bdr 
idolater mwhrik 
it' im, in bin ; even if lau in, 

irrlau iii ; if not IMA 
ignorant gdhil 
ill l aiydn : get ill 't'//t 
illness 'aiyd 
Imagine iftaka 
immediately Ivdan 

impair ; be impaired (intellect) 

klturiif 

importanl /*' e b t m >" (oomp, 

ahamm) 
impoverish ifqar {a/qar) 
impress akkid {'a/a) 
imprison halm* .• be imprisoned 

i n hi 1 1 a t.i 

fi ; U ; .juira , in \\ 



incite sallat, wan 

increase (v.t.) -atari, J, kattar : 

(v.i.) zad, inz'i'l 
indicate aaUe Wa 
inform khabbar, fahhini, ibtagh 
inhabit .<ikin 
inhabited maskOm 
inherit wirit 
injure (v.) dan-; feel 01 

injured indarr 
ink hibr 
inkpot diliriii/n 

inn khammdra 

inquire ittafkim, itHdaU 

inside g^Lwa 

insist akkid 

instead . ' wdtt 

ma 
insult $kota$H ; insult 

another ehdtim 

insure sdgar, </■ 
intelligent 

I did Jul 



ENGLISH ARABIC VOCABULARY 



416 



interpret targim irrigate rawa ; 

interpi eter targimidn itrawa 

invite 'azam; be invited it-a::am j Italian falydni 



irrigated 



Jacket ."•' 

January yandyir 

jar ibriq, ball&f, bcUMfi 

job shii'/hf 

journey (s.) Ba/ar 

journeying mesdfir 

joy surdr 



judge (a.) <j'k/> (pi. gudd); (v.) 
hakam ; they judge yi^kumu 
jug z'6?*^7 
juggler //''"y 
July yvlya 
June yunya 



K 



Keep; keep away, oft hdsh; 
tbey keep away //> /ni.<li>i : 

be kept away, ofE inh('i-<h . 

keep back dfcAtr 
beeping ; be in »fe keeping 

itlllltj'll 

key nwftdh, miftdk 

Khedive KhidSwi 
kick rqfaf, jarab l>i rxglu ; they 
kicked ra/tisi'i : be kicked 

kill hinmnt, ,/utnl • they killed 

nhimrila ; lie killed ////<l/<l! 
kind (s.) ptn0 

kindly W / /«//' 
kindness ^wtntyo, /«/■/ 



kine /«/'/rt/- 

kiu^ r mo///: 

kiss (v.) bdi ; be kissed ////".« 

kitchen ma(bak/i 

kitten /".'-V 

kneel birik ; make kneel batrrik 

knife sikkin 

knock (s.) khabfa ; (v.) fara^, 
khabafi khabbaf ; they 
knocked khabafU ,' be knocked 
itkhabaf 

know '«'«/; I, you, knew vW/V . 
they kn>>\\ i/i'rti/ii ; be 
known it'n Kit, lu'araf 

knowledge 'i/m 



Ladder rillim 

lady n'A . play the grand ladj 

lake I 

lame ; be lame ''/<//, ' 

lamp /<iu'/itt, iiinuiii 

lance Inulxi 

land 

landlord j';/'/. (fd/ju'6) // W¥ 

Langu .,. • , layhica 



lantern f&mu 

large /.• ■-/-, /.-. •■■'» (comp. tiAiar) 

'.) dfcfor, d 

'/.«//,, uUahtNti 
late witUiri ; be late 'o 

it'ohlthltor 
laugh i/f/r/V. ; make laugl 

laughing (s.) '(/(A 



116 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



lawyer abukdtu 

lay (down) naiyim; (eggs) bad it 

lazy kasldn, tanbil, tanbal (pi. 

tanabla) ; be lazy tanbil) 

kassil 
lead (s.) rusds 
lead (v.) wadda 
leaf waraqa (col. pi. waraq)', put 

on leaves (tree) warraq 
Leakage kharardn 
lean on irtakan 'ala 
leap (v.) wa£f 
learn it'allim ; make learn by 

heart haffad 
learned l dlim 
leather gild; piece of leather 

gild a 
leave (s.) agdza ; by your leave 

pw*» fadlak; (v.) khaUa, 

aegib ; I, you, left seyibt, 

futt ; they left segibu ; (quit) 

/W/7'7 
ledger daftar 

lemon lamuna (col. pi. laitiun) 
lend sail if 
length t'il 

less aqaill; get less nuau? 
lest lahtan 
let (permit) khalla, imp. khalli; 

t hey let go e&yibd ; be let 

(house) ifaggar; be let go 

i$8$yib 
letter gawdb 
liar kadddb 
library kutubkhdna 
lie (down) »'?///, raqad 
lie (s.) /,v''/A , give lie t" 

lighl (a.) ?"// - , (v.) </<>'/. bring 

in lighl itAar 
lighl (imt heavy) k1taf\f 
lighten i"ir<i</ii (id dinya) 

like (a.) ..///. B*»M 

likeness thabah 



limit (s.) ljudd, qadd ; (v.) 

Aate- fo"( / 
line fefalff 
lion sai' (pi. subd') 
little (s.) xhuwaiya ; consider 

little, too little istiqoM, 

istaqlil 
live (v.) 'eWi ; (inhabit) siki/t , 

they live giskunu 
living (s.) maHsha ; get one's 

living istarzaq 
load (s.) liamla, wittq; (v.) 

Iwummil, waeaq, 'abba; be 

loaded, laden titoasaq 
loaf right/ (pi. //;// 
lock (s.) kolun, (v.) MUfcA 
locksmith kawalini, kawalingi 
London Lundura, Lundura, 

Lundra 
long faw?2i (comp. a(ual) ; long 

ago ::an"i/i 
look (v.) fcttf; (search) d,iu>rar ; 

look after Ad/ff 'on ; look 

over itfafrag '■ala 
look out ! (2'd 
looking for medawoar 'ala 
Loosen rakha, rakhrakh 
lord rdbb, efd 

lose /■'//, minnu 
loud 'r/// 

lounge inga'as, inya*maf 

Love (s.) //«/»/-, (v.) (oM, imhM . 

they love yekibbA ; beloved 

ithabb, inkabb 

Loving Virhihh 

low //•./// ; di'in 
lower (a.) t<ilr 

luck bakfti 

lucky ; find lucky istal 

luggage 'a/sh, 

luggage van makhzan fnmtdwt 

luucli yh 

Lying (i1"\mi) ri'i'im, wi>; 

l\ ing down, Lying ill 



ENCUSH ARABIC VOCABULARY 



41' 



M 



Mad magnUn ; drive mad 
gannin . consider mad /.«>•- 
t/'jann 

make l amal 

malice; bear malice ithammil 

man rdgil (pi. riggdla) 

manhood kubr 

manage 8&yi& 

many ketir, Jcitir 

March mars 

mark (v.) a&h&har 

market tsuq (pi. istodq) 

man Led miggaumz 

mash (v.) dajg 

master makhdUm, tdd ; (teacher) 

lie i alii in, khdga 
mat //«.<ii<< (pi. Ams/) 
match kabrtta (col. pi. knhnt) 
mat-maker /insari 

. Jchabar 
mattress rnartaba 
mattress m ik //// 

matt ress making tangtd 

idyu 
measure (v.) aits 
meal i<il;m, lahma 
medicine dau •/ 
meet q&bil, itqdbil waiya ; I 

met qdbilt ; chance t . . 
lif waiya 
ting gam'iya 
melt ,■/,, aaiyah, lautoib 

memory bdl 
mend yallah . t hej mend 

merchant tdpir (pi. tuggdr) 
merchandi e &i 

. 
metre nu'<r 
middle u 
mile ///<7 



milk (s.) laban ; !>»• milked 

iiiludab 
milkman labbdn 
millieme ■mil/in 
minaret madna {m&dina) 
mind (s.) 6oZ 
mine (pr.) feft£'4 (f. /„ fo'#, pi. 

Wt) 
ministry dttodn, nazdra 
minor qdsir 
minute diqiqa 
mix kltalat 
molar (tooth) din 
money fidHi 
month shu/ir 
moon go-mar, qama 
more aydda 
morning Slt&J ; this morning 

subh 

• 1 luqina 
mosque garni 1 
mosquito ndm ,-,,!. pi, 

Htta 

mot her uiitiu , my mother 

a in :u i 
mot her -in-law hnim'it 

mound hdm 

mouse/-//- (pi, /nun) 

moustache shu 
mouth fymaq 

mouthful /it /nut 

mow JiasJwh . be mov i 

haehsh 
M i e/endt, khawdya, nn 

much /.'//'/•, /,////• 
mud ////A/ 

mule /«/-////, baghla (pi. ' 

Mm 

.Imaii Muslim 

Hilt 

'1 D 



418 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



N 



Nail musmar, musmdr, mismdr, 

in is mar 
name (s.) ism ; by name 

isman ; inquire name of 

istasma 'an 
named mas/mi 
napoleon bintu (pi. bandit) 
native baladi 
near mistaqrab ; find, consider, 

near istagrab 
necessary lazim 
necessity luzHm 
neck raqaba 
need (s.) luzum, l 6za ; no need 

baldsh 
neighbour gdr 
nesting (part.) me'ashshtsh 
net shabaka 
never aba/hm 
new gedid, gidtd (comp. 



agdad, pi. gudad, gud&d) ; 

be new istiga<l<l 
newly gedid 
news khabar ; get news from 

istakhbar min 
newspaper gwrnal 
nice ; consider nice istazrnf 
night lei, lela; pass the night 

bat 
Nile bahr, bah r in nil 
no la' 
north bahr, bahri ; go north 

bahhar 
not la, mush, ma . . . eh 
notify i'lan (a'lan) 
November nufaml 
now dilwaqt, dilwaqii, /••< 
number (v.) nammar 
nurse (hospital) tamargt f. 

tamar<ji>/a 



0, oh ya 

oath ; take an oath hilif i*ti- 

hallif 
obtain ittasal 
occasion / 

bar 
of betd* (pi. /»■/'//') 
of course ma l Mm 
off : from off //'/" '"/<' 
offence ■ khal/a 
office maktab 
officer ~"'"7 (pi. zitifofy) 

old (person) /••/</>, &»6Jr (comp, 

<.■), //,/(//// I bing) 

on ■:< 

onci ■ ' 

71, A/' / ;// Q 



only 0088 : only that mm 

open ma/hill, fdUh 

open (v.) /atod imp. r- 

they opened be 

opened ii/aiuh 
opening /-///// 
ophthalmia : gel ophthalmia 

//•//< ' 

in ordei 

ordinan 
origin 



EX(.JLISH-AR ABIC VOCABULA R S 



419 



other in n't, basJiqa, ghir 

our -an, betcfna t'. betdHtna (pi. 

betu'na) 
out barra 

outer <W/' 

oven (European) fum ; (Arab) 
kdnnn 



arerfdq, l ala 

overcoat bal/ti. sdTcu 
overlook (of a window) 
overtake lihiq 
owe idd&yin 
owner sahib 



Pain (s.) waga\ (v.) iraga 1 
paint (s.) but/a, (v.) darab 

biiya 
pantry isbinea, ribinsa 
paper waraqa (coL pi. warag, 

pi. wirdq, urdq, aurdq) 
pardon (v.) .«hnih 
Pari 
partner ehirtk ; take as a pari 

ner th&rik 

hip shirka ; be in part- 

aership ishiarak 

push.'! /<<- 

yW/ ,• (hand) ?>'//r?7 .• let 
'/■iV , she passed 
///V/ ,• they i 

(s.) /')/ .' (p:LTt.) flf»f, 

I 

i//'it 
F»y (s.) ";/■" (pi. ugfar); (v.) 

(col. pi. i. 

mi 

peel 

: 



perfumes 'uturdt 

period mwlda 

perish hilik 

permission izn ; ask permission 

ista'zin 
permit azan (Ji) 
perplex haiyar 
persevere istimarr 
Persian 'agami (col. pi. 
peA< m n 
personally -.Alan 
pheni 



(tariff) 

tweir 

,• they pick up 



piastre qirsh, 

piece Hshri 

pick (up) i 

pickles tt/isJti 

picture s 

piece hi/fit (pi. /*//<//) 

, (with man] 
holes) fcharbaq ; be pierced 

pil< rim hagg 

pilgrimagi pilgrimage 

pincers kdmm 
pipe 

(a.) /r/tis< in i, kh 

cause i" pity fcw 
place I | 

plane (tO »1 | 



420 



EXOLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



play (v.) UHb ; an instrument 

daqq ; play with l&Hb 
please ; be pleased inbasaf, 

insarr 
pleased mdbsut 
plum barquqa (pi. barq&q) 
pocket gib 

poet shd'ir (pi. shu'am) 
police hub's; police-station 

tumn, karakbn 
polytheist mushrik 
pommel ; tie the bridle to the 

pommel of the saddle qarbas 
pond birka 
pony sisl (pi. saydsi) 
poor faqir ; become poor iftaqar 
porter sheydl 
porterage mash&l 
portfolio mahfada 
portmanteau shcuita 
possessed me l afrat ; behave 

like one possessed it'afrat 
possession; acquire possession 

istamlik 
possible (a.) . vwmkin ; be 

possible irnkan ; it is possible 

ijiinhin 
post busfa 

post-office (maktab) it busfa 
post pone akhkhar 
pot Italia 

potato bafafsa (col. pi. bafdfis) 
poulterer farargi 
pound (in •iic\ ) ginSh 
pound (v.) daqq 
pom- kabb . I will pour akubb ; 

be poured irikabb 
powder batrild (bardd) 
power qdUoa, maqdara 
powerful qddir 
pray salla ; pray! it/addalJ 

llllUIHll .' 

prayer tola . call to pi i\ er 
iddatn 



precision ; do with precision 
itqan ; be done with pre- 
cision intaqan 

prepare gahhiz, haddar 

present (s.) hidiya ; (a.) hddir, 
maugdd ; be present itwagad 

present (v.) qaddim 

presence w\ 

preserving (s.) hifz 

press ; be pressed ddq. idddyiq 

pretend idda'a 

pretty Icuwaiyis (comp. alacas) 

price taman 

pride 

prince bt rins, brim 

prison hobs, sign 

prisoner mahbus, masgun (pL 
igin) ; make pi 
istesar 

probably ghdliban 

procuration niydba 

proper ; be proper salih 

properly z&y in wis 

property mdi 

protect kama, d&fir l an, istakfaz 
l ala 

protecting hifz 

publish in the paper gamai 

puff; be puflVd up with pride 
iggaf 

pugh ikJchi 

pull (v.) shadd ,• be palled 
itiji i, r 

punish g 

purse 

put haff, n "P- fait •' '■ V MI « 
put haffit : they put haffu ; 
put on libit, imp. ilbis : they 
put oi . put to (door) 

radd, wdr b t harm 
be put ithaff, inhatt ; be put 
up Urakkib ; be put bo irtadd, 
it ra</</, itirnnl) 
mi. Is liaram 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



421 



Q 



Qtity (number) gu 

quarantine; put into quaran- 
tine kari 

quarrel itkh&mq, itihthdkU; 
quarrel with l drQc, khdmq ; 
they quarrelled ItlJianqu 



quarrelsome shulcali 
quarter ruft 
queen ma 
question -<u'dl 
quickly qawam 

quick-tempered shukaM, khu- 
I'l/l 



B 



ibqa; race with 
- ibiq 
•Jialaqa 
ruin (&,) | (v.) 

natarit {mutant) 
raise raja' ; be raised iirq 
iri" 

'nl 
'I .' 
r.iw 

(overtake 

• .■ she re 

fill-: 

lUret 
reading , 

read; 

• 

•ah 
rebel t v. | 
rebel! 

vdd 

i 

i 



red ah mar (f. pi. kumr) 

redness hamdr 

a 
relate haka 
relation (person) q 

r.-ly rfnmad 

remain baqa, jidil ; she remains 
til . 

'•' I "J' 1 

remaining 
remove ib'ad {al re 

mov. 
renew; be renew. .1 
I i 

renowned masti 
repair foUah, ramm; be i> 
paire I 

. • 

■ 

repl) (>.) /•'/-/./. i 

le khali 

■ 
■ 

tnsible 
bold responsil . 



422 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



retire iftarad 

return (s.) i-ugu 1, ; (v.t.) ragga 1 ; 

(v.i.) rigi* ; we returned 

rigi'na 
rice ruzz 
rich ghani 
riches mat 
ride n'fe'6 ; they rode rikbH ; 

be ridden itrakab 
riding rdkib 
ring (the bell) darab; (of metal) 

rami 
ripe mistiwi ; become ripe 

istawa 
viseq&ni; (of dough) ikfttamar; 

(increase) inzdd 
rising tuh'r 
risk (v.) dyis 
road sikka (pi. sikak) 
rob sara^ / be robbed tnsaraq 
robber hardmi 
robustness shiddtya 



roll (v.t.) dahdar, (v.n.) />/- 

JaJttar, itmarragh ; be rolled 

iddaktar 
roof s«///, sm£#A 
room o(/a (oeZa) pi. Mwad {mewl) ; 

his room udtu ; make room 

wassa\ fassdh 
rope 7mA/ 

rose warda (col. pi. ward) 
rose-water {moiyit it) maward 
roughly ; behave roughly 

ithaggar ; speak roughly to 

ittdqil l ala 
row (s.) saff; place in a row 

rassa*, mff 
rubble dabsh ; fetch rubble 

dabbish 
ruin (v.) 'auwar 
run j7m ; make run gwra ; run 

away sharad 
running (s.) ;/a?*y 



S 



Sacking UMsTi 

sad ; become sad hh.in 

saddle sarg, serg, (donkey) 

barda'a 
sake ; your sake khatrak 
-alary maMya 
saliva rt '■/ 

ah (s.) ma^A, (a.) mdlik, hddiq 
salute sallim i ala 
-a in.' irnhiil ; all the same 
ba'd 

-ami /•<///// 

Sat unlay (ydm, nalidr) is tdbt 
: 1 1 1 Jcasartina 
ge ; become savage itwah- 
hath 

siw in0 i/asfir 



say '/'f/ (imp. 7///) ; I say, will 
say </-//// ; you are Baying 
bitgi/l ; he says yeqyl; he is 
saying hh/iil ; they 

f« .• I, you, said gtttt ; 
that is i -rti 

saying yd/ 

scarab gu'rdn 

scarcely dibak 

scarcity qifla 

scatter bahtor 

scholar tetimtz 

Bchool ma 

scissors n 

scope madad 

scoi oh ; be scorched itgalla 

I . he 
Scratched (thing) itliakk 

ihr 



ENGLISH-ABABIC VOCABULARY 



423 



■li for dauwar 'ala 

• >1 tdni ; stigUndu 

'a; I, you, saw 
skuft ; lie sees yeshuf ; they 
see yeshufO. 

, taqdtot 

seeing (part.) ah&Hf, ahdyif ; 

addm ; (s.) ahdf 

Beize misik, qabad ; she seized 

mixkif : they seized mixlcu ; 

besei/nl itmasak, in(m)masak 

seizing (s.) maska 

■ I iht'i'ja 
self rca/s; himself na/su; by 

liimself V'th'lu, li wakdu 
sell M'y I, you, sold bi't, bihf ; 
they Bold Wtfy thej 

.'/■ ' ' 
scii'l sh&ya* ; they sent sTteya'ti 
separate /arag 
September Sibtim i 

nit l;l,ihl,l''ini 

serve khadam . !>»■ served 
itkhadam 

Ben ice khidma 

settle : settle with A&A 

sevci . sliidid, U gtl ; con- 

sider severe utati/at 

shafl '■/- -<// ( pi. Hrshdn) 

shame (>.) Ininnii 

Sharqiya ; native <'t' the pro- 
vince of Sharqiya, Sharqdwi 

Bharpeo (pencil) 6ara 

shear ;/*'.- . !>•• Bhorn i» 

p kharOJ (jil. khirffin) 
-lif.-i //,/' 
sheikh //■ ". // (pi. mashd'ikh, 

mcuhdyikh) 
shelf /"/'' (pi. riifi'i/) 
■hell (v.) qashshar 
shelter (v.) frawi .• seek shelter 

1st i I. till II 



.-hip merkib 

shirt </a/, 

shoes (pair of) gazma 

shoemaker <ju::in"'j. 

shoot dared) {bi I bunduqiya); 

(go shooting) /s7</'/ 
.-.Imp dukkdn 
short qusaiyar 
shoulder 
show (v.) irarrn, imp. vurr', ; 

show over farrag ; be shown 

over itfarrag 
shriek (v.) sarakh 
shrink Mara 
shut (v.) qafed, imp. ?'y/?/ .- b< j 

.shut itqqfal 
shutter shamsiya, samsiya 
s butting (part.) */<//// 
shy ; be shy ghanag, khizi 
si leboard A////V/, 

>ift gharbil ; be sifted ityharbil 
sifting tigharbU, tegharbU 
sign (v.) •(?////// '(/A/ 

at; be silenl .-//,•// 
silver fadda 
simple (person) ghashim 

sing ;/Ar/,- 
singing ghuna 

sink ( ) bcdld'a ; sink deep in 
istaghraq 
ridim 
Bister >//■•/// (pi. ikhtodt) 

ja'ad, imp. ?/yv/</ .■ you sii 

i ,■ i hey Bal qa'adH ; 

t hey sit yuqHuM . ail np at 

night st'At'r, stAir 

sitting (s.) -//.■ i . (part.) 

'/, n'tta 
sixth (s.) sute 
eAriS feldka, ft 

sk\ 8d 

! mi (\ .i.) rrdrt'6 , be (anted 
itwdrib 



424 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



slaughter dabdh 

slaughtering dabh 

slave 'abd 

slave-dealer galldb 

sleep nam ; you sleep tendm : 

I slept nimt 
sleeping nd'im, nayim 
slight khqfif 
slip (v.) izzahlaq 
slippers bantiifl, bantufli 
slowly 'ala I malil (§ 570) 
small sughaiyar comp. asghar; 

consider small, too small 

istasghar 
smallpox gidri 

smell (s.) riha ; (v.t.) shamm 
smile (v.) itbaxtim 
smiling simih 
smoke (s.) dukhhhdn ; (v.) (of a 

chimney) dakhkhan 
smoking shurb id dukhhhdn 
snake ti'ban 
snatch khataf 
sneeze Htis 
so kede ; so and so kaza, kaza 

kaza 
soak bash, bashbish 
soap (s.) sabxln, (v.) Bobbin : be 

soaped issabbin 
society shirka ; (gathering) 

gam'iya 
Mick shar&b 
sofa kanabe 

soft nd'im ; get soft ni'im 
soldier 'askari (pi. 'asdkir) 
some 6a'rf 
somebody hadd 
somt't imrs . . . somet Lines -•<<'<( 

. . . sd'a 
Bomel hing hdga 

son ihu 

Soudanese %u\ 
sound (v.) gas* 
sour: l" 1 sour foumu I 



south qibli ; go south qabhiJ 
sow (v.) zara' ; we sowed 

zara'na, zarahna 
sparrow 'asfura 
speak itkallim, ikkallim ; he is 

speaking beyikkallim ; they 

speak yikkallimu ; speak to 

kallirn ; he speaks well of 

yizkur 
spend saraf; I spent saraft; 

he spends yisrif ; be spent 

issaraf 
spider 'ankab&t 
spill kabb ; bahtar ; be spilt 

inkabb, itkabb 
spirit (devil) V'/Wf 
spite ; in spite of ghasbe 'an 
splashboard (of carriage) rafraf 
split iribarash 
spoil khassar, 'autocar 
spoon ma'laqa 
sprawl iribarash 
sprinkle bakhkh 
spy ; play the spy itbassas 
squeeze ; be squeezed ddq, 

idddyiq 
squint hawdl 

squint-eyed ahwal (pi. hi'//) 
stable asfabl ; the stable 

rastabl 
stand (place of standing) 

mauqaf 
standing wdqif 
start (on journey) sdfir, adm : 

he, it. starts >;■ jww 
start Lng mt e&fir, >n 

in. 'nt. ./.;/ 
station (railway, a*-.) mah'itfa 

stature •I'nttn 

, saraq ; thej stole Baraqd 
steamboat babUr, wabOr 
Btep (s.) .<ill i ma 

still. pi. '".>•//) . 

stuck <>ir,i/i(L« f if /■■ 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



125 



still (ad.) haman . 

sting (s.) qa 

be stung qurus 
stinging qars 



lissa 

(v. qaras) ; 



stocking shardb 

stomach la! ii 

stone hagar (pi. kugdra) 

stop (v.t.) waqqaf; (v.i.) //v'^tY 

(imp. uqaf) 
stepping (.-.landing still) UH 
stoi' lakhzan 

story (tale) hik&ya 

ght dughri 
straightway dughri 
strand ; get stranded itwahas 
street shdri' (pi. sha/oni'), 

sikka (pi. rikak) 
s ' ; 

ii (v.t.) madd 
stretching is.) madad 
strikr rfarafi . they strike 

ijidrabu . she struck gfa 

we struck darabna ; they 

struck (/ ' hey .strike 

yidraM 
striking darb 
string dubd i; piece of string 

fat/a 
stroll ; take a stroll da 

butt a 
strong shidid, gdmid 



stuff (s.) qumdsh 

>tuff ; be stulf«'d inhasha 

stuffing kashtoa 

stumble tabb, 'itir 

stumbling (s.) fabba 

succeed ; succeed to ifbawwish 

such a onefuldn 

sugar suhkar 

sugar-basin sukkariya 

suit (s.) faqm 

Sultan Suit tin 

summer 

sun (shams), seems 

sunset i nag h rib 

Sunday (ydm, nahdr) if hadd 

surely ya mahsan 

surface wishsh ; rise to the 

surface qabb 
surround hdurif 
suspend •alltiq ; be susj 

it'attaq 
suspending (s.) ta'liq 
sustenance rizq 
swallow bala' : be Bwallowed 

iuzalat 
sweep (v.) kanas 
sweet hilw ; find sweet istahla 
swell (v.) wirim 
swim 
sword sif 
Syria >'.<h Shdm 

S\ i in.] i shdmi 



a ; (din- 
ing) .oi/ra, tu/ra 
tablecloth 
tail </>■/ 
tailor khaiydt 

ahhail, khad (imp. khud) : 

takes takhud ; I. you, 

took /''///. -he took khadit, 

tfaei took hJttfiii ; take 



away .»•//'// (imp. iA£/) ; 
take off qahr . take out 
talla\ lcharrag ; take to 

accustomed to) /,•//</«/./<• 
'<//'/ .• he takes (con i 

! // . take oneself off 
iii'/an ; take a tick I , 

im ; (drinks, 



426 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



talk (s.) kal&m, qol ; (v.) 

ikkallim ; they talked 

ikkallimu 
tall tairil (comp. atwal) 
tank hod 
tax rasm 

tea-pot ibriq beta' ish shdy 
teach l allim 
teacher m&allim 
tear (v.) sharat, sharmat ; be 

torn ish sharmat 
telegram talagr&f, tiligrdf 
temperament khidq 
temple (ancient) birba (pi. 

bar&M) 
tennis (li l L) it tanis 
tepid ; get tepid jitir 
terrace svfi'/h 
than min, l an 
thank ; thank you kattar 

kherak 
that (pr.) da, dih (f . '//"), dik-ha 

(§ 124) ; (c.) inn, leinn ; that 

they innuhum 
the il 

theatre tiydtru 

their -hum, beta'hum, betahhum 
them -hum 
1 here Tiendk 

t 1 lerefore 'ashdn ('ala shdn). k< It 
i hese '/'"J 
they humma 
thick tekhin, tikhin (pi. tukhdn) ; 

grow thick tikhin 
I liin rufaiya' 
thing /"';/'', k//t 
think zawn, iftakar 
third (s.) //// 
thirsty 'afshdn 

this (A/, J/// (f. r//') 
those '/"/. ihilc htiiiiimi 

though wdau ; as though ke'inn 
thousand "//' 
thrashing (s.) 'aZgtf 



three £oZa£, talaia, taldta 

throttle lianaq 

throttling hanq 

throw rama (imp. irmi) ; hadaf; 

she threw ramit ; they threw 

ramix; be thrown away 

itrama 
thunder (v.) ra l adit (id dinya) 
Thursday (yom, nahdr) il 

khamis 
thus kede 
ticket tazkara 

tie (v.) rabat ; they tied rabatu 
tied marhfit 
tiger nimr 
time wa^tf, zaman ; marra ; 

mudda ; (season) awdn ; at 

thai time waqtiha 
timid khauwdf 
tiny zughannan, sughattat 
tire Zr/'aft, ta"ab ; get tired // vA 
tired ta'b&n 
to /?', Ze, l ala ; to me 2t, liya ; 

to him Zm/i 
tobacco dukhkhdn 
tobacconist dakhakhni 
to-day in nahdr da 
together s< urn 
to morrow bukra : the day 

after to-morrow ba'cU bukra 
tougs kammdsha 
tongue />'.<> in 
to-night il lela 
too kamdn 
tootli einna 
torture (v.) 'azzib . be tortured 

ingazar 
t.»t:il guinla, gimia 
tourisl sauwdh 
towel 

town balad (pi. bQ 
trade tigA 
train babdr, >ntl-ih 
iy tramwdy 



ENGLISH- ARABIC VOCABULARY 



127 



trari- >m 

trap masyada 

travel (v.) sdfir ; I, you, tra- 
velled jsdfirt ; she travelled 
safrit : they travelled safrd 

tray saniya 

treat (v.) '■amil, (medically) 
•'///'/ ; be treated (medically) 
idddtoa 

tree sagara (shagara) 

tremble irta'ash, (from cold) 
rasras 

trip (s.) sq fanya, sifariya 

trousers bantalon, mantalon 

true sahih 



trunk sanddq 
trunk-maker sanadqt 
truth haqq, haqiqa, saMha 

try (v.t.) garrab ; try on 

be tried it garrab 
Tuesday (yum, naliar) it talat 
Turk Turk 
Turkey bildd it Turh 
turn (v. t. and neut.) dam 

turn oneself over inqalab 
turning (up a street. dec.) 

tahimd 
twist tau-a 
two itnen 
tying (s.) ruhdt 



U 



Ugh ikhkhi 

umbrella shamstya, miiidya 

uncle (paternal) l amm (pi. 
i'mdm); (maternal) khi'il 

unclean nigis : consider unclean 
:■//■■< 

uncover kasha/ 

under tdht 

understand fihinz; be under- 
stood itfaham : get to under- 
stand istadrak (*ala) 



unfasten /"/•/,■ 

unruly sTiaqi, (pi. shuqdy) 

until hadd, It hadd 

untying (s.)/a/,7/ 

up/dg 

upholsten i gid 

upper/'-;, 

upset qalah ; be upset itqalab 

urge on ista'gil 

us -na 



Vaccinate ta l am 
vaccination tnt-'nn 

valley in'hll (pi. widydfl) 

veil (s.) burqu' (pi. /"iri'hfi 1 ) 
verify l<."'i'l'"l •' hH verified 
ithaqqaq 

very aavC, /.''/'/' 

victoria (carriage) hanfUr 
view 



village &a&u2 (pL fa'&fcZ) 

vinli 'lice .«:/ 

violent shedid, shidid 

\ Lf LOU .-7/iV' 

visit : visit on a ffite day i aiyid 

'ala 
visitor 'A/' (pi. diydj\ \esdfir 
\ oice sd{ 



W 



r (v.) /-'/// 'n 

■ 



keep wait 
in;.' >•'(/•'' 



128 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



waiter sufragi, sufragi 

waiting for mistanni 

wake (v.i.) sihi 

walk mishi ; make to walk, 

walk about (t.) mashsha ; 

walk about (i.) ddr ; they 

walk yimshu : take a walk 

itfassah 
walking (s.) mashy, (part.) 

mdshi 
wall Mt, hcta ; low wall, 

foundation wall giddr 
walnuts goz 
want (s.) '6::a ; (v.) l az, 'auz, 

'aiz 
wanting l auz, l aiz; (deficient) 

ndqis 
war harb 
warm (v.t.) daffa 
war-office karbiya 
warped matni 
wash (v.) ghasal ; I washed 

ghasalt ; be washed itghasal 
washerwoman ghassdla 
washing (s.) ghasil 
watch (s.) sd'a ; (v.) (sit up at 

night) sihir t sihir 
watchmaker sd'dti 
water moiya 
water-carrier $aqq& 
water-melon shammdma (col. 

pi. shamm&m) 
waylay istarsad li 
we iliiiit 
weak '/""'/ 
weaken da' da' 
weakness rfit*/ 
wealthy; become wealthy 

iqtadar 
wear libia; be worn out with 

age qudum 
r ea ring /<//</.< 
u .Mt her dinya, dunya 
wedding faraJi 



Wednesday (yd?n, nahdr) il 

arba' (I arba 1 ) 
week gum'a 
weep biki, 'aiyat 
weisrh wazan : be weighed 

itwazan 
well (s.) bir 

well taiyib ; get well /7mjf 
west (s.) ghurab ; (a.) gharbi 
wet ; be wetted itball, inball 
what e, eh, esh, md, ani 
wheel 'agala 

when lamina ; when ? emta ? 
whenever kulle ma 
where fen 

which illi, ani, enhu (§ 1 25) 
whichever, ey, eyiha 
whip / urbdg 
whisper (v.) washwish 
white abyad (f. beda, pi. bid) ; 

.white colour baydd 
who illi ; who ? nwn 1 
whoever hullo, manhu 
whole/,;///,- Idl; sahih 
why /e/i 

wickedness skarr 
wide 'arorf 
widen icassa' 
wife goza ; his wife guztu, 

imrdtu 
win husub 
wind /iazra 
window ehibbdk 
window blind .<// ira 
\\ i 1 1 1 ■ «eW£ 
wink ; wink to one another 

itghdmiz 
winter eTiita, shit mi 
wisdom hikma 

wish (v.) .-//</' 

with /;/'/', irniiia. hi ; with me 

/»/'/ . w ith her milthi , with 
as ma'dna 
within guwa 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY 



429 



without min </Jier 

witness (s.)8hdhtd (pl.shuhhdd, 

shuhild), (v.) shih ill ; call ;is 

witness istashMd 
woman mara, hurma (politer 

than mara) ; women niswdn, 

nisa 
wonder istaghrab 
wood kha&halb ; piece of wood 

khashdba 

wool >'///' 

wool-gathering tawaTidn 

word gdl, l.aldm 

work (s.) ehughl, (v.) isMaghal . 

they work yisMighilu 
workman/'''// 

workshop warsha (pi. wirash) 
world '////'/■', dunija, 'dlam 
worse a/'«« 



worship l abad , be worshipped 
it'abad 

would ; would th;it I ya "V 
wound (v.) garah, garrah ; be 

wounded ingarnh 
wrangle ishshdh in 
wrap /'/jf 
wrapping khesh ; put wra] >ping 

on khaiyish, kMyish 
wrestler bahlawdn 
wretched maskin, ghalbdn <\<\. 

ghaldba) 
write katab ; I, you, wrote 

katabt : be written inkatab 
writing kitdba 
writing-bonk daftar 
writing-room maktab 
writing-table bash tt ikh fa 
wrong hardm, (v.) zalam 



Yawn ittdivib, ittaub 

year sana (pi. «w2n) ; last year 

l amnaun il 
yellow asfar; become yellow 

isl'arr 
yes (?//</, a 

• I- l.i v inbdrilt, imbdrih; 



the day before yesterday 

auwil imbdrih 
yet lissa 

you -A:, a/c <fcc. (§ 121) 
young sughaiyar ; young man 

ehabb 
your (§ 121) ; te/tf'aA-, fr ■ 



VOCABULARY 

TO THE WORDS CONTAINED EN THE EXEBC . 
ON THE SYNTAX 1 



A 



Aflas 

agal ■ i of life 

ag-har half blind, purblind 
r, let on hire 

'"J 'J 
agrann inatn nuchc that; 

that 

abJ (ahall i 
;ihlan u sahlan 

i b good ma idab 

cl<> 

V 
arnab h<ire, rabbit 
aziun = k<inn 
azral 



asad lion 

asar trace, relict 

iced 
akhiz to blame 
akhdar gr< 

akhrag, ikhrag ■ oxd 

amana security; ainant Allah 

= bi llah 

amir (umara) of a good family 

ainr c 

ainlas smooth, p\ lished 

an 
, jes 



I 
ifo-kli!.'. 

ittukka lean Ot 



: 'al;i trust in 

itliaiy. 
ithaddit 



1 Th 

OCCU I 

'■ 

<31 



4.3^ 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



itdastar ask permission, say 

"dastur " (dastur) 
itsaraf be spent ; depart 
it'ashsba dine 
itfadd be ended 
itqabil meet 
itqaddim be advanced 
itkabbib be made round as a 

ball, in balls 
itlaff be wrapped up 
itmashsha take a walk 
itnataq be pronounced 
itnattat/jtrap, skip 
itnaqal remove one's self, b< 

removed 
itwadda perform one's ablutions 
ittallab ask for 
ihtar be bewildered, con/used 
iddaffa irarm one's self 
iddaffar be plaited 
idraf kind of pumpkin 
i rta'ab take fright 
irta'ash tremble 
izar cloak, shawl 
izzaiyar put on the i::dr 
izmint cement 
izn permission 
ista'giz ask permission 
istaghfar ask pardon 
istaghla consider expensive 
istahil <l>-serve 

i-t 1 1 1 1 ■•■ i s 'ala hi"/,- after, a i to 
ista Ma find sweet, pleasant 
tstarda consent 
ista'zis ask permission 

fly to for refuge ( 
Lsta'raf l>i make acquainton 
Istafrad /» left atom 
istaqrab consider near 



istama' listen to 

istawa be ripe, cooked 

istigab hear (a prayer) 

istiraiyah to rest, repose 

istiqam take up one's abode 

Lssaqqa be soaked 

iesawa agree togetfier 

iskandarani Alexandrian 

iswalli of Assouan 

iswira bracelet, wristband 

istabab. bi meet in tlie morning 

issaffa be strained 

ishtaghal work 

isbshauwim consider of ill omen 

ishshakka complain of 

ifti'aMa forgery, invention 

Lktasab gain, • arn 

iklitar, iklitar rhoose 

ikhtasha 6< shy 

Utaqa find, 

Ht&bis be clothed ; bt possessed of 

(a spirit) 
intafa be extinguished 
intaqal = itnaqal 

rash fall prone, on one's 

face 
ingada* ( = liter. indaga') lie on 

■t< d, haunted 
inhasad be en the enl 

i on one 

i i nl at' 

inzalam be wronged, t\ 

• >n r 

insaraf go away 
inshal I. put, auay 

in fad d be finished 
inwahar ' ■ frightened 

i\ik | 



Usui regulations! custom, rule | omnia] . thm 



VOCABULARY 



433 



B 



Bauwaba gate 

bat, beyit pass the night 

■ Ttpil 
batin inner, hi 
battikh water-melon* 
baghl, baghla (bighal) m 
bahhari .-ailor 
bahr; il b. il abyad the White 

badan body 

badla suit of clothes 

ban .-••7 free 

baraka lietring, goo> I fortune 

baram go round, whirl 

baruda, baruda gun 

bartusha old flipper, shoe 

barr shore, bank, country 

barq lightning 

it) to plea 
basit rim} 
basal onions 
bashsbar give good news 

il 
ba'at send 
ba'ir camel 
bakht lurk 

bakbkh squirt, spit out 
bakhkhar Sprinkle with 11 
balata slab 



bala' fo swallow 

baligh mature 

ball fo W7gf 

bamya, the esculent hibiscus 1 

ban appear 

banzahdr, bezoar stone 

bannura a crystal M 

bet house ; sheath 

bedingan egg-plant, auberg/.t ■ 

beya' seller 

bir ^eZZ 

biram (ibrima) earthen pot 

birka lake, marsh, j>it 

bizz breast 

bishi 4 ugly 

bikr virgin 

girl 
buhaq fumes 
burg ?■ 
burqvr 
burnus white woollen hooded 

cloak 
buz muzzle, snout 
buqq mouth 
bul.Vl 

bulugb maturity 
bunduqi (dahab) 7/ caraZ (a.* 

</i€ Ki i- in) 



binte bikr a 



pan 

■ :ay 
tih.trn accuse 

as a gift 

• 

t.i-n mm / tun 



t I'Miira load ; pipeful 
t iqrtbl approzimat 
iiiin queering, id* a 

tall /<//'/, i, 

taman pri ■ . value 

tammim /" eon 
tanbO sit idly 
tannin point ; U al 



ah, v. 



'4.14 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



ti'ib get tired 

til linen 

tila twisted rope 

t.urba (turab), turba grave 



I tuql weight 
tunina the eighth part of t/ce 
qadah 



Taiyar current 

taiyara kite 

tauwaf watchman t patrol 

tauwil (balu) be patient 

tabib physician 

tabb beat {of the pulse o 

heart) 
tabbil beat a drum 
tabliya board, table 
tata bend down 
tar revenge 

tarablis a silk girdle or eash 
tarah get ripe 
tarsha vomiting 
tariqa manner 
tashtask to ji:.:. 
ta'iu flavour 
tafash run away 
taffa extinguish (fire) 
^aqa window, hole 
(aqiya cap 

taqtaq crackle, came i<> crackle 
taqq burst ; die 



taqm suit of clothes, harness 

tal to reach 

talab to demand 

talaq divorce 

tama' greed 

tami' covetous 

tawi' obey 

ter birds 

tish^ fcut* 

tes ; bahre tes exo etlingly 

tin Nile --"d ; laiul 

tof patrol 

tubtab ; 'at tubtab just at 

wanted, a propos 
tubgi gunner 
tukur circumcision 
Tura nam* of a village {the site 

of a convict pr 
turya pickaxe 
tul ; tul ma an long «w ; 'ala 

tul straight airay 
tuiuu' covet 
tuwala sofa, mattrene 



G 



(Jabr force, compulsion 

gada' (gid'&n) brave /Site yxng 

f Uow t gaillard 
garr /-«//, <//•«//• 
garrab ferfj try 
garraa inform -/, disgrace 

g l/./.il' (zz) I'Utclt. f 

gazar cm- rots 

g4* fa hungry 

gaku .■••// 

gallia cow i .'" •</ 



gama 1 collect, add 
gama'a / orfy, / 

garni) /" autiful 
gan >///<«, penis 

gaw.'iz MOTI 

gfiyii istille 

gdab <irw// 

gibfl gypsum 

giha 

gidU i .' 

giri / <m 



VOCABULARY 






prid jiolm brat 

Giza (ig) jicliiv of a viUag-i {llie 

rite of a conoiet prison) 
gisim bulky 
gild skin, hide, leather 



gins, /.-in • . 
gthax* Jewel 

guhr hole 

gurra track, footprint* 

gurn mortar ; bora 



>±i<jr 



GH 



Ghaivar to chanye 

gh.-'ih be absent 

ghafta 'ala cover 

ghagari gipty 

ghadda >jive lunch to 

ghadr perjidy 

ghadwa lunch 

ghaiib strange ; a <tranyer 

gharxam to fine 

gbarq&n dmu-ned 

1 gazelle 
gha/.li of spun silk 

hing 
ghafal, ghifil to dose 



ghafir watchman 

ghala boU 

ghalab eon 

gbanl rich 

ghiiya end; li ghaya up to 

ghut 

ghirirn befi ted, pay a fine 

ghilib. ghulub be conqu>.> 

wear i ■ d 
ghina wealth 

ghubariya( = asar) trace, ttsiiyt 
ghurab rrow 
ghorba strange land 
ghurbal larye sieve 



II 



Hauwin make easy 

hab fear 

hfthanh run against, jiy id 

habaq 

\i.i\A> jly at 

ha;: bt 'J-ritul 

ba da seel 

barab, hirib run away 

hai-.nii the pyramid, pyramid* 



hazz shake 

n/yisy, excited 

talk idly 
balfl idle talk 
haiina to interest, con> 
hanna make happy 
hilik, halak perisli 
Hind (il) India 
hou mortar 



Jl 



hawwid (urn a corner 
hams i-li COlit •(. hard 
tan* 
-., little bit 

j'w I 
.!' throw 



A\ of a blacksmith 
li.i'ltlr 

hadd .' . ''Ji'y 

hara (ha win) set of 

qua 

■uyh 



436 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



haram (il) (sacred -shrine of) 

Mecca 
haram icrong, sin 
harir silk 
barb war, battle 
harrar put, set, hold up 
barf edge 

hazzam bind in a bundle 
hasab 'ala look after 
hasad to envy 
hass to feel 
hash pi-event 
hafaz keep, protect 
baft barefoot 
hafir hoof 
haqq right, what is due ; fi baqqi 

about, against, me 
hakim doctor 
hal state, condition; 'ala kulle 

hal anyhow, however it may 

be 
hala state, position 
halab to milk 
halaq (hulqan) rings 
halal lawful 

halawa sweets ; pourboire 
half a a prickly reed-like weed 
hama defend 



hamad praise 

hamar red colour 

hamal bear, carry 

haml carrying 

hammala (of zir) stand 

hantur victoria (carriage) 

bannin cause to pity 

haya ; bi 1 haya alive 

het wall 

hes ; min hesu kan however it 
may be 

hel ; qa'ad 'ala belu sit up 

bigab charm, amulet 

Higaz Hijaz ; pilgrimage 

birz protection 

hiss sound, voice 

hisab calculation 

hisba account 

hila trick, resource ; ma hiltfish 
haga he has no means, no- 
thing 

hilw sweet 

hiwan animal 

hudn ( rubrace 

husurn (husumat) hot sumimr 
days 

hurr (ihrar)/rea 

hurma woman 



D 



Dauwar (d) eause to turn, (urn 

dauwib cause to melt, §c. 

dab meit ; be worn out 

da bah to slaughter 

dabbar contrive, am 

d;lr (d) turn 

daraga step, degree ; moment 

darig current, colloquial 

darra winnow, eeatti r 

d&8 tread, run ('ala ■ ) 
■ l;i^}ish gnu. I 

da'a li bleu 

da'vra affair, U notuii 



dafa //' '// 

daqn chin ; beard 

dakbal - ■ 

dakhi] ituide 

ilakhkhaii emit smoke 

dafan bury 

daffia bury 

daqq grind . play (a n?j/</>a7 in- 
str u ment); tai 

dam (villain) /<!.</, <•<>»//• 
(yidlm) cant* to lewt, 

1" t 
damm blood 



VOCA HILARY 



437 



da way a inkstand 

rife 
•lib icolf 

dibla a plain finger-ring 
diri know 
diqiq 
dimagh head, brains 



dimir a jacket {such as is worn 
by siifr i ees) 

dim'a (dumu') a tear 
dimrua conscience 
dor story of a house 
dura maize 
durbC^h dry clods 
dun low, inferior 



D 



Daiyif entertain 

dab' hyena, lion 

da' if weak 

daf add , entertain 

dalma dari 

damar foretell the future 

da mm collect, gather 

dawa shine 

dC-f guest 



dirs cog-wheel 
difira plait, tress 
diqit il kbulq impetuosity 
dim n amongst 
duhr noon 

dufr nail {of t lie finger or toe) 
dulma vegetables stuffed with 
mince-meat 



B 



Ra'uf mere Jul 

rauwah go away 

rabat il q ' I 

rabb lord, master 

rabba educate, bring up 

i;i*l pound {weight) 

ragab (for raqab) 6b 

ii Ragtm OS Statu d [Satan) 

raggab (Uppei ian) 

raqab 
ragba chatter (lit. foam at the 

mouth) 
r:\ha rest : bdt ir ralia cl 

ragbab wish for 

rabam have eo i on 

rah ,i\a hand -m ii I 
nth i in merciful 
ntbuia m 
ru.hu. 

radani ver up with earthy $c, 

radd 

radda 



radt bad 

razaq provide for 

ras //ea//, head-piece 

rashwa &rfl . 

ra*ad t<t (h 

ra'd thun<l> r 

raqab ZooA-, /w<- 

raqaba ru 

r&q /"' '/■ ar . >/■ ' 6< tfw ("« 
ittft) 

raqq prou ^?'n 

raqqa* to patch 

raqwa >/ • II, '-harm 

rak'a / ///■ / 

prayer, prostration 

rakkih _//'.. , ft / up 

rakba relax. I- 1 fall 

ra'y "pinion . 'ala i.i'y accord- 
ing t<t 

rigbif 

rih tr in/ ; spirit 



438 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



ridi to consent 
risi come to a decision 
rismal capital 
risha feather 
rif country, milage 
riq saliva; ghaiyar riqu 
breakfast on 



<ala 



rikab stirrup 

riyal dollar, 20 piastre 

rutan lingo, foreign tongue 

rukuba a mount 

rukham marble 

lumt Greek 

rumman pomegranates 



Zauwid increase 

zabfin customer 

zad increase (neut.) 

zatilna bracelet 

zad provisions for a journey 

zaghrflta shrill cry uf joy 

zarawiya ( = ballast) a large 

earthen pot 
zar' solving ; cultivated land 
za'al anger 

zaffa bridal procession 
zaqq push 
zal in lam yazal does not cease 

(§ 54 f>) 
zalabani seller of zalahya (a kind 

of fritter) 



zammar orc<e ?c7*o plays on a 

reed 
zann grumble, scold 
zawati belonging to grandees 
zen = taiyib (dialect) 
zifir greasy 
zift p*fcft 
zika alms 
zimiq ^e^ angry 
zimil comrade 
zina ornament 
ziyada surplus, more 
ziyara (ziyara) OMtJ 
zukhma a strap 



Zauwar take to n'sit 

zabat control 

zibit officer 

zab^lya principal police office 

zagliat U) sinillow 
z:ighn"ita shrill cry of joy 

z.ihar appear 

zar in visit 

zar (zikr) repealing th>' name of 



God (see Lane's "Mod. 

Egypt," cli. xxiv.) 
zalat pebbles 
zajamsLrplay <n <i reed pipe 

zammar one who plugs on a 

reed p»j • . 
/aim think, 
zfir forgery, perjury 



S 



Sa'aJ ows 
aabagb to dye 
aabbagb dyer 
aabat prow, fcoM I'Hf 

■abba' m * w " ,/ ";/ v <"''' 



Bab 1 Now 

satr n //('';/ (one's tint) : | 

Badaq taU if*< frifl(ft 

BagaO imjnsoii 



VOCABULARY 






sahm arrow 

Bar proceed 

sarah rove, travel : go to one* 
work 

sa'ad, Ba'ad 'ala m //."■ 
perous 

lrrospt rity : Exeelli ncy 

Ba'id, rii'id prosperous 

safaiiya <nj? f exp edition, cam- 
p'liim 

safaq ta&e f 6r»ft« 

?«e< on a journey 

saq dr 

saqa /o »ater, irrig 

saqsaq soak 

i KNlA; (J't-pqr? in broth) 

sakin (sukktin) dwelling, haunt- 
ing, spirit 

salata, salata ealad 

salaq boil 

•ii u sallim ! <?ear me/ 

.-.-tl \iii l safety 

galfim 

salgam a l;i/»/ of turnip 

sallim deliver ; moh 
wen 

samara fruit, i 

samm t<> poison 

>.inilll.l to ■ 

8ai))inar nail, fatten down 

samn //- Med imttT 



sawa /o fqiinl 
aawari cavalry 

s6f sicord 

sidgh '• 

sil'Iih ./'•-"'■ //■■/'// 

sihr 80f 

siderl waistcoat 

siilr /'/■ 0*£ 

sidq //-?///i 

fiira /W? 

sirri .^cre^ 

sirmah profligate 

si'i (vis-;i) ", /,*/,•? oneself 

In 

siil become prosperous 
sikit 6e mZertf 

sikin uth'ihit 

sikkina /,/n7e 

sikhtiyan moroeco binding 

silali rrcopoM, a 

simakh (il widn) orifire (of the 

simiii poison 

6immawi maoisfem 
siw.i '/ cooking 

Bu'al </'/'>■' 

subiV s^ri-T)f/t ilny 

sukhra, sukhra .•<</•/•<'« 
sukaa habitation 

sultaiiiya l-osin, ftOliJ 



■"an 
•aawaf /-> .-■/</•*' /.' 

snliall //-' M '' ■ 

•ababiya following morning 

tabar, -ulmr fc /<•'/<- ;</, 

■aMjTfl 

. rx»/, /• 
»ahd y/ oi heat 



sahi fl/'-rt/,-' 1 
sahib friend 
sahh /-»- / /-'7" /•, /<»;/// 
-ah ha 

•addar Ar//w '•///, put in f 

-. 

linn I 

saiakli, parrakh 
- hi- to wrap 
tarkha " cry, i 



440 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



safar yellow colour 

saffa strain, filter 

salih pious 

salla pray 

sam to fast 

Samadiya name of a chapter 

the Koran 
san'a profession 
sanf class, kind 
siid shooting, fishing 
sef summer 
siraya palace 
sirikh screeching 

Sha' to wish 

sha'am be of ill omen 

she(ai)ya' send 

sbe(ai)yil cause to carry 

shabah image, resemblance 

shabb young, young man 

shabba alum 

shatara cleverness, skill 

shataf wash, rinse 

shatir clever 

shutfa fiint-lock 

shahaq sigh 

shahri monthly 

shadd pull 

shara /my 

sliar.it make a condition 

sha i.i i : i spark 

shar.if honour 

sharba draught of water, yc. 

-li.ii-t n mdit Km 

sharrab give to drink 
sh.irr evil 
aharraf to honour 
Bharq East 
li.inu.it tear to pieces 
Bhasb. muslin 
slui'r hair 
ahafa heal 
shaql rascal 
shaqq to split 



of 



si'idi native of Upper Egypt 

si(sa)niya tray 

sifa quality 

siyam a fast 

subh morning 

subhiya morning time, early 

morning 
sughr smallness, youth 
suhba bouquet 
sur' (sur') reins ; ala akhir sur' 

at full gallop 
sfira face 



SH 



sbaqq crack, crevice 

shakar speak well of 

sbakkar thank 

sbakwa complaint 

shakhs (sakbs) pei'son 

shal shawl 

shami Syrian 

sham 'a a candle 

shamla band 

shamm to i 

sbankal (shankil) trip up 

ahawir consult 

she thing 

shehada testimony 

sln'l lifting up; carrying away 

shibi' be satisfied, satiated 

shirit ribbon ; wick 

shirik partner 

sliii wjl loose irons, n 

Bhlsh an iron sjn'kf 

slii li- barley 

slii-iri of the thape Or form of 

barley 
sliif.i health 
sliikl form 
ahinlsha -/ hole through 

I similar bo ;i | 

ah6ka fork 

ahuwdsha small tuft of hair 



VOCABULARY 



441 



•aiy;t make ill 

'aiyat ireeji 

'aiyid to feast 

'aiyil child 

'aiyin l appoint 

'au'au, 'auwu, to bark 

'auwad Cfjiuj" ruatt 

'auwaq be lon-i, delay 

'abba fill 

'atiya giviwy, gift 

'attar druggist 

'■Ag&b please, suit 

'agan knead 

'ad to return 

'ad (in Upper Kgvpt) = I 

'ads lentils 

'arts bridegroom 

'arbid search fur loot 

'ard honour ; fi 'ardak ! 

'arr to disgrace 

'arafa throne 

'arflsa bride : a in^ial or < 
ornament worn l»j wonu 
the rtose, tujiporting th* 
ig- from 

'azaq to till 

'azib unma 
■■ ar 

'azzib torture, punish 

'azzil r> mo 

'asm determinate ><, energy 

'aaal honey 

'as' is <irv. 

*&8 soil, I- 

'as^ii res* 

'a..«l>a (*azba) 6/ocX: »•///.• /•• 

• n by women round flu- 
he . 
'aar th i/ternoon j 



- become rigid 

'ashshish £o /<e*rf 

'afa give health ami .<tr^mgth tu 

'afrat madden , frighten 

'afrit devtZ, sprite 

'afsh *£ujf, baggage 

'afya health, strength 

'aql reason, head, intelligence 

'af w pardon 

'al excellent 

'alam mkwW 

'aliq forage 

'alim learned 

'alqa a beating 

'alliin feocA ; ///a/7.- 

'amal make, do; make as if, 
pret 

'amir ('ummar) inhabiting t fre- 
quenting ; 'amir il bC-t nam^ 
/ fo ///-- serpent guardian 
of the house wlterehe hat 
his n 

'am la 

'anmii ignorant 

'an /•-. 

'awad a recompense, tom\ 
ti m 

vb vice, -hame 

v>h ///-<>/-/ ,- It ring, . 

'81a family 

■ !/e 
'ibfida " r*Atp 
'ibara phras* ; matter 

•ilili •'•</ 

'i-isli A. thirsty 
Hval 

'iiiij 



1 I • nmin f..i -;ii\ in. 

:m adverb it i> sometu . svitli 



44J 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



'irsa weasel 

'irq vein ; 'urfiq il figl radish fops 

'izal effects, furniture 

'izz height, fulness, depth 

'isha the time of evening prayer 

'ishiq fall in love with 

'ilim know 

'inaba a grape 



l M stick. (See §301.) 
'uziima invitation; banquet 
'6m swimming ; unfordable 

(water) 
'uzr excuse 
'usmalli Ottoman 
'ufar dust 
'uqba end ; recompense 



F 



Fatan tell tales, denounce 
fatta broth, bread soaked in 

m ilk 
fattah emerge (of the sun) 
Fattah Opener (God) 
fahat dig 
fahar dig 
fakl calf, young of a buffalo, fyc. 

(larger than the 'igl) 
faddan acre 

faddad to silver, inlay with silver 
fadi empty, disengaged 
farag chance, occasion 
f arah joy, wedding 
faras mare 
farash spread out ; furnish, stuff 

(chairs, <fec.) 
faram cut si null, mince 
farrat (fi) get rid of, " churl:'' 
farragh distribute ; empty 
furnish sweeper ; a general servant 
farraq distribute, divide 
farsh carpets, bedding 
farqa' explode 

faza' spring up ; startle ; threaten 
f azz jump up 
fasqtya fountain 
fa$al to bargain 



fa?? slice 

fassas to shell, cut into slices 

faq recover consciousness 

faqas to hatch 

fakir mindful 

fakkar remind 

fakharani maker of pottery 

f akhfira pottery 

falaq to split 

fani transient 

fantaz deck old 

fantaziya a show, parade 

fitlr pastry 

figl radishes 

fihim understand 

fidil remai?i 

fikr thought, idea 

fikra tliought, idea 

fiqi, fiqi schoolmaster (in a kut- 

tdb), reciter of the Koran 
filfil p> y/'' /• 
futur breakfast 
fursha fwush 
furn oven 
fusduq, f uzduq pist achtO nut* 

fukhkhar eartht mean 

fiil bat us 
full jusi/i Ine 



Qaiyala mid-day heat 
qabad to cash 
qabul, qubul accsj i 



Q 



qabbil to kits 

qatal kill : strike (in dialect of 
Upper Egypt) 



VOCABULARY 



443 



qatar that on which perspiration 

ha-? fallen 
qatar )~un after, go with 
qatam cut with teeth 
qatta' it tariq highway robber 
qalit famine, hunger 
qad to light, kin/He 
qadam foot 

qadar appointed period, destiny 
qadah a dry measure (small 

fraction of the ardabb) 
qadr worth, p<> 
qadd about, nearly 
qaddim present, offer 
qada do, accomplish 
qaras to sting, pinch 
qarafa cemetery 
qaraq talk scandal, tell tales 
qarr conf 88, tell tales 
qarr&ya lamp (in form of a 

bowl) 
qarrab approach 
qar* vegetable marrows 
qarash crunch 
qarqash crunch, munch 
qarn horn 

qarnablt cauliflower 
qazan boiler, cauldron 
qaa to measurt 
qassim divide into parts 
qagab sugar cane ; gold thread 
qasaba a land measure 

qasad int( rid 



qashsh straw, stubble 
qashshish, qashqish pick up, 

gather, glean 
qa'iid young camel 
qafash seize 

qall bedeficient, belittle; lessen(tr.) 
qallib turn upside down, stir 
qammas to skip 
qanaya small canal, stream 
qanun code of laros, rule 
qandil cup or glass for holding 

oil, used as a lamp 
qed fetter, shackle 
qibil accept 
qitan cotton cord 
qidir be able 
qidra earthen pot 
qirat 24th part of a fad dan 
qirib be near : be related. 
qirba water-skin 
qirtas conesliaped paper hag 
qird monkey 
qisma portion, fate 
qishta cream 
qishr rind, bark, shell 
qiyama day of resurrection 
quta kind of tomatoes 
qudftm arrival 
qui-.i forehead 
qurma log 

qulla earthen water-bottle 
qumar gambling 
qun' contentment 



K 



Kauwim heap up; cut up into 

pieces 
kab&b pieces of mutton or land* 

( ro •/' 'i "U skew rs) 
kal)l> pour, upset 
kattif He the hands behind (he 

back 
karaf rmeU out, sniff 
karakdn pulia station 



karawSta sofa 
karsh hurrying 
karka l>a noise 
kasban gainer 

kasr (in dahab kasr)*>kh&in 
raw 

1 be lazy 
kashaf uncover 
k&fa to reward 



444 



THE SPOKEN ARABIC OF EGYPT 



kafan shroud 

katf palm of the hand 

kaffa suffice 

kail if cost; expend 

ki'f ; 'ala kefak as you Wee 

kela a dry measure, the twelfth 

part of an ardabb 
kaman, keman also, more, 

again 
kitab book ; marriage contract 
kitaba writing 
kibf shoulder ; hatte kitf hurry 

away 
kidib tell a lie 
kidb a lie ; false 



kirsh belly, paunch 

kis bag, purse 

kifaya sufficiency 

kilma word 

kom lump, piece ; mound 

kubbOl brougham 

kubr greatness ; old age 

kuttab primary school 

kuhl a black pigment for the eyes 

kursi seat, throne ; ayit il Kursi 
name of the 256th verse of ttw 
2nd chapter of the Koran 

kuz mug 

kuffiya shawl worn round tht 
head 



KH 



Khabat strike, knock 

kbabar news 

khabaz balce 

khabiz baking 

khabas tell lies, slander 

khabbat knock frequently 

khatma a recitation of the 

Koran, Koran reading 
khatab betroth 
khafaf snatch 
khatba match-maker 
khatt make lines, rows 
kbatt (kbufftt) line, furrow 
khuUat make lines, furrows, 

ridges 
kbatwa step 
khadd cheek 
kharag go out 
kharag (\ ikluig) distil 
kharazan cane 
kharaq to drill, piera 
kharr /< (dc, full in dr\ pa 

klianat CUt into si 

kbarraq /< rforate with hoh t 
khasina treasury 



khass grow thin, shrink 

khasran losing ; lost 

khaf to fear 

khaff be light ; get well 

khala desert, open space 

khali free from 

khalifa caliph, chief 

khallas finish, satisfy, ll do for," 

" do" 
khallif beget 
kliaiuran drank 
khan bazaar 
klia\ in treacherous 
khrr goodness ; 
khdra choosing, choice 
khibra experience; ahlilkhibn 

khilaf '/;_ bi khl&f con- 

t rarity 
khiyal shadow 
khdd shaUoio, fordable 

kliulus /'■■ jin. 

klnilkii.il anklet 
khunqa wrist 



VOCABULARY 



415 



Labakh acacia EgypHaca 

lab. (il fagr) to dawn 

lazaq to stick (act.) 

laff go round; put rouwJ, wrap up 

laqa, \a.qa. find 

laqab thrmo 

lamm collect 

lelati nightly 

libba a kind of necklace (see 
Lane's " Mod. Egypt." Ap- 
pendix A) 



libda felt cap 

libiq reach, succeed, manage 

'to 
liziq to stick (neut.) 
lizim be necessary 
lissa still, not yet 
lubya haricot beans 
luqma bit, mouthful 
luman convict prisrm, penal n r- 

vitude 



M 



Maiyidi, meyidi old coin = one j 

para or fadda (= half a 

mite) 
maugud found, present 
mablagh sum, amount 
matar, natar rain 
matlab buried treasure 

r far then ; 
magbara r» 

magzub lunatic, fanatic 
mahgflr deserted, haunted 
m;ibr dower 
maliill, maball place 
uialnaina a cloth of coarse 

muslin embroidered in sUk or 

gold threa/1* 
ma}]/.uzi_\a enjoyment 
raadfa' gun, cannon 
madwid manger 
mad\afa guests' apartment 
man (yiim-1) 'ala agree with (<>f 

food] 
marid an evil jinnee of a , 

ful t 

an carl If n pot 

iiiai^'ah to swing 
marghftbft desire, fancy 
niai h:tl';i ' | • I 



marmar alabaster ; sbfisb mar- 
mar muslin of a moire 
pattern 

masa be evening ; evening 

in i-agb jewellery 

masafa distance 

masal example, proverb ; for * j- 
ample 

masalan for example 

masruf (pi. masarif) expenses 

masbsba cau,-e to go ; go 

masbbad funeral 

ma'rifa knowledge 

ina'ruf kindness, }>oliteness 

ina'iia. mi'na sens?, meaning 

niaqtaf basket (made of palm 
Laves) 

rnaqdur appointed, fated 

niaqra'a wand 

ina'kul eaten, edible 

makrftah hurried, out of 
breath 

maksab profit 

niakfi upset, upside doum 

niakluli ma i (dog) 

niakhs'.'is .sy ■ ial, p 

inalib salt (adj. i 

malbQs dress, gam . 



446 



THE SPOKEX ARABIC OF EGYPT 



mallin mlllibne (about a 

farthing) 
malnium collected together 
malyan full 

ma'mur official representative 
marnrud ill 
manab portion, share 
manakhir nose 
inani' hindrance, obstacle 
ruanfa'a advantage 
manfukh blown, filled out by the 

wind 
mankhul sieve 
medauwar round 
mezaiyara a demoness 
mesafir travelling, traveller 
inesahhad burning hot (of the 

sun) 
mesha'li executioner 
meshakhlaqa, kind of necklace 
me'aknin wretched 
me'allim teacher, foreman 
mefaddad silver-plated 
meqaula contract 
meqambar huddled up 
mekabbib in balls 



melabbis bonbons 
menaqqat spotted 
mewahwig burning, on fire 
mithazzim girded 
mitl like, as 
mityassar a good many 
mihla delay, respite 
mihrat plough 
mistaufi large, enormous 
missaiyat of repute 
miskof Russian 
mi'akhza blame 
miqdar quantity 
milaya sheet, shawl 
milih nice, good 
muti' obedient 
mudir governor, director 
mudiriya province 
muizaq provided for, blest 
niusiba affliction 
mu'takaf (nahw.) secret, sec luded 
mufrad alone, single 
niuqtada (nahw.) necessity, re- 
quirement 
muqrt read (man) 
mulukhiya a species of mallow 



N 



]Sauwar to light, throw light 

on 
nabash dig ; bury 
nabbit sjirout 
nabbih 'ala give instructions 

to 
natf leap 
oaga save 

aagaf chandeliers, lanterns 
oaggia consider unclean 
nahab to plunder 
imli.-'is copper, copper veteei 
oahya direction, side 
n&da -a// out 



nailaraa repentance 

nazar sight ; evil e>je 

nazra look . evil eye 

nasab to set up 

nafad esca]>e ; enter, pierce, pass 

oaf as breath 

Tiafa' !•€ of MM ," \U6\ profit 

nat'akh iurla/e 

nafiq dec* ir> , M a hypocrite 

Oafs ' ril f ye, >'iiv>/ 

oaffad pass (tr.) thn u gh 
nai|is wanting, less 

nai|l> hole 

oaqqat mark wUh %\ 



VOCABULARY 



447 



nakif rry 

haklial gift 
liauil ants 
nawa intend 
laayib portion, lot 
nitfii piece, bit 
m^'i* unclean 
nihaya end 
nisa women 

nkey 
iiisib, na&ib portion, share 



nishara sawdust, 
nifs envy, spite 
nil! of the Nile 

nimr tiger 

niya intention; niya khal&a 

good faith 
nur //yM 
nuqra /<o/e 
nuql c//7e<2 fruits and nuts 

(mekassarat) 
mukhastya spur, goad 



W 



Wati foic 
wagad to find 
wahsh toild animal 
wafcl, wahla mud 
wada' sea shells 
wadda' take leave of 
waraq paper ; > 
wazifa duty 

wassa' void n, make room 
-i to charge, order 
1 cause to arrive, conduct 
wa>l receipt 



washsh glide (as a serpent) 

wa'aya earthen bowl 

wall saint 

wiliya lady, aid tooman 

walla' to light, burn 

widn ear 

wisikh dirty 

wi>il arrive 

wishah face, surface, shot 

wilifa companion, p 

wil'a live coal 

wu>t in the centre of, amidst 



Yabie dry 

yatim orphan 

yadd = id (§ Ii4, note) 



yamani of Yen 
yanini, yamma, 
yawir aide-de-camp 



APPENDIX 



POEFACE, p. xxi, line 9, add Aramaic edra' and zera . 

§ 3. In prayers the a of Allah is pronounced almost as aw in 

§ 4. When the w following the i is itself followed by an 
accented vowel the i retains its natural sound as in riwaya dory. 

i 17. The name Tadros Theodore is sometimes written as well 
as pronounced Taudrus. 

| 42 (&). Add mahfudiya learning by heart. 

§ 42 (e). Add ginena (from ganna) garden. 
"2 (b). When, as sometimes happens, the literary form is 
used, these nouns are regarded as masculines. Thu- w 
imditu mush zahra his signature is not distinct, but imdah mush 
gahir. We hear lb sama 'all as well as'alya. 

§ 53. Widn ear should be added to the List of feminines, and 
also tramway as meaning a tramway car ; thus we say it tram- 
way mishyit. 

18. Allah God become> ilah, as it is supposed to stand for 
al il.'ih the god; thus Ilahi my God, not Allah! 

§ 78. With the lower classes ruu<lir governor sometimes makes 
mudiriyiin in the plural in imitation of the literary mudirun. 

7.i (/.■). Add yadd yaddat when used <>f the handle of a 
tool, itc. 

§§ 83 7. Add yadd iyud when used of the handle of a tool, 
I, Remark i>. But we sometimes hear alf we kusur 
gindh, kc. 

§110. Add 15 uktubar mal k&rnf tfu \:>U, < >rl,at 

i 111.'. Remark b. Ana may also ass ime the form anl with 

thi la, hut l.'ma i- Bald as well as laiii. 

; I - ! 'i. Dura makes also duraya, hut less commonly. 

i -::iii only, yaqa collar, yaqfitu, very rarely 

' In (originally 'aduw) enemy recovers the w, thus 

'adi'iwi. 'aduwak. ' :>■ i . w ina, 'aduwiihuui. 

222, I' has been sugg< sted thai all verba were originally. 
biliteraL There can be i lo doabl that the meaning <>f the verb 

2 t 



450 



APPENDIX 



is often contained in the first two radicals. Compare for 

radicals'gz! 11 dictionai ' ies > th « verbs beginning with' the 

§241. Add gihit, nahyit in the direction of. 

n £ 24 ^.^ C J d 1 , bi 1 1 f h 1 i ! f , e khilaf opposite, crossicays, as khalli 1 
qazayiz bi khdfe khilaf, i.e. turned in opposite dictions. Y J 
is so completely an adverb that it may be preceded by a prepo- 
sition as ba diha bi yige sanaten about two years later. 

Remalftfc -^^ n ******* Messieurs les avocats. 

Kemaik b. The expression mm qadim iz zaman m r/a?/ 5 of old is 
sometimes heard. For an explanation of this usage see Wright 
"Arabic Grammar" (vol. ii. §86, 2nd edit.). Remark c° So 
imS1 Qo^ U ' hams 7 a seize th * man carrying an umbrella. 

§254 Remark. Add min halawit (or halaut) ir ruh from the 
sweetness ofhfe, i.e. in hi, desire to live; daushit id dsrtthZZ 
of the beahno '; gadwil id darb the multiplication table. 

\ HI' a 1 i? m W ^ id , and nimrit wal - lid ^' ! are both said 
! oL 7T! Sanal alf we tus ' emi y a *' w * 7 < e ^ar 1900. 
8 Z.)b. Add mot il Ma a natural death. 

t u f 32 , L T^fdJective is sometimes in the feminine, as shaf il 
i q o e A° r f^l am) mashya he saw the people walking (cf S 46<>) 
§380. Addyimkinkan'udkabritnayimbuhfigebu/er/J; 

he was sleeping with a match in his pocket. 
§ 387. Add yomiha. 

§ 400. The pronominal suffixes representing the 2nd person 
are very commonly used as reflexives with the verb khalla, as 

Mir, ,. \Tt y™' 8 ^ { - Q - r emain here, so khalliki wara 
khalhku (not khalluku, § 141) fi 1 6da. 

§ 102 Add humma tul ba'd they an other's, i,, o/ 

the same, fa ight. 

m § 423. Notice the substitution of the demonstrative for the 
interrogative in the expression iishtigl.il ii , h we fcakul minnu? 
what do you work at to get a living? (lit. and eat from it) 
a6h lt£ note L So biddina k " n " ;i <"*M for kan biddina 
H76. Add ka,, haliq daqnu hehadehat ard 

khuft amshi warahum yidrabuni / emu „/,■„/■/ to ,;,/,w them led 
they beat me. 

§530. A.dd khayif inneyelriln buwa fearing leet it A- 
.V.l.». A pleonastic negative is beard after verbs of denvin* 
as yinkir inne ma Fish t that then 



APPENDIX 451 

§ 549. Add khadtu beti / took it to my house. 

§ 533. Add hallifnahum il yemin tee made them swear th>- 
oath. 

§ 554 (d) Remark. Add mauwitu mot. 

§ 561. The verb c ad return is used much in the same way as 
rigi, as la quite wala'idt, i.e. I didn't say it either onre or t/cice. 

§ 570. Bi. Add bi llalii by God, bi z zimma wi d diyana by 
my (or your, kc.) conscience and religion; bi 1 lun da of this 
colour : yimshi bi rasu 'iryana he walks icith his head bare; sukku 
bi 1 muftah lock it with the key. 

So ana zeyi zeyak we are alike. 

'ala. A'ld dafa'te qirshen 'al gawab I paid two piastres on 
the letter ; da sa'be 'al<"k it is hard on you; simi'te 'aleh innu 
kliad basha / hare heard that he has been made a pasha ; sitta 
'ala talata tibqa tis'a six and three make nine. 

'■in. Add an iznak by your lea 

Fi. Add kunte bayit fi 1 fallahtu / was spending the night 
in the country; darab fill /, him; ma yi'rafshe fi s sa'a 

ht doesn't know how t" tell the time; fi 'ashami innu yigl I •> 
■ that la: will rome. 

Li. Add nam lak shuwaiya take a little sleep; li khami- 
y&m satir on the fifth day h>- departed. 

Ma'. Add madbiif ma'ah seized on him. 

.Miii. Add it Kt minnu li 1 khala there is nothing bet\c<<n 
the house and the desert ; misku uiin dira'u he caught hold ,,( 
him by his arm ; ma khadti.sh bal! ininhum / did//' hem ; 

kliad tar abuh minni he avenged his father on me ; yiqrub li min 
il gidd he is related to nu through my (or his) grandfatfu r. 

§578. Inn forms one word with the participle beyin (bavin) 
the n's coalescing, thus we hear beyinnu gay for beyin innu 
beyinmi kede, it is clear that it is so. Bdyinne kede is 
also used. 

§ 583. Add— 

To One who has Drunk Water 
llaui'an {good luck). Reply hanakum Allah (God mah you 

proxjii'rrmx). 

To Express Thanks 

• ir kli.'iak {God increase your prosperity). Ii>i>ly — we 

kli' i.ik ' and yours). 

TO W K\ Mil) 

Salamtak {your safety, i.<-. God restore yon to health). 



452 APPENDIX 

To One about to Sleep 

^ Norn il 'afya (the sleep of health). Reply— Allah yi'afik (or 
yi'afi) badartak (God give you, your body, strength). 

To One Kising in the Morning 
Sahh in nom (may your sleep have been good). Reply— z&hhe 
badanak or Allah yihfazak (God preserve you). 

To One Starting on a Journey 

Rabbina yiwassalak bi s salama (our Lord conduct you with 
safety). Reply — ma' is salama. 

To One Coming from the Bath or the Barber 
Naiman (may you have pleasure). Reply— Allah yin'am 
alek (God grant you pleasure or smooth your path). 

To a Person Sneezing 

Arhamak Allah (God have mercy on you). Reply— Allah 

yihfazak or c afak Allah (God give you health). Reply— Allah 

yi afik. 

By a Person Yawning 
^ Astaghfar Allah il 'azim {I ask pardon of the great God), or 
a uzu bi llahi min ish shetan ir ragim (/ take refuge with God 
from Satan the stoned). 

To a Beggal 

Rabbina (or Rabbuna) yiftah 'alek (may our Lord open to 
you, i.e. give you consolation). 

'alA llah (dependent on God) is said both by and to beg- 

§ 585 (e). Add ihna s sa'a khamsa ; ihna gum'a ; il mas 
nusse y6m mashi; lazini niaugud (In must be present). 

§590. Remark h. Add ismak faqlr? (do >/ou call yourself 
poor ?) 



INDEX 

The numbers refer to the sections 



Accent, 39 
Accusative, 63 

Direct object, 276-79, 288, 297. 
546-57 
Adjective — 

Relative, 42 a, 44 

Formation of, 43-45 

Comparison of, 47, 337-48 

Multiplicative, 105 

Distributive, 106 

Numeral, 107 

Substantive used as. 

Concord of, 316-30 

Used as substantive. 331, 

Used adverbiallv, 336 
Adverb, 104, 244, "345, 581-2 
Apposition, 289-95, 418 
Article — 

Definite, 40, 124 (id), 24* 

Indefinite, 40. 



Elision, 29 



Feminine, 50-62, 458 note, 465-7 

See also under verb (concord) 
Figures of speech, 585-93 
Fractions, 108-9 



Genitive, 63 b. 64-6:', 254-74 
Gerund, 504 



Indirect discourse. 517 -1 
Infinitive, 230-32, 497, 565 
Interjections, 246, 583 
Interrogative sentences, 522-21 



Moods, 490-97 



. 560 
Beta', 69, 121 (Rem. d), 251, 257- 



ntences, 507—1 '"< 
Conjunctions, 245, 571-80 
i loiuonants — 

Pronunciation of, 19, 

Doubl-. 2 

A isimilation of, 25 

Transposition i . 
Contraction, 9 (Rem. o), 29 



k, 68 b, 275. 288, 570 nob 
Diminutives, 12 c, 15 
Diphthongs, 1, 8 
Dual, 70 75, 807-14, 317. I 



NahWT, preface, appt n.iix, and; I 
X gative particles, 

i ve Benteno* 
Nouns — 

I' oi mation of, i . 
Collective, 42 o il, 

461 
Of unity, 12 a, 
( lompound, 46 
oder of, 4'.' 
I >• oli osion ', 6 

Verbal, 21 
Used absolutely. 
I l multitude, I 
Numerals, 92-111 19 61 



OBOBB of words, -'US, 

■ -I 



454 



INDEX 



Participles, 498-503. See also acci- 
dence under verb 

Passive, 135, 505-6, 555 

Plural, 76-91, 364 

Prepositions, 240-43, 570 

Pronouns — 

Personal, 111-20, 362-75 
Possessive, 121, 393-6 
Demonstrative, 124, 406-22 
Interrogative, 125, 423-8 
Relative, 126, 429-37 
Indefinite, 127, 128, 443-57 
Distributive, 129, 438-42 
Reflexive, 122-3, 397-405 



Qam, 559 
Qat'a, hiatus, 21 



Singular, 298-306 
Spelling, 1 (Rem. b) 
Suffixes, 113-21, 367-8, 376-92 
400 



Tenses, syntax, 473— £ 



Verbs — 

Triliteral, 130-221 

Derivative, 161-81, 186-7, 195-6, 

201, 207, 212, 215, 226-7 
Weak, 187-215 
Strong, 133-86 
With qat'a for one of the radicals, 

187-91 
With w for one of the radicals, 

192-202 
With y for one of the radicals, 

203-15 
Defective, 216-21 
Quadriliteral, 222-7 
Concord with subject, 458-72 
Expressing fear, surprise, &c, 

528-32 
Transitive and intransitive, 546-57 
Impersonal, 558 
Peculiar uses of, 559-69 
Vocative, 121, 280-7 
Vowels — 
Pronunciation, 2-7, 16 
Helping, 9, 10 
Shortening of, 11, 13, 15 
Lengthening of, 12 



Wa, wi. ire. 572— ti 



THE END 



Printed i>y I'.ai.i.antym , Hansom 
Edinburgh &• London 



CO. 



BINBINGSECT. MAY 2 3 1966 






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